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Characteristic features of SDT allow it to be differentiated from other arthropathies and dysplasias and these distinctions have been emphasized in the discussion. The diagnosis in this case can only be considered presumptively proved. This is a review article of porphyria cutanea tarda addressing pathophysiology, clinical features, associated conditions, triggering factors, biochemistry, histopathology, electronic microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and treatment of the disease.

Clinical and diagnostic aspects of lymphedema. Lymphedema is a chronic, progressive, and common but often unrecognized condition. The diagnosis of lymphatic disease on clinical grounds alone remains a challenge. Without proper diagnosis, therapy is often delayed, allowing disease progression. There is a need for a practical diagnostic algorithm and its imaging technique to guide clinical decision-making.

The aim of this topical review is to provide a practical approach for assessing patients with suspected lymphedema and to give a critical appraisal of currently available imaging modalities that are applied in clinical practice to diagnose and map lymphatic disease. Lymphedema during pregnancy - case study. As a result of disorders in defense mechanisms, a significant amount of liquid accumulates in spaces between tissues.

A clinical manifestation of this condition is swelling located around ankles and lower legs. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating habits, excessive weight and pregnancy are also well known causes of lymphatic swelling. Research methods: Research methods were collected basing on: interview with a patient, medical documentation analysis and physical examination conduced before and after therapy. Research was conducted between 34th and 36th week of pregnancy. Case study: 38 year old patient in her fourth singleton pregnancy.

Two prior pregnancies in and were delivered with C-section and one missed abortion in occurred. During this pregnancy patient gained over 30kg. She was diagnosed with lymphatic swelling of metatarsus, lower legs and ankles in 34th week of pregnancy.

Lymphatic drainage of lower limbs and anti-swelling kinesiotaping was implemented. Results: After two weeks of therapy decrease in swelling was observed in left lower limb: in metatarsus by 8cm, in ankles by 9cm and in lower legs by 6cm. In right lower limb swelling decreased accordingly by 7cm, 10cm and 5cm. Conclusion: Anti-swelling lymphatic drainage, kinesiotherapy and kinesiotaping are effective physiotherapy methods used in treating lymphedema.

Otophyma: a case report and review of the literature of lymphedema elephantiasis of the ear. Phymas swellings, masses, or bulbs are considered the end-stage of rosacea and mostly affect the nose rhinophyma , and rarely involve the chin gnatophyma , the cheek metophyma , eyelids blepharophyma , or ears otophyma.

Herein, we report the case of a year-old man who developed unilateral enlargement of his left ear over 2 years. Biopsy revealed changes of rosaceous lymphedema associated with Demodex infestation. Corticosteroid and minocycline therapies resulted in partial reduction of the ear enlargement.

Literature review examining for cases of lymphedema elephantiasis of the ear revealed that chronic inflammatory disorders rosacea most frequent , psoriasis, eczema , bacterial cellulitis erysipelas , pediculosis, trauma, and primary congenital lymphedema can all lead to localized, lymphedematous enlargement of the ear. Depending on the severity, medical treatment directed at the inflammatory condition for mild, diffuse enlargement to surgical debulking for extensive diffuse enlargement or tumor formation can improve the signs and symptoms of otophyma.

Decreased immune surveillance secondary to rosaceous lymphedema may explain why Demodex infestation is common in rosacea and support the suspicion that phymatous skin is predisposed to skin cancer development. Financial cost of lymphedema borne by women with breast cancer.

Abstract Objective Our study examines the financial cost of lymphedema following a diagnosis of breast cancer and addresses a significant knowledge gap regarding the additional impact of lymphedema on breast cancer survivors. The cost of compression garments formed a large proportion of these costs The average number of attendances to a therapist each year was 5. The incidence of cellulitis was 7. Conclusions This study identifies an additional detrimental effect of lymphedema on women in terms of financial costs.

Induction of bulb organogenesis in in vitro cultures of tarda tulip Tulipa tarda Stapf. A protocol for obtaining bulbs via in vitro organogenesis was developed for tarda tulip Tulipa tarda Stapf. Scale explants were obtained from bulbs formed at the base of seedlings or from adventitious bulbs that developed from callus tissue forming on stolons or on germinating seeds. Callus tissue developed mainly on media without growth regulators or with BAP.

Less callus was formed from chilled explants compared with non-chilled explants. Newly formed adventitious bulbs appeared on the explants via direct and indirect organogenesis. ABA inhibited the induction of adventitious bulbs and callus.

The adventitious bulbs obtained in these experiments contained a meristem, which was evidence that they had developed properly. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda.

Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is very seldom a cause for gastroenteritis in humans. This organism can also cause extraintestinal infections, such as soft tissue infections, meningitis, peritonitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and hepatobiliary tract disease, particularly in the setting of compromised immunity.

We describe, for the first time a case of E. Pure cultures of Edwarsiella tarda were isolated from body ulcers and internal organs of wild European eels caught in a Mediterranean freshwater coastal lagoon Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain over a 1 yr period. Overall, the E.

All 22 E. The E. This study is the first description of edwardsiellosis in a wild European eel population, and alerts us to the presence of E. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased.

Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice.

The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema , and those at risk for lymphedema.

Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema.

Full Text Available Porphyria cutanea tarda PCT is a cutaneous porphyria that presents later in life with cutaneous findings in sun-exposed sites. We report a complex case of PCT in a year-old woman with an unusual constellation of cutaneous findings: scleroderma, acquired ichthyosis, and nonscarring alopecia.

Possible triggers for her PCT include tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer and carrier status of the hemochromatosis gene. High-dose chloroquine was used to successfully achieve clinical remission and normalize her uroporphyrins. While on chloroquine she developed extensive classic vitiligo. It is not clear if this is another feature of her complex and unusual PCT, or a consequence of her antimalarial therapy. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa ENV is a rare cutaneous sequela of chronic lymphedema.

Treatment of ENV remains poorly elucidated but has historically involved conservative management aimed at relieving the underlying lymphedema , with a few cases managed by surgical intervention. We report a case of a year-old male with primary lymphedema complicated by large painful ENV lesions on his left foot that we excised surgically with good functional and cosmetic results as validated by the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of ENV with a pedunculated morphology and the presence of a deep invasive stalk.

Published by Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available There are various treatment options in the management of filarial lymphedema of the lower extremities. The end point, regardless of the method adopted is a reduction of the girth of the limb, prevention of future increases in limb girth, prevention of recurrent episodes of streptococcal cellulitis; more important the treatment method used should not lead to any secondary problems that may far out shadow the primary co Majority of the methods adopted are mainly of the secondary prevention kind; very few of the procedures to date cure the disease condition.

A few of the methods have been historically found to be more effective than the others; this may be real or apparent as the methodology of - reporting swelling in the lower limb may not have been consistent and there are too many variables to consider. This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy of one such treatment protocol for the management of filarial lymphedema of the lower limb 80 patients were admitted for filarial lymphedema of the lower limbs from to Of these 42 patients underwent surgical treatment; operative records for 8 of these patients was insufficient to analyse; among the remaining 34 patients 19 patients were unavailable for review.

This left us a patient population of 15 for the final analysis. The surgical treatment of all of the 15 patients was identical, after preop preparation by using compression ba n dages to soften the edema along with a period of bed rest debulking of excess skin and subcutaneous tissue and primary closure was done.

The intro operative application of Esmarch bandages helped in expelling fluid from the tissues and this ensured that closure was obtained with no tension at the margins. Patients were kept for at least 5 days post op before discharge; the routine use of compression crepe bandages postop along with bed rest ensured that we did not have a single case of skin necrosis or wound disruption in the postop period.

All patients were given. Insights on the virulence mechanisms of European Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot. Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is a common inhabitant of diverse ecological niches as well as a common guest of a high variety of animals including fish, reptiles, amphibians, chickens and other warm-blooded animals as humans.

With regard to the aquatic environments, E. Several potential pathogenic properties have been suggested to contribute to the infection process of E. Identification of these virulence-related genes is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of the species. Since E.

However, all these studies were conducted employing Asian isolates. Being E. Enzymes such as chondroitinase are believed to play an important role in the pathogenicity of bacteria that cause infections Tam et al. Chondroitinase activity was proposed to be one virulence contributor in Edwardsiella spp. In Gram-negative bacteria, the most intensively studied quorum sensing systems rely on the use of N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs, which production is common among marine and fish pathogenic Proteobacteria, controlling the expression of key virulence factors.

In the case of E. It is likely. Optimization of protectant, salinity and freezing condition for freeze-drying preservation of Edwardsiella tarda. Novel preservation condition without ultra-low temperature is needed for the study of pathogen in marine fishes. Freeze-drying is such a method usually used for preservation of terrigenous bacteria.

However, studies using freeze-drying method to preserving marine microorganisms remain very limited. In this study, we optimized the composition of protectants during the freeze-drying of Edwardsiella tarda , a fish pathogen that causes systemic infection in marine fishes. We found that the optimal composition of protectant mixture contained trehalose 8. Orthogonal and interaction analyses demonstrated the interaction between serum and skim milk or sodium citrate.

The highest survival rate of E. When E. Under the optimized conditions, when the protectant mixture was used during freeze-drying process, the survival rate Scanning electron microscopy SEM image indicated that E. In sum, the protectant mixture may be used as a novel cryoprotective additive for E. We report on the preliminary evaluation of a well-designed program, Living with Lymphedema. This longitudinal cohort study assessed patients' quality of life using questionnaires.

Our main objective was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their adherence to the program. This was done using a specific questionnaire of satisfaction as well as by noting patients' adherence to the program number of patients attending all three consultations. The secondary objective was to assess the effect of the program on the patient's quality of life. The Living with Lymphedema program targeted all patients with lymphedema in the Grenoble France conurbation and within the GRANTED health care network that includes vascular medicine specialists, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and dietitians in the Alpine region of France.

All studied patients were ambulatory patients. All patients with primary or secondary lymphedema were offered the Living with Lymphedema program, whatever their age and the location of the lymphedema upper or lower limbs. The collection of patient data conformed to the ethical and administrative regulations of the regional health authority. The program was built around one-to-one consultations, group workshops, and more specialized appointments. It was complementary to the routine medical care received by the patient not evaluated in this study.

It proposed three individual "educational" consultations, seven group workshops, and two specialized consultations with a dietitian. All the consultations or workshops were. Lymphedema -lymphangiectasia-mental retardation Hennekam syndrome: A review. The Hennekam syndrome is an infrequently reported heritable entity characterized by lymphedema , lymphangiectasia, and developmental delay. Here we add an additional 8 patients, and compare their findings to the 16 cases from the literature.

The lymphedema is usually congenital, can be markedly. Efficacy of night-time compression for breast cancer related lymphedema LYNC : protocol for a multi-centre, randomized controlled efficacy trial. McNeely, Margaret L. Lymphedema is a prevalent long-term effect of breast cancer treatment that is associated with reduced quality of life.

More recent observational data suggest that the addition of night-time compression to day-time use of a compression garment results in better long-term control of arm lymphedema. The primary objectives of the randomized controlled phase of the trial are to determine the efficacy of night-time compression on arm lymphedema volume maintenance and quality of life in breast cancer survivors who have completed intensive reduction treatment for their lymphedema.

The study will be a parallel 3-arm, multi-centre randomized fast-track trial. The duration of the primary intervention period will be 12 weeks. The follow-up period after the intervention weeks 13 to 24 will follow a longitudinal observational design. The primary outcome variables: differences from baseline to week 12 in arm volume and quality of life Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire: Lymph-ICF. Secondary outcomes include bioimpedance analysis, sleep disturbance and self-efficacy.

All measurements are standardized and will be performed prior to randomization, and at weeks 6, 12, 18 and The use of night-time compression as a self-management strategy for chronic breast cancer related lymphedema is seen as an innovative approach to improve long-term control over the condition. This trial aims to advance the knowledge on self-management strategies for lymphedema.

Full Text Available There are reported cases of diphencyprone used in treating cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Here, we report a patient with previous primary melanoma on his left back treated with surgical excision and lymphadenectomy, followed by radiotherapy for the recurrent tumor on the primary site. Despite radiotherapy and treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib, in-transit metastases have developed and topical diphencyprone was applied to these metastases.

Six weeks later, the patient developed fever and a spreading erythematous tender indurated plaque covering the left side of the body including axillae, back, and flank, clinically suggestive of cellulitis. Systemic antibiotic therapy did not improve the condition and a biopsy showed sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. With the diagnosis of possible acute lymphedema , a CT scan was requested that showed significant axillary lymph node metastasis. The fever was considered secondary to dabrafenib and trametinib therapy.

This case highlights that, in patients with lymphadenectomy, atypical forms of lymphedema on the body may appear. Truncal lymphedema is an infrequent event. Debulking surgery for elephantiasis nostras with large ectatic podoplanin-negative lymphatic vessels in patients with lipo- lymphedema. Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo- lymphedema. While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery.

We present 2 cases of advanced lipo- lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed. The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed.

It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo- lymphedema. Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing.

Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas. MRI study in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda with progressive arthropathy. Methods: MRI of spine, bilateral hips, and knees was taken in 2 cases with clinically and radiographically proven SEDT-PA, who were sister and brother and whose parents were healthy and not inbreeding.

The sister's femoral heads were resected bilaterally and the tissues were used for pathological study. Results: MRI showed that the kyphosis and lateroflexion of the spine, and the degenerative signs of the intervertebral discs became more evident along with the growth of the patients. The anterior annular secondary ossification centers of cartilaginous epiphyses of some vertebral bodies didn't appear. So the affected vertebral bodies were like 'inverted vase' or the end p late like 'steps'.

Bilateral acetabular cartilage and medial epicondylian cartilaginous epiphyses of the femurs in the young brother showed regional high signal intensity on coronal fat-saturated proton density weighted MR images and degenerative signs on the elder sister.

The regional hyperplasia and hypogenesis of the femoral head cartilage could be seen by microscope. Ayurvedic management of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda , a rare hereditary disorder. Full Text Available Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda SEDT is a rare genetic disease in which patient suffers from short stature, short trunk and neck with disproportionately long arms, coxa vara, skeletal features such as barrel shaped chest, kyphosis, scoliosis and early arthropathy.

Only limited medical and surgical management is available in modern medicine. A 15 years old male suffering from SEDT and diagnosed as Vata vyadhi was treated with Panchakarma therapy and selected Ayurvedic oral medicines. Ayurvedic treatment was directed to ameliorate the orthopaedic clinical conditions in this case.

Panchakarma procedures such as Shalishastika pinda svedana for a month and Mustadi yapana basti for 16 days were given along with oral Ayurvedic medicines. Same Panchakarma procedures were repeated after an interval of 2 months. Eight scales based Medical outcome study MOS — 36 item short form — health surveys was assessed for outcome which shows good improvement. Kyphosis, scoliosis and pain were moderately reduced. Clinical experience of this case indicates that Ayurvedic herbs along with Panchakarma can play a major role in the management of hereditary disorder SEDT.

Septicaemia caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks. Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from to The affected penguins were of two different species king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death.

The causative agents, E. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed. The use of Curcuma longa extract to control Edwardsiella tarda infection on Clarias sp. Previous works had shown that turmeric Curcuma longa has antibacterial activity. The objectives of this research were to determine the best method of extraction and to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric extract as feed additive to control Edwardsiella tarda disease in catfish culture.

Briefly, the objective was achieved through in vitro assay based on inhibition ability of extraction method against E. A complete randomized design with three replications was used for each assay. The results showed that 15 minutes decoction method allowed the best inhibition with diameter 7.

Clinical signs such as swelling, hemoraghic, body ulcer, gastroentritis and gaseous captivity were observed on challenged fish. However, there were no significant different among treatments for specific growth, body weight, and absolute length parameters.

Hasil beberapa penelitian membuktikan bahwa kunyit Curcuma longa terbukti memiliki zat aktif yang bersifat antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari metode ekstraksi terbaik dan mengevaluasi efektivitas penambahan ekstrak kunyit pada pakan untuk pengendalian patogen Edwardsiella tarda pada ikan lele. Metoda ekstraksi kunyit diuji secara in vitro dengan metoda zona hambat, sedangkan efikasi.

Prospective Lymphedema Surveillance in a Clinic Setting. Full Text Available The potential impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema LE is quite extensive, yet it often remains under-diagnosed until the later stages. This project examines the effectiveness of prospective surveillance in post-surgical breast cancer patients. Findings revealed a visit timeframe mean of Visit and measurement times decreased as clinic staff gained measurement experience; measurement time mean was Giant cell angiofibroma represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm with a predilection for the orbit.

We recently encountered a mass removed from the lower eyelid of a year-old female that histopathologically resembled giant cell angiofibroma. The process consisted of haphazardly arranged CDpositive spindled and multinucleated cells within an edematous, densely vascular stroma. However, the patient had recently undergone laryngectomy and radiotherapy for a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A similar mass had arisen on the contralateral eyelid, and both had developed several months post-therapy.

Lymphedema of the orbit can present as tumor-like nodules and in some cases may share histopathologic features purported to be characteristic of giant cell angiofibroma. A relationship between giant cell angiofibroma and lymphedema has not been established, but our case suggests there may be one. The potential overlap of these two conditions should be recognized, as should other entities that may enter the differential diagnosis. Clinical effectiveness of decongestive treatments on excess arm volume and patient-centered outcomes in women with early breast cancer-related arm lymphedema : a systematic review.

A narrative and tabular format was used to synthesize results from identified and included studies. Results: Seven studies reporting results for outcomes of interest were critically appraised and included in the review: five randomized controlled trials and two descriptive uncontrolled studies.

Reported outcomes included excess arm volume five studies , health-related quality of life three studies , arm heaviness one study , arm function two studies and patient-perceived benefit two studies. There was some evidence that decongestive treatments were effective for women presenting within either 12 months or a mean of nine months of developing breast cancer-related arm lymphedema , but the wide range of data prevented comparison of treatment findings which limited our ability to answer the review questions.

Conclusions: Weak evidence grade B for the impact of decongestive lymphedema treatment on women with early lymphedema i. Findings provided no justification to support change to current practice. Future primary research needs to focus on the most effective treatment for women when they first present with lymphedema symptoms, e. Studies should be adequately powered and recruit women exclusively with less than 12 months duration of breast cancer-related lymphedema symptoms, provide longer follow-up to monitor treatment effect over time, with comparable treatment protocols, outcome measures and reporting methods.

Helium Neon laser therapy for post mastectomy lymphedema and Dec 8, Mohamed M. The patients were In this study, we will assess whether modifiable factors, including body weight, physical activity, smoking and breast reconstruction, influence risk of arm lymphedema among women treated for breast cancer In this study, we will assess whether modifiable factors, including body weight, physical activity, smoking and breast reconstruction, influence risk of arm Lymphedema among women treated for breast cancer Surgical treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum.

PURPOSE: Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum, regardless of its etiology, is determined by reduced lymphatic flow with subsequent enlargement of the penis and scrotum. The clinical course of this condition is characterized by extreme discomfort for patients, with limitation of local hygiene, ambulation, sexual intercourse, and voiding in the standing position.

The purpose of the present study is to present the experience and results of the treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum by r Polymicrobial bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda , and Shewanella putrefaciens. Edwardsiella tarda , a member of Enterobacteriaceae, is found in freshwater and marine environments and in animals living in these environments. This bacterium is primarily associated with gastrointestinal diseases, and has been isolated from stool specimens obtained from persons with or without clinical infectious diseases.

Shewanella putrefaciens, a saprophytic gram-negative rod, is rarely responsible for clinical syndromes in humans. Debilitated status and exposure to aquatic environments are the major predisposing factors for E. A year-old woman was febrile with diarrhea 8 hours after ingesting shark meat, and two sets of blood cultures grew Escherichia coli, E.

She was successfully treated with antibiotics. We present this rare case of polymicrobial bacteremia caused by E. This rare case of febrile diarrhea with consequent polymicrobial bacteremia emphasizes that attention should always be extended to these unusual pathogens.

Dobrocky, I. With 3 figs. Porhyria cutanea tarda PCT is a rare, inherited or acquired disorder due to decreased activity or deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase UROD , one of the enzymes in the haem synthetic pathway. It is characterized by cutaneous manifestations such as erosions, blisters and bulae in the dorsum of the hand, Microsurgery for groin lymphocele and lymphedema after oncologic surgery.

Groin lymphocele GL is a frequent complication of inguinal lymph node dissection, and conservative treatment is not always successful. Different surgical methods have been used to treat lymphoceles arising from lymphatics injured during groin surgery. However, they all involve the closure of lymphatics merging at the lymphocele, increasing the risk of postoperative lower limb lymphedema or of worsening lymphedema if already clinically evident.

We assessed the efficacy of a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to manage inguinal lymphoceles using lymphoscintigraphy LS and microsurgical procedures. Sixteen GL [seven associated with leg lymphedema LL ] were studied by LS preoperatively and treated by complete excision of lymphocele and microsurgical lymphatic-venous anastomoses between afferent lymphatics and a collateral branch of great saphenous vein. Lower limb lymphatics were identified intraoperatively using Patent Blue dye injection.

Nine patients without lymphedema had complete healing of lymphocele and no appearance of lower limb postoperative lymphedema. The other seven patients with associated secondary lymphedema had complete disappearance of lymphocele and a remarkable reduction of leg volume. Four of them completely recovered without the need of any compression garment, after the first year postoperative. Inguinal lymphocele nonresponsive to conservative treatment can be advantageously studied by LS and successfully treated by microsurgical reconstructive procedures, above all if associated to LL.

Compulsive masturbation and chronic penile lymphedema. Chronic penile lymphedema arises from the abnormal retention of lymphatic fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and may be secondary to local and systemic medical conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases, filariasis, malignancy, local radiotherapy, and surgery. This case report aims to consider compulsive masturbation as a possible cause of chronic penile edema.

A year-old man was referred to our institute for behavioral disturbance, including compulsive masturbation. Neuropsychiatric evaluation showed moderate mental retardation, mild dysarthria and limb incoordination, anxiety, depressed mood, and impulse dyscontrol. Brain MRI pointed out diffuse white matter lesions.

Urogenital examination revealed an uncircumcised penis with non-tender edema of the shaft and prepuce with areas of lichenification. Since the most common local and systemic causes of edema were excluded, chronic penile edema due to compulsive masturbation was diagnosed and the compulsive behavior treated with an antidepressant and low-dose neuroleptics. Compulsive masturbation should be taken into account when counselling patients with penile edema. Lymphoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of extremity lymphedema.

Lymphoscintigraphy, using 99m Tc labeled antimony sulfur colloid and 99m Tc labeled dextran, was performed on 25 patients with swelling of upper or lower extremities for diagnosis of lymphedema. Five different lymphoscintigraphic patterns were identified, that is normal 4 cases , collaterals 2 cases , mixed 13 cases , dermal backflow 4 cases and no backflow pattern 2 cases. Eight patients underwent operations for lympho-venous anastomoses on the involved extremity.

The results indicate that lymphoscintigraphy has many advantages, such as simplicity and non-invasiveness, safety and reliability, being able to differentiate properties of extremity edema, to provide the information of morphologic changes and dynamically display lymphatic drainage and obstructive extent in the lymphatic system.

The procedure is valuable for determination of the treatment modalities and the selection of patient for lymphatic microsurgery. Recently, a lot of new researches have highlighted the critical roles of sRNAs in fine-tune gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Edwardsiella tarda E. Thus far, no sRNA has been reported in E. The present study represents the first attempt to identify sRNAs in E. However, the other candidate sRNAs have not been reported till now. The cellular abundance of 10 validated sRNA was detected by qPCR at different growth phases to monitor their biosynthesis. And the expression of the nine sRNAs was growth phase-dependent. These results preliminary showed that sRNAs probably play a regulatory role of virulence in E.

Interstitial MR lymphangiography in patients with lower extremity lymphedema : a preliminary report. Objective: To assess the feasibility of interstitial MR lymphangiography MRL with subcutaneous injection of a commercially available, non-ionic, extracellular paramagnetic contrast agent, to visualize lymphatic vessels in patients with primary lymphedema.

Methods: Forty lower extremities in 31 patients with clinically advanced stages of primary lymphedema were examined with magnetic resonance lymphangiography. A 1 ml mixed liquor of gadobenate dimeglumine and mepivacainhydrochloride were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal aspect of both feet.

For MRL, a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo T 1 -weighted images with a fat saturation technique T 1 high resolution isotropic volume excitation, THRIVE were performed after subcutaneous application of the contrast material.

To outline lymphatic vessels, source images were used to reconstruct images of MIP. The significance of the differences of the data comparisons was assessed using an unpaired student t test. Results: Of the 40 lower extremities, the beaded appearance of dilated lymphatic vessels was detected in 36 lower legs The numbers of the dilated lymphatic vessels displayed in all segments of lower extremities added up to and its mean diameter was 3. Alders, M. The lymphedema -lymphangiectasia-intellectual disability Hennekam syndrome HS is characterised by a widespread congenital lymph vessel dysplasia manifesting as congenital lymphedema of the limbs and intestinal lymphangiectasia, accompanied by unusual facial morphology, variable intellectual.

Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms. Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. Data on reliability, concurrent validity, convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, and costs were extracted. Pooled data showed good intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs.

In the upper extremities, the standard error of measurement was 3. Sensitivity of tape measurement in the upper extremities, using different cutoff points, varied from 0. No uniform definition of lymphedema was available, and a gold standard as a reference test was lacking.

Items concerning risk of bias were study design, patient selection, description of lymphedema , blinding of test outcomes, and number of included participants. Measurement instruments with evidence for good reliability and validity were BIS, water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry, where BIS can detect alterations in extracellular fluid in stage 1 lymphedema and the other measurement instruments can detect alterations in volume.

Deng Jie, E-mail: jie. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer HNC. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample.

Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum, regardless of its etiology, is determined by reduced lymphatic flow with subsequent enlargement of the penis and scrotum.

The purpose of the present study is to present the experience and results of the treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum by removing affected tissues and correcting the penoscrotal region. Seventeen patients with lymphedema of the penis and scrotum were treated with a modified Charles procedure, which consists of the excision of the affected skin followed by scrotoplasty and midline suture simulating the scrotal raphe.

The penis is covered with a split-thickness skin graft by means of a zigzag suture on its ventral surface. Regression of symptoms and improvement of previous clinical conditions were verified in the follow-up which ranged from 6 months to 6 years. One patient who had undergone lymphadenectomy with radiation therapy due to penile cancer had recurrent scrotum lymphedema. The modified Charles procedure for the treatment of penoscrotal lymphedema is easily reproducible and allows better local hygiene, easier ambulation, voiding in the standing position, resuming sexual intercourse, and finally, better cosmetic results in the affected area with remarkable improvement in quality of life.

Effect of physical therapy on breast cancer related lymphedema. CDT consists of the following components; skin care, manual lymphatic drainage, bandaging and exercises. The scientific evidence regarding what A total of breast cancer patients with arm lymphedema will be recruited from 3 hospitals and randomized into one of two treatment groups A: Complete Decongestive Therapy including manual drainage or B: Complete Decongestive Therapy without manual lymphatic drainage.

The intervention period The objective of this study is to investigate whether CDT is equally effective if it includes manual lymphatic drainage or not in the treatment of arm lymphedema among patients with breast cancer. Gomez, F. Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema.

Methods and Materials: We present one female 8 years old [patient no. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy patient no. All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide Guerbet were injected at a rate of 0. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy.

Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no.

Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases patients no. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography. Afterward, 4—8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide Guerbet were injected at a rate of 0. Precipitating factors of porphyria cutanea tarda in Brazil with emphasis on hemochromatosis gene HFE mutations.

Study of 60 patients. Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common form of porphyria, characterized by the decreased activity of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase enzyme. Several reports associated HFE gene mutations of hereditary hemochromatosis with porphyria cutanea tarda worldwide, although up to date only one study has been conducted in Brazil. An ambispective study of 60 patients with PCT was conducted during the period from to Serological tests for hepatitis C and HIV were performed and histories of alcohol abuse and estrogen intake were investigated.

Porphyria cutanea tarda predominated in males and alcohol abuse was the main precipitating factor. Hepatitis C was present in All HIV-positive patients Allele frequency for HFE mutations, i. HFE mutations had no association with the other precipitating factors. Alcohol abuse, hepatitis C and estrogen intake are prevalent precipitating factors in our porphyria cutanea tarda population; however, hemochromatosis in itself can also contribute to the outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda , which makes the research for HFE mutations necessary in these patients.

The use of bioimpedance analysis to evaluate lymphedema. Lymphedema , a chronic disfiguring condition resulting from lymphatic dysfunction or disruption, can be difficult to accurately diagnose and manage. Of particular challenge is identifying the presence of clinically significant limb swelling through simple and noninvasive methods. Many historical and currently used techniques for documenting differences in limb volume, including volume displacement and circumferential measurements, have proven difficult and unreliable.

Bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis, a technology that uses resistance to electrical current in comparing the composition of fluid compartments within the body, has been considered as a cost-effective and reproducible alternative for evaluating patients with suspected lymphedema. A total of 15 patients mean age: Seven healthy medical students and surgical residents mean age: All study participants underwent analysis of both limbs, which allowed participants to act as their own controls.

The multifrequency bioimpedance device documented impedance values for each limb, with lower values correlating with higher levels of accumulated protein-rich edematous fluid. The average ratio of impedance to current flow of the affected limb to the unaffected limb in lymphedema patients was 0.

In the control group, the average impedance ratio of the participant's dominant limb to their nondominant limb was 0. Bioimpedance spectroscopy can be used as a reliable and accurate tool for documenting the presence of lymphedema in patients with either upper- or lower-extremity swelling.

Measurement with the device is quick and simple and results. Giant lymphedema of the penis and scrotum: a case report. Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum is a rare entity characterized by enlargement of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the genital region due to lymphatic drainage impairment. This clinical condition is more frequent in tropical countries due to a higher incidence of filariasis, which, in turn, is the main etiology.

We describe the case of a year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hyalinization. Four consecutive surgical interventions were necessary to remove the great part of the affected tissue, which enabled satisfactory results and improved the patient's quality of life. We describe the case of a year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hya Hexachlorobenzene impairs glucose metabolism in a rat model of porphyria cutanea tarda : a mechanistic approach.

Hospital de Ninos, Dr. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of HCB on some aspects of glucose metabolism, particularly those related to its neosynthesis in vivo. For this purpose, a time-course study on gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase PC , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK , glucosephosphatase GPase and on pyruvate kinase PK , a glycolytic enzyme, was carried out. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, hepatic glycogen, tryptophan contents, and the pancreatic insulin secretion pattern stimulated by glucose were investigated.

Oxidative stress and heme pathway parameters were also evaluated. The effect was observed at an early time point and grew as the treatment progressed. The plasma glucose level was reduced one-third loss , while storage of hepatic glucose was stimulated in a time-dependent way by HCB treatment. A decay in the normal plasma insulin level was observed as fungicide intoxication progressed twice to four times lower.

However, normal insulin secretion of perifused pancreatic Langerhans islets stimulated by glucose during the 3rd and 6th weeks of treatment did not prove to be significantly affected. HCB promoted a time-dependent increase in urinary chemiluminiscence fourfold and hepatic malondialdehide MDA content fivefold , while the liver tryptophan level was only raised at the longest intoxication times.

These results would suggest that HCB treatment does not cause a primary alteration in the mechanism of pancreatic insulin secretion and that the changes induced by the fungicide on insulin levels would be an adaptative. Bilateral femoral head dysplasia and osteochondritis.

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia tarda , spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia tarda , and bilateral Legg-Perthes disease. Misdiagnoses are not uncommon, with serious implications for treatment, prognosis and genetic counseling. A population prevalence of 0. Bilateral LPD is always asymmetric, exhibits patches of increased density in the epiphyses and often metaphyseal cyst-like changes. No spinal lesion or affection of other joints is present, and the acetabula are normal.

Generalised platyspondyly is a constant finding in SEDT. Real-time PCR assays for detection and quactification of Edwardsiella tarda , Edwardsiella piscicida, Edwardsiella piscicida-like sp. Researchers have proposed the adoption of 3 distinct genetic taxa among bacteria previously classified as Edwardsiella tarda ; namely E. Individual real-time polymerase chain reaction qPCR assays were developed, based on published Near-drowning-associated pneumonia with bacteremia caused by coinfection with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Edwardsiella tarda in a healthy white man: a case report.

Edwardsiella tarda is an Enterobacteriaceae found in aquatic environments. Extraintestinal infections caused by Edwardsiella tarda in humans are rare and occur in the presence of some risk factors. As far as we know, this is the first case of near-drowning-associated pneumonia with bacteremia caused by coinfection with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and Edwardsiella tarda in a healthy patient.

A year-old previously healthy white man had an episode of fresh water drowning after acute alcohol consumption. Edwardsiella tarda and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in both tracheal aspirate cultures and blood cultures.

This case shows that Edwardsiella tarda is an important pathogen in near drowning even in healthy individuals, and not only in the presence of risk factors, as previously known. Hidding, J. Seroma indicates increased risk of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. Material and methods We included all patients with unilateral breast cancer treated in the period of Data regarding treatment and breast cancer characteristics were retrieved from the national breast cancer registry.

Data regarding lymphedema Full Text Available Lymphedema is a chronic disorder characterized by lymph stasis in the subcutaneous tissue. Lymphatic fluid contains several components including hyaluronic acid and has many important properties. Over the past few years, significant research has been performed to identify an ideal tissue to implant as a filler. Because of its unique composition, fat harvested from the lymphedema tissue is an interesting topic for investigation and has significant potential for application as a filler, particularly in facial rejuvenation.

Over a month period, we treated and assessed 8 patients with lymphedematous limbs who concurrently underwent facial rejuvenation with lymphedema fat LF. We conducted a pre- and post-operative satisfaction questionnaire survey and a histological assessment of the harvested LF fat. The overall mean general appearance score at an average of 6 months after the procedure was 7.

Patients reported significant improvement in their skin texture with a reading of 8. This study demonstrates that LF as an ideal autologous injectable filler is clinically applicable and easily available in patients with lymphedema. We recommend the further study and clinical use of this tissue as it exhibits important properties and qualities for future applications and research. This study explored the ways in which women with this condition experienced changes in their participation in family leisure as one indicator of family functioning.

Tissue dielectric constant and circumference measurement in the follow-up of treatment-related changes in lower-limb lymphedema. Lymphedema of lower limbs is a chronic condition that requires life-long management. Therapeutic effect of complex decongestive physiotherapy CDP is most often followed by circumference measurements CM. However, the CM measurements are not specific to interstitial tissue fluid and have problems in sensitivity and objectivity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of CDP with a new tissue water specific measurement technique, in patients with lower limb lymphedema LLL.

A total of 17 patients with unilateral LLL 11 primary , 6 secondary lymphedema were recruited in this study. CDP was applied for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. CM measurement of both limbs was performed at nine sites along limb by tape measure. Patients were asked to fullfill the Lymph Quality of Life Questionnaire. Significant reduction of circumference after CDP was detected at all nine measurement sites along lower limb Pwater at thigh, calf and ankle measurement sites after CDP Plimb PWC ratios demonstrated significant reduction of edema between affected and contraletral limbs post-treatment Plimb PWC ratios were meaningful tools to follow the effect of therapautic intervention.

Computer-aided vaccine designing approach against fish pathogens Edwardsiella tarda and Flavobacterium columnare using bioinformatics softwares. Prediction of major histocompatibility complex MHC binding is an important issue in T-cell epitope prediction. In a healthy immune system, the T-cells must recognize epitopes and induce the immune response. In this study, T-cell epitopes were predicted by using in silico immunoinformatics approach with the help of bioinformatics tools that are less expensive and are not time consuming.

Such identification of binding interaction between peptides and MHC alleles aids in the discovery of new peptide vaccines. We have reported the potential peptides chosen from the outer membrane proteins OMPs of E. OMPs from E. Finally, two epitopes from the OMP of E. In so far as the [] Geneva Conventions … or the [] Additional Protocols to those Conventions are applicable to a particular act of hostage-taking, and in so far as States Parties to this Convention are bound under those conventions to prosecute or hand over the hostage-taker, the present Convention shall not apply to an act of hostage-taking committed in the course of armed conflicts as defined in the [] Geneva Conventions … and the Protocols thereto, including armed conflicts mentioned in [Article 1 4 of the Additional Protocol I], in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien occupation and against racist regimes in the exercise of their right of self-determination.

Each State Party shall take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over the offences referred to in article 4 in the following cases:. Each State Party shall likewise take such measures as may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction over such offences in cases where the alleged offender is present in any territory under its jurisdiction and it does not extradite him pursuant to article 8 to any of the States mentioned in paragraph 1 of this article.

The State Party in the territory under whose jurisdiction a person alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article 4 is found shall in the cases contemplated in article 5, if it does not extradite him, submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution. Each State Party shall, in accordance with its constitutional processes, adopt the necessary measures to implement its obligations under this Convention.

In particular, it shall:. The acts constituting the forced disappearance of persons shall be considered offenses in every State Party. Consequently, each State Party shall take measures to establish its jurisdiction over such cases in the following instances:. When the forced disappearance of persons or any act constituting such offense was committed within its jurisdiction;.

When the victim is a national of that state and that state sees fit to do so. Every State Party shall, moreover, take the necessary measures to establish its jurisdiction over the crime described in this Convention when the alleged criminal is within its territory and it does not proceed to extradite him. However, Article XV excludes the application of the Convention in international armed conflicts governed by the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols.

Each High Contracting Party shall take all appropriate steps, including legislative and other measures, to prevent and suppress violations of this Protocol by persons or on territory under its jurisdiction and control. The measures envisaged in paragraph 1 of this Article include appropriate measures to ensure the imposition of penal sanctions against persons who, in relation to an armed conflict and contrary to the provisions of this Protocol, wilfully kill or cause serious injury to civilians and to bring such persons to justice.

Each State Party shall take all appropriate legal, administrative and other measures, including the imposition of penal sanctions, to prevent and suppress any activity prohibited to a State Party under this Convention undertaken by persons or on territory under its jurisdiction or control.

Affirming that the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole must not go unpunished and that their effective prosecution must be ensured by taking measures at the national level and by enhancing international co-operation,. Recalling that it is the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over those responsible for international crimes.

A State which becomes a Party to this Statute thereby accepts the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the crimes referred to in article 5. In the case of article 13, paragraph a or c , the Court may exercise its jurisdiction if one or more of the following States are Parties to this Statute or have accepted the jurisdiction of the Court in accordance with paragraph If the acceptance of a State which is not a Party to this Statute is required under paragraph 2, that State may, by declaration lodged with the Registrar, accept the exercise of jurisdiction by the Court with respect to the crime in question.

The accepting State shall cooperate with the Court without any delay or exception in accordance with Part 9. The Court may exercise its jurisdiction with respect to a crime referred to in article 5 in accordance with the provisions of this Statute if:. Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to establish as criminal offences under its domestic law the offences set forth in this Article [i. When doing so, Parties shall comply with general principles of law and international law, including the rules extending individual criminal responsibility to persons other than those who directly commit the act.

Without prejudice to paragraph 2, each Party shall take the necessary legislative measures to establish its jurisdiction over offences set forth in Article 15 in the following cases:. The Party in whose territory the alleged offender of an offence set forth in Article 15 subparagraphs 1 a to c is found to be present shall, if it does not extradite that person, submit, without exception whatsoever and without undue delay, the case to its competent authorities, for the purpose of prosecution, through proceedings in accordance with its domestic law or with, if applicable, the relevant rules of international law.

Each Party shall adopt such legislative, administrative or disciplinary measures as may be necessary to suppress the following acts when committed intentionally:. Armed groups that are distinct from the armed forces of a State should not, under any circumstances, recruit or use in hostilities persons under the age of 18 years. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to prevent such recruitment and use, including the adoption of legal measures necessary to prohibit and criminalize such practices.

The purpose of the present Agreement is to regulate the cooperation between the United Nations and the Royal Government of Cambodia in bringing to trial senior leaders of Democratic Kampuchea and those who were most responsible for the crimes and serious violations of Cambodian penal law, international humanitarian law and custom, and international conventions recognized by Cambodia, that were committed during the period from 17 April to 6 January …. The subject-matter jurisdiction of the Extraordinary Chambers shall be the crime of genocide as defined in the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, crimes against humanity as defined in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions and such other crimes as defined in Chapter II of the Law on the Establishment of the Extraordinary Chambers as promulgated on 10 August Recalling … relevant international instruments in the fields of human rights, humanitarian law and international criminal law,.

Each State Party shall take appropriate measures to investigate acts defined in article 2 [enforced disappearance] committed by persons or groups of persons acting without the authorization, support or acquiescence of the State and to bring those responsible to justice.

Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to ensure that enforced disappearance constitutes an offence under its criminal law. The widespread or systematic practice of enforced disappearance constitutes a crime against humanity as defined in applicable international law and shall attract the consequences provided for under such applicable international law. Each State Party shall make the offence of enforced disappearance punishable by appropriate penalties which take into account its extreme seriousness.

Each State Party shall take the necessary measures to establish its competence to exercise jurisdiction over the offence of enforced disappearance:. Each State Party shall likewise take such measures as may be necessary to establish its competence to exercise jurisdiction over the offence of enforced disappearance when the alleged offender is present in any territory under its jurisdiction, unless it extradites or surrenders him or her to another State in accordance with its international obligations or surrenders him or her to an international criminal tribunal whose jurisdiction it has recognized.

The State Party in the territory under whose jurisdiction a person alleged to have committed an offence of enforced disappearance is found shall, if it does not extradite that person or surrender him or her to another State in accordance with its international obligations or surrender him or her to an international criminal tribunal whose jurisdiction it has recognized, submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.

These authorities shall take their decision in the same manner as in the case of any ordinary offence of a serious nature under the law of that State Party. Other Instruments. All States or Parties concerned are under the obligation to search for and bring to trial any person having committed, or ordered to be committed, an infringement of the present rules, unless they prefer to hand the person over for trial to another State or Party concerned with the case.

XIII, Article Governments shall ensure that persons identified by the investigation as having participated in extra-legal, arbitrary or summary executions in any territory under their jurisdiction are brought to justice. Governments shall either bring such persons to justice or cooperate to extradite any such persons to other countries wishing to exercise jurisdiction.

This principle shall apply irrespective of who and where the perpetrators or the victims are, their nationalities or where the offence was committed. Each party undertakes, when it is officially informed of [an allegation of violations of IHL] made or forwarded by the ICRC, to open an inquiry promptly and pursue it conscientiously, and to take the necessary steps to put an end to the alleged violations or prevent their recurrence and to punish those responsible in accordance with the law in force.

Each party undertakes, when it is informed, in particular by the ICRC, of an allegation of violations of international humanitarian law, to open an enquiry promptly and pursue it conscientiously, and to take the necessary steps to put an end to the alleged violations or prevent their recurrence and to punish those responsible in accordance with the law in force.

Agreement between Representatives of Mr. The International Tribunal shall have the power to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of the former Yugoslavia since in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute. The Parties agree on the need for a firm action against impunity. The Government shall not sponsor the adoption of legislative or any other type of measures designed to prevent the prosecution and punishment of persons responsible for human rights violations.

The International Tribunal for Rwanda shall have the power to prosecute persons responsible for serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in the territory of Rwanda and Rwandan citizens responsible for such violations committed in the territory of neighbouring States, between 1 January and 31 December , in accordance with the provisions of the present Statute.

Without prejudice to the jurisdiction of an international criminal court, the State Party in the territory of which an individual alleged to have committed a crime set out in articles 17, 18, 19 or 20 [crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes against United Nations and associated personnel, war crimes] is found shall extradite or prosecute that individual. Condemning in particular the actions of death squadrons and their commanders as well as the perpetrators of summary executions on the entirety of the territory, the Round Table considers that the perpetrators and accomplices of these activities will have to be brought before international criminal justice.

The obligation to respect, ensure respect for and implement international human rights law and international humanitarian law as provided for under the respective bodies of law, includes, inter alia, the duty to:. In cases of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law constituting crimes under international law, States have the duty to investigate and, if there is sufficient evidence, the duty to submit to prosecution the person allegedly responsible for the violations and, if found guilty, the duty to punish her or him.

Moreover, in these cases, States should, in accordance with international law, cooperate with one another and assist international judicial organs competent in the investigation and prosecution of these violations. In the event that allegations come to the attention of the Government of Afghanistan that a detainee transferred by the Canadian Forces to Afghan authorities has been mistreated, the following corrective action will be undertaken: the Government of Afghanistan will investigate allegations of abuse and mistreatment and prosecute in accordance with national law and internationally applicable legal standards; the Government of Afghanistan will inform the Government of Canada, the AIHRC [Afghanistan Independent Human Rights Commission] and the ICRC of the steps it is taking to investigate such allegations and any corrective action taken.

Military Manuals. In the [ Geneva] Conventions and [the Additional Protocol I], it is provided that the governments shall take such legislative measures as may be necessary to determine adequate penal sanctions to be applied to persons committing or ordering the commission of any of the grave breaches; the persons accused of having committed, or of having ordered to commit, those breaches … shall be searched for. At the request of one of the parties to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested parties, concerning any alleged violation of the [ Geneva] Conventions.

If an agreement is not reached as to the procedure of investigation, the parties shall agree to elect an arbitrator who shall decide the procedure to be followed. If a violation is established, the parties to the conflict must put an end to it and repress it with the least possible delay. Nations are required to search out, prosecute, and if necessary, extradite individuals who are suspected of breaches of LOAC.

Other war crimes may be so serious as to warrant or justify instituting criminal prosecutions. In some cases serious war crimes will result in a formal war crimes trial. Notwithstanding the practical difficulties that may be experienced in bringing enemy war criminals to trial, ADF [Australian Defence Force] members should not underestimate the resolve of the Australian Government to vigorously prosecute war criminals.

An international fact-finding commission has been established to investigate LOAC breaches. Australia has accepted the operation of this commission. The States signatory to the [ Geneva] Conventions undertook to take a series of measures to promote respect thereof.

The Joint Command … shall establish rules and procedures for immediately reporting and investigating violations [of the Law of Armed Conflict, international conventions and agreements to which Brazil is a party, as well as of the Rules of Engagement for Non-Combatants Evacuation Operations]. According to the policy of the Ministry of Defence, the principles of the Law of Armed Conflict regulate the actions taken by the Joint Command in the defence of its personnel, property and equipment.

The obligation to suppress breaches of the law of war takes the form … of aut dedere , aut judicare. It pledges any State to search for the authors of war crimes or crimes against humanity, either by penal prosecution … irrespective of their nationality, the nationality of the victims or the place where the acts were committed, or by extraditing the authors, according to the law of the State concerned, to the State which requests their extradition in order to prosecute them.

Burundi adheres to the definitions of the violations of the law of war set out in these statutes [including the ICC Statute] and accepts their suppression. The States Parties to the Geneva Conventions must incorporate in their domestic legislation military justice codes or penal codes the acts constituting grave breaches [of IHL]. The persons accused of committing these acts must be prosecuted by their States.

Within the framework of the rules of this chapter, the soldiers of the Cameroonian Defence Forces must make themselves thoroughly familiar with their responsibility as regards respect for international humanitarian law and the law of armed conflicts: the violation of these rules makes them war criminals who may be brought before national military courts or international criminal courts.

Parties to the conflict shall take such measures as may be necessary to suppress and punish all breaches of [the Geneva Convention III]. If a breach amounts to a grave breach all persons responsible therefor, or having ordered such acts, shall, regardless of their nationality, be liable to be tried by any party to [the Geneva Convention III]. They may also be handed over by the latter for trial by any other party to [the Geneva Convention III] able to prosecute effectively. At the request of a party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted in a manner to be decided between the interested parties, concerning any alleged violation of the Geneva Conventions.

If a violation is established, parties to the conflict must put an end to it and punish those responsible with the least possible delay. The Criminal Code of Canada contains several provisions that allow Canadian courts to assume jurisdiction over and try alleged war criminals in a wide variety of circumstances. Any state into whose hands a person who has allegedly committed a grave breach falls is entitled to institute criminal proceedings, even though that state was neutral during the conflict in which the offence was alleged to have been committed.

Since , it has been generally accepted that if a state is unwilling to institute its own proceedings, it may hand the person over to a claimant state on presentation of prima facie evidence that the alleged offender has committed the offence in question. The four Geneva Conventions obligate the parties thereto to enact such legislation as may be necessary to provide effective sanctions for persons committing or ordering any of the acts which would constitute grave breaches under the Conventions.

They also provide that the parties will take the measures necessary to suppress any violation of the Conventions not amounting to grave breaches. It is essential that any alleged breaches of these rules [of the Code of Conduct] and the Law of Armed Conflict be investigated rapidly in as impartial a manner as possible. An impartial investigation will not only assist in bringing violators to justice, thereby maintaining discipline, but will also provide the best opportunity to clear anyone who has not acted improperly.

In most cases that investigation will be carried out by the military police or National Investigation Service. The responsibility for the treatment of PWs rests upon the Detaining Power. Failure to properly care for PWs may make that power liable to pay compensation, while the individuals responsible for such ill-treatment or for allowing it to occur, are liable to be tried as war criminals. If a breach amounts to a grave breach all persons responsible therefore, or having ordered such acts, shall, regardless of nationality, be liable to be tried by any party to [the Geneva Convention III].

States have the obligation to repress grave breaches i. The Criminal Code of Canada contains several provisions that allow Canadian courts to assume jurisdiction over and try alleged war criminals in a wide variety of circumstances …. When [the Additional Protocol II] was adopted, states refused to make violations of its provisions regarding criminal offences.

Certain nations were reluctant to allow other states to interfere in their internal affairs by way of trials for war crimes alleged to have taken place in their national territory. Today, however, many provisions of [the Additional Protocol II] are nevertheless recognized under customary International Law as prohibitions that entail individual criminal responsibility when breaches are committed during internal armed conflicts.

Violations of many provisions of [the Additional Protocol II] committed by individual members of a party to an internal conflict are thus criminal offences under International Law. Such crimes may be tried by international tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda.

All four [ Geneva Conventions] and [the Additional Protocol I] impose an obligation on all parties to search for and bring to trial those who have committed any grave breaches of the [ Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocol I]. When it appears that violations of the LOAC or other international agreements or laws have been perpetrated against detainees or PWs [prisoners of war] whilst held by a detaining power, the recovery team shall also include MP [Military Police] investigators who will coordinate the collection of physical evidence and victim statements.

MP assisted by appropriate legal advisors, shall coordinate and facilitate the participation of any other international investigative authority as may be required. This may be done in two ways:. Those measures may include penal, disciplinary, statutory or administrative sanctions. According to the manual, this is also the case for violations committed by members of organized armed groups.

The texts on the law of war distinguish two categories of breaches in the case of violations of the rules of IHL:. The State is under the obligation to search and to try the perpetrators of these grave violations. To do this, it can act in two ways:. Regarded as other violations are those violations which are not determined as grave violations.

The majority of these violations are contained in the service and general discipline regulations. These violations are punished in conformity with the military regulations. These disciplinary sanctions can range from a warning to the dismissal of the person concerned. The grave violations of IHL can be repressed on the national level as well as on the international level. The authors of the Conventions were conscious of the fact that there can be no respect for the law of armed conflicts [LOAC] without knowledge of the rules of that law.

This is a necessary but not sufficient condition. In fact, it still needs the will of the authority to respect these rules, to ensure their respect and to punish perpetrators of grave violations. The law of armed conflicts contains a series of obligations to which States have subscribed by its ratification. They are mainly:. The Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I lay down clearly the responsibility of States in the area of repression ….

Confronted with a grave breach of the law of armed conflicts, a State must therefore ensure the penal repression of the perpetrator of that breach:. If it is a breach of the LOAC not qualified as grave, the State must take all measures necessary for the suppression of that breach. These measures can comprise sanctions of a penal, disciplinary, statutory or administrative nature. According to the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I, a certain number of particularly grave violations must be criminally prosecuted.

In the presence of an alleged grave breach of the Geneva Conventions or Additional Protocol I, a criminal prosecution must obligatorily be started against the suspect, unless he is handed over to a third State which opens an investigation. It is up to the States to provide for criminal or disciplinary consequences equally for the violation of other provisions of international humanitarian law. Since criminal prosecution can only be undertaken if national law provides a sanction for the act committed, has determined the punishment and the procedure, it is indispensable that rules implementing international humanitarian law be incorporated into the national legislation.

This is an obligation of each State party. In order to fulfil the obligation to punish the perpetrators of violations of international humanitarian law, States can use different legislative techniques:. In certain cases, the level of the punishment risks being inadequate in relation to the extent of the crime e.

On the other hand, certain breaches are specific to the state of war and have nothing corresponding in ordinary internal law e. Grave breaches of international humanitarian law need to be prosecuted not only by the detaining power, but by each State in the power of which the presumed culprit finds himself.

One therefore speaks of universal jurisdiction. States must therefore give mutual legal assistance, for example by extraditing an accused if a State renounces criminal prosecution, or by transmitting means of evidence. States are bound to search and punish grave breaches, without regard to the nationality of the perpetrators nor the victims , nor to the place where the breach was committed.

These are means which implement the obligation of parties to a conflict to prevent and stop any violation [of IHL]. Concerning mechanisms of repression, the following are stressed in particular:. Furthermore, criminal acts may make your mission harder and thereby endanger your life. Belligerent States have the obligation, under international law, to punish their own nationals, whether members of the armed forces or civilians, who commit war crimes.

International law also provides that belligerent States have the right to punish enemy armed forces personnel and enemy civilians who fall under their control for such offences. On the criminal level, persons charged with [grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions] may be prosecuted before French judicial courts, but also before foreign courts or international criminal courts having jurisdiction over war crimes: today this means the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda for the crimes committed solely on the occasion of these two conflicts; tomorrow, this will mean … the International Criminal Court which will have jurisdiction over all war crimes and crimes against humanity in case of the failure of national tribunals.

The rules of military jurisdiction contain several provisions that define breaches of the rules of warfare as military offences that can be prosecuted in a court of law. The State of Israel does not perpetrate war crimes and its acts are covered by routine legal advice. If any Israeli soldier commits any of the crimes addressed by the [ ICC] Statute, Israel itself will put him on trial.

War crimes … are punished by the military penal code applicable in times of war, and international cooperation for the pursuit, arrest, extradition and punishment of the persons who have allegedly committed [such crimes] is established.

The Military Manual of the Netherlands refers to Article 86 of the Additional Protocol I, noting the duty to repress grave breaches and to take measures necessary to suppress all other breaches which result from a failure to act when under a duty to do so.

Toepassing Humanitair Oorlogsrecht , Voorschift No. The Geneva Conventions of , which support States in establishing penal provisions to punish offenders against the rules of the law of war, also impose an obligation on States to prosecute violations and bring them to trial. The treaties of the law of war recognize the distinction between serious violations and other infringements of the obligations in the conventions.

Serious breaches must be expressly threatened with punishment. No obligation applies to other infringements, i. Account is often taken of this distinction when determining the punishment. Of course, serious violations are breaches of the fundamental rules of the humanitarian law of war. Conventions enacted later the Cultural Property Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention also require States to make breaches of their provisions punishable.

The parties to the conflict should take action against breaches of the humanitarian law of war and take measures to prevent other breaches. It is expressly stated also that grave breaches deriving from failure to act, where an obligation to act existed, must be penalized.

It then deals with the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity including torture, Article 4 and war crimes. International law not only prohibits the committing of international crimes, but also requires States to institute and maintain an effective system of exercising legal power against such crimes. The International Criminal Offences Act establishes a wide extraterritorial jurisdiction for the Dutch courts with regard to such crimes.

This is partly based on the principle of universality … The International Criminal Offences Act is applicable under normal circumstances. Humanitair Oorlogsrecht: Handleiding , Voorschift No. The [ Geneva] Conventions make one further departure of significance. In other words, the Conventions have introduced the concept of universal jurisdiction in so far as grave breaches are concerned, and if the State in question is unwilling to try an offender found within its territory, it is obliged to hand him over for trial to any party to the Convention making out a prima facie case.

If a violation be established, the Parties to the conflict must put an end to it and punish it with the least possible delay. The four [] Geneva Conventions require the parties to them to enact such legislation as may be necessary to provide effective sanctions for persons committing or ordering any of the acts which would constitute grave breaches under the Conventions.

They also provide that the parties will take the measures necessary to suppress any violation of the Convention[s] not amounting to grave breaches. The High Contracting Parties [to the Additional Protocol I] and the parties to the conflict shall repress breaches, and take measures necessary to suppress all other breaches of the [ Geneva] conventions or of [the Additional Protocol I] which result from a failure to act when under a duty to do so.

Measures and mechanisms to deal with violations are based on the obligation of the parties to a conflict to ensure that violations of international humanitarian law do not go unpunished and to prosecute those responsible in accordance with fair trial standards due process.

This is achieved by implementing the following measures:. Reports of investigation as well as actions taken shall be submitted to GHQ or PNP HQs fifteen 15 days after receipt of information about the alleged human rights violation. Operational Law Manual , , p. Penal prosecution of persons who have committed war and other crimes during an armed conflict shall be exercised on the basis of Russian legislation via investigation and conviction pronounced by a court offering the essential guarantees of independence and impartiality.

In the event of discovering constituent elements of a criminal offence in the actions omissions of his subordinates, the commander of the unit shall institute criminal proceedings, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation. IHL principles are the best mankind can get in armed conflict situations … Irrespective of rank, all members of the [Republic of Sierra Leone armed forces] must adhere to these rules religiously to avert prosecution for war crimes at the newly instituted Court Martial.

The Law of Armed Conflict. Grave breaches of the law of war are regarded as war crimes. They shall be repressed by penal sanctions …. South Africa is obliged to search out and prosecute or extradite those who have committed a grave breach. For all breaches i. Any breach of the LOAC is inevitably that of individuals and they have to answer for their actions. However, it is the State who must punish the offender and rectify the wrongs that were done and, in the end, individuals in the State, such as superior officers and political heads[,] are also held responsible for grave breaches of the LOAC.

The Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocol I impose on States parties the obligation to adopt in their domestic legislation all the legislative measures necessary to determine adequate penal sanctions against those who commit, or order to be committed, any kind of grave breaches.

States have the obligation to search for persons accused of having committed, or having ordered to be committed, grave breaches, being obliged to make them appear before their own tribunals, regardless of their nationality. They can also agree to the extradition of those persons in order for them to be judged by other States, in accordance with the legal obligations which regulate the said extradition. With regard to breaches that are not of a grave nature, the necessary measures must be taken for their immediate cessation.

The most effective instrument for enforcing the law of armed conflict is the obligation binding on States party to the four Geneva Conventions of to prosecute offences that they define as grave breaches. To this end, they must establish appropriate criminal sanctions in general and military codes. Spain fulfils this obligation by criminalizing such breaches in … the Military Penal Code crimes against the laws and customs of war and … the Penal Code crimes against protected persons and property in armed conflicts.

In the case of offences that are not classed as grave breaches, measures must be adopted immediately to suppress them. Spanish domestic legislation, increasing the criminal protection of the victims of armed conflict, criminalizes simple infringements or acts contrary to the provisions of the Conventions in relation to the conduct of hostilities and the protection of the victims of armed conflict and cultural property.

However, minor infringements can be treated as military disciplinary offences. It is incumbent upon parties to the Conventions to enact legislation necessary to apply effective sanctions to persons committing, or ordering to be committed, breaches of the Conventions. Each State is obliged to search for persons accused of committing or ordering a grave breach and shall bring them, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts.

A permitted alternative is to hand over the wanted person to another contracting party, provided that this state has an interest in punishing the breach and has made out a prima facie case. Violations of the laws and customs of war must be punished. Those responsible may be brought either before the courts of their own country or before the courts of the injured State, or before an international tribunal. Each Contracting Party is also bound to search for and prosecute in its own courts persons who have committed grave breaches of the provisions of the law of nations in time of war.

Sanctions are the responsibility of the military justice system. The competent commander is responsible for disciplinary sanctions for minor offences. The [ Hague Regulations] themselves … provide that the perpetrators of the particular offences of seizure, damage or wilful destruction of churches, hospitals, schools, museums, historic monuments, works of art, etc. If a violation be established, the parties to the conflict must put an end to it and punish it with the least possible delay.

These provisions form an important method of ensuring that the laws of war are observed by belligerents. If a party so prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, it may hand such persons over for trial to another State concerned which is a party to the Conventions, provided that that other State has made out a prima facie case against those persons.

In some circumstances, members of a PSO [peace support operations] force may be expressly or impliedly charged with certain responsibilities for ensuring the compliance of others with the law of armed conflict.

For example, they may have a responsibility to intervene so far as feasible to prevent the commission of grave breaches or other war crimes or to arrest persons indicted for such offences. In addition, there is a duty on states party to Additional Protocol I to co-operate with the United Nations in response to serious violations of the law of armed conflict.

Enforcement of the law of armed conflict can involve a wide variety of measures. Action aimed at effective enforcement of the law can include, but is not limited to:. Penal and disciplinary measures, such as trials before civil courts or courts-martial or appropriate disciplinary action by commanding officers. Trials may be either within a single state or organized on an international basis.

Complaints of unlawful acts and omissions alleged to have been committed by individuals or by commanders are an almost inevitable feature of warfare. All sides will be striving to win the battle for public and world opinion and no state can afford to ignore this.

Hostile opinion can lead to loss of political goodwill and public support and damage morale amongst the forces concerned. Failure by belligerent governments to investigate and, where appropriate, punish the alleged unlawful acts of members of their armed forces can contribute to the loss of public and world support, leading to isolation for the state involved.

At the request of a Party to the conflict, an enquiry shall be instituted, in a manner to be decided between the interested Parties, concerning any alleged violation of the [ Geneva] Convention[s] … Once the violation has been established, the Parties to the conflict shall put an end to it and shall repress it with the least possible delay. The High Contracting Parties [to the Geneva Conventions] undertake to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing, or ordering to be committed, any of the grave breaches of the [ Geneva] Conventions ….

Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered to be committed, … grave breaches and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts. It may also, if it prefers, and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation, hand such persons over for trial to another High Contracting Party concerned, provided such High Contracting Party has made out a prima facie case ….

Commanding officers of United States troops must insure that war crimes committed by members of their forces against enemy personnel are promptly and adequately punished. Domestic tribunals have the competence and, under the grave breaches articles of the Geneva Conventions, the strict obligation to punish certain violations … Ad hoc international tribunals, such as those established in Germany and Japan following World War II, did punish individuals for their personal actions violating the law of armed conflict.

There are express obligations to search for persons alleged to have committed grave breaches, to bring them to trial or extradite them, to take all measures necessary to suppress all acts contrary to the Conventions and to implement all obligations … The United States has for many years urged measures on the international scene to improve the implementation and better observance of the law of armed conflict …. Within the Geneva Conventions system, state responsibility to repress breaches is stressed, and no provision is made for international tribunals within the Conventions ….

In the United States, jurisdiction is not limited to offenses against US nationals but extends to offenses against victims of other nationalities. Violations by adversary personnel, when appropriate, are tried as offenses against international law which forms part of the law of the United States. In occupied territories, trials are usually held under occupation law.

Trials of such personnel have been held in regular military courts, military commissions, provost courts, military government courts, and other military tribunals of the United States, as well as in international tribunals. Nearly all nations have signed the Geneva Conventions and have agreed in doing so to search out, to bring to trial, and to punish all persons who commit a grave breach of the conventions.

You may be tried and convicted even after leaving the service. Belligerents have the obligation under international law to punish their own nationals, whether members of the armed forces or civilians, who commit war crimes. International law also provides that belligerents have the right to punish enemy armed forces personnel and enemy civilians who fall under their control for such offenses.

Alleged violations of the law of armed conflict, whether committed by or against U. War crimes alleged to be committed by U. War crimes committed by enemy personnel will be reviewed for appropriate responsive action. States are obligated under international law to punish their own nationals, whether members of the armed forces or civilians, who commit war crimes. International law also provides that States have the right to punish enemy armed forces personnel and enemy civilians who fall under their control for such offenses.

The Geneva Conventions … place duties on States to search for persons alleged to have committed grave breaches, bring them to trial, and punish them if found guilty. This duty exists regardless of the nationality of the offender and includes the right to punish enemy armed forces personnel and enemy civilians. For violations of the Conventions that do not rise to the level of a grave breach, States are obligated to take measures necessary to suppress them.

Reportable incidents should be investigated, and where appropriate, remedied by disciplinary or administrative action. On-scene commanders will ensure that measures are taken to preserve evidence of alleged violations pending investigation by U. DODD The commander, detainee operations CDO is typically responsible for all detention facility and interrogation operations in the joint operations area JOA … The CDO will have the following responsibilities:.

Ensuring that all allegations of maltreatment of detainees are immediately reported through the appropriate command channels. The JIDC commander should be an intelligence officer and is normally responsible for the following:. The parties to a conflict have a duty to prevent violations of the laws of war by all available means and to call to account and punish perpetrators, regardless of their nationality.

States are obliged, in peace time, to provide in their legislation that serious violations of the laws of war are crimes. Parties to a conflict are authorized and obliged to determine the criminal responsibility of members of their own or enemy armed forces, that is, their own or enemy citizens who ordered the commission or committed war crimes or other serious violations of the laws of war.

Persons who commit a war crime or other serious violations of the laws of war shall be brought to justice before their own national courts or, if they fall into enemy hands, before his courts. The perpetrators of such criminal acts may also be brought to justice before an international court if such court is established. National Legislation. Article 2. Article 4. When a person suspected of committing one of the crimes mentioned in this law is present in the territory of the Argentine Republic or in any place under its jurisdiction, and such person is not extradited nor surrendered to the International Criminal Court, the Argentine Republic will take all necessary measures to exercise its jurisdiction regarding such crime.

Penal Code , , Articles , — and — War is defined as. War Crimes Act , , as amended in , Sections 5, 7 and 9. It states:. Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 7 1 and 3. The grave breaches provisions in this Act were removed in and incorporated into the Criminal Code Act The Act includes the penalty to be imposed by Australian courts for each of these crimes. Criminal Code , , Articles 57 and — Notwithstanding anything contained in this Constitution, no law nor any provision thereof providing for [the] detention, prosecution or punishment of any person, who is a member of any armed or defence or auxiliary forces or any individual, group of individuals or organisation or who is a prisoner of war, for … war crimes and other crimes under international law shall be deemed void or unlawful, or ever to have become void or unlawful, on the ground that such law or provision of any such law is inconsistent with, or repugnant to, any of the provisions of this Constitution.

Constitution , , as amended to , Article 47 3. International Crimes Tribunal Act , , Section 3. Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 3 1 — 2. Criminal Code , , Articles — Law concerning the Repression of Grave Breaches of the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols , , as amended in , Articles 1 1 and 1 2.

Belgian courts shall be competent to deal with breaches provided for in the present Act, irrespective of where such breaches have been committed. In respect of breaches committed abroad by a Belgian national against a foreigner, no filing of complaint by the foreigner or his family or official notice by the authority of the country in which the breach was committed shall be required. Criminal Code , , Articles — and — Criminal Code , , Article 1 ; see also Article 1.

The criminal legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall apply to anyone who, outside of its territory, perpetrates:. Criminal Code , , Article 12 c. Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 3 1 and 2. Penal Code , , as amended in , Articles — The present law has the objective of integrating into Burundian legislation the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and to organize the procedure of prosecution and of bringing to trial persons accused of the aforementioned crimes.

The crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes must be the subject of an inquiry and the persons against whom clues of guilt have been collected [must be] arrested, brought before the competent courts and, if found guilty, punished in conformity with the procedure foreseen by the criminal procedure code or by other specific provisions foreseen by the law.

Any person who … orders [or] instigates to commit … one of the offences proscribed by Articles 2, 3 and 4 of the present law, is culpable of the crime of genocide, a crime against humanity or a war crime, respectively, according to the modes of criminal participation as they are set out by Articles 67 to 69 of the penal code. Any offence [including genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes] committed in the territory of Burundi by Burundians or foreigners is … punishable according to the criminal law of Burundi.

Any crime committed abroad by a Burundian or a foreigner is, subject to conventions on extradition, punished by the criminal law of Burundi if the perpetrator is present in Burundi or if the victim has the Burundian nationality, and if the fact is punishable pursuant to the legislation of the country where it was committed. The jurisdiction of Burundian tribunals over genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes is not subject to these crimes being punishable pursuant to the legislation of the country where they were committed, nor is it subject to conventions on extradition.

Penal Code , , Articles 8 and In case of conviction for rape, torture, crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or in case of conviction for tentative or complicity regarding war crimes, crimes against humanity and crime of genocide, the courts and tribunals cannot suspend the sentence. Penal Code , , Article As laid down in its Article 2 new, the Law therefore provides for the establishment of:. Extraordinary Chambers … in the existing court structure, namely the trial court and the supreme court to bring to trial senior leaders of Democratic Kampuchea and those who were most responsible for the crimes and serious violations of Cambodian laws related to crimes, international humanitarian law and custom, and international conventions recognized by Cambodia, that were committed during the period from 17 April to 6 January Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 3 1 and 2.

Code of Military Justice , , Articles — The persons protected are: civilians, persons not taking part in the hostilities and civilians in the power of the adverse party, wounded, sick and shipwrecked placed hors de combat , combatants who have laid down their arms because of capture, surrender or any similar reason, persons considered as stateless or refugees before the beginning of the conflict, and the persons protected under the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols I and II.

Penal Code , , Articles — Penal Code , , as amended in , Article 7. Whoever, in the event of an armed conflict, commits or orders to be committed acts which can be qualified as grave breaches or war crimes, in conformity with the provisions of international treaties to which Costa Rica is a party, regarding the conduct of hostilities, the protection of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, the treatment of prisoners of war, the protection of civilian persons and the protection of cultural property, [applicable] in cases of armed conflict, and under any other instrument of international humanitarian law.

Penal Code , , as amended in , Article The Code further provides for the punishment of crimes against humanity. It further provides for the punishment of the illegal use of distinctive signs and emblems Article Penal Code , , as amended in , Articles — and The explanatory statement of the draft law amending the Penal Code notes:.

Indeed, articles 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the Rome Statute provide for offences such as the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, the punishment of which must be effectively ensured, first and foremost, by the States Parties, through measures taken at the national level. Law No. However, it does not exhaustively contain all these offences that today constitute the field of intervention of international criminal justice. In this respect, the main purpose of the present reform of the penal code proposed through the present draft law is to take into account this new requirement, therefore referring to all incriminations under denominations used by the Rome Statute.

Draft l aw No. Military Criminal Code , , Articles 42— It further provides:. In case an offence provided by this Article has been committed outside the Republic, a person may be prosecuted, charged with the offence, be tried and punished anywhere within the territory of the Republic, as if the offence had been committed in this territory; for all purposes relative or relevant to the trial or punishment, the offence is considered being committed in this territory.

Geneva Conventions Act , , Sections 4 1 and 2. Additional Protocol I Act , , Sections 4 1 and 2. Criminal Code , , as amended in , Articles — a and — Code of Military Justice , , as amended in , Articles , , and — Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i.

Code of Military Justice , , Article Code of Military Justice , , Articles 68— Penal Code , , Articles — and — Article Criminal Code , , Article 15 2. Revised Penal Code , , Chapter 11, Section 1 1. Criminal Code , , as amended to , Chapter 11, Section 5 1. Ordinance on Repression of War Crimes , , Article 1. Penal Code , , Articles 1 — 3. The authorities qualified to engage in prosecution and, if they have received the assignment to do so, the commissioners of government take or have [others] take all necessary measures for the investigation and the prosecution of offences relevant for the jurisdictional competence of the armed forces.

Code of Military Justice , , Article L. Criminal Code , , Articles , and Criminal Code , , as amended in , Sections —

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Full Text Available Introduction: Herpes Simplex Virus HSV infection of the hand resulting in lymphatic complications such as lymphangitis and lymphedema is exceedingly uncommon. Although these complications typically resolve in 21 days, they can be persistent and may not resolve even with antiviral use, thereby mimicking dyshidrotic eczema or a bacterial event and often being misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated as such.

We report a case of frequently recurring HSV infection of the hand over a long period of time resulting in refractory lymphedema which did not resolve with antiviral treatment. We further endeavor to raise awareness about this highly unusual presentation of HSV infection. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for similar cases using PubMed and Medline. Case Report: This is the first reported case with nearly a decade-long interval between the onset of primary HSV infection and the development of chronic lymphedema.

Although valacyclovir significantly reduced the episodic aggravation of the lymphedema , it did not entirely resolve it. Similar cases of persistent lymphedema also included a long history of untreated and recurrent HSV infection of the hand, suggesting that this lymphatic outcome may be circumvented by prompt treatment with antivirals.

Conclusion: This case report not only presents a highly uncommon lymphatic manifestation and unusual timeline of exacerbation of the very common HSV infection, but also highlights the importance and benefits of early initiation of antiviral therapy and the prevention of reactivation. Diagnostic accuracy of fluorescence microlymphography for detecting limb lymphedema.

Fluorescence microlymphography FML is a minimally invasive technique for visualization of the cutaneous lymphatic network. The aim of the study was to assess the accuracy and safety of FML in patients with unilateral lymphedema. This was a cross sectional study. Patients with unilateral leg swelling were assessed and compared with the unaffected contralateral limb. FML was performed in all index legs and the contralateral leg by injecting 0. The most prominent swelling of the affected limb was the anatomical reference.

The contralateral leg served as control. Test accuracy and receiver operator characteristic ROC analysis was performed to assess threshold values that best predict lymphedema. Between March and February seventy patients with unilateral chronic leg swelling were clinically diagnosed with lymphedema. The median age was 45 IQR years. Of those, 46 Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and positive and negative predictive value were FML is an almost atraumatic and safe technique for detecting lymphedema in patients with leg swelling.

Published by Elsevier Ltd. Heavy resistance training and lymphedema. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of BCRL in former participants Full Text Available Breast-cancer-related lymphedema is a significant morbidity mostly observed following primary treatments for breast cancer surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy 1. Multiple complications might accompany lymphedema including cosmetic deformity, psychological disorders, consistent pain, and consequently decreased quality of life.

Surgical approaches in the management of lymphedema are efficient including physiologic methods e. While the former mostly targets at reducing lymphedema through restoring lymphatic drainage, the latter aims at removing fibrofatty tissues which contribute to lymph stasis. Microsurgical variation of lymphatic bypass has gained popularity, in which the accumulated lymph in the lymphedematous limb is redirected. Non-surgical approaches are also practiced in most cases.

Comprehensive decongestive therapy, consisting of skin care, exercise, special bandaging and massage, is the most frequently used non-surgical approach efficacy of which could be enhanced in combination with self-management strategies 4. Recently newer techniques have been introduced to tackle lymphedema and its associated pain.

Manual lymph drainage, stellate ganglion block, acupuncture, deep oscillation, and pneumatic compression have been efficiently used in several studies. Moreover, significant short-term progress has been reported following other modalities such as low-level laser therapy 5. The complexity of breast-cancer-related lymphedema and its complications necessitates a multidisciplinary approach with the primary goal of easing the burden of the disease on the breast cancer patients.

In addition, developing special guidelines encompassing these multidisciplinary approaches and providing educational and. Liquid silicone used for esthetic purposes as a potentiator for occurrence of post-radiotherapy genital lymphedema : case report. In chronic forms, fat and fibrous tissue accumulation is observed. Genital lymphedema is a rare condition in developed countries and may have primary or acquired etiology. It generally leads to urinary, sexual and social impairment. Clinical treatment usually has low effectiveness, and surgical resection is frequently indicated.

She had a history of pelvic radiotherapy to treat anal cancer and of liquid silicone injections to the buttock and thigh regions for esthetic purposes. Radiological examinations showed signs both of tissue infiltration by liquid silicone and of granulomas, lymphadenopathy and lymphedema.

Surgical treatment was performed on the area affected, in which lymphedematous tissue was excised from the scrotum while preserving the penis and testicles, with satisfactory results. Histopathological examination showed alterations compatible with tissue infiltration by exogenous material, along with chronic lymphedema. Cancer treatment decisions for patients who previously underwent liquid silicone injection should take this information into account, since it may represent a risk factor for radiotherapy complications.

Case report Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda SDT presumptively proved. A 51 year old man with severe degenerative joint disease, short stature, barrel chest deformity, platyspondyly, a narrow pelvis, small iliac bones, dysplastic femoral heads and necks, notching of the patellae and flattening of the femoral intercondylar notches has been described as an example of Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda SDT.

The entity was discussed in detail. The notching of the patellae has not been reported in association with SDT to the authors' knowledge. Characteristic features of SDT allow it to be differentiated from other arthropathies and dysplasias and these distinctions have been emphasized in the discussion. The diagnosis in this case can only be considered presumptively proved. This is a review article of porphyria cutanea tarda addressing pathophysiology, clinical features, associated conditions, triggering factors, biochemistry, histopathology, electronic microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy and treatment of the disease.

Clinical and diagnostic aspects of lymphedema. Lymphedema is a chronic, progressive, and common but often unrecognized condition. The diagnosis of lymphatic disease on clinical grounds alone remains a challenge. Without proper diagnosis, therapy is often delayed, allowing disease progression. There is a need for a practical diagnostic algorithm and its imaging technique to guide clinical decision-making.

The aim of this topical review is to provide a practical approach for assessing patients with suspected lymphedema and to give a critical appraisal of currently available imaging modalities that are applied in clinical practice to diagnose and map lymphatic disease.

Lymphedema during pregnancy - case study. As a result of disorders in defense mechanisms, a significant amount of liquid accumulates in spaces between tissues. A clinical manifestation of this condition is swelling located around ankles and lower legs. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating habits, excessive weight and pregnancy are also well known causes of lymphatic swelling.

Research methods: Research methods were collected basing on: interview with a patient, medical documentation analysis and physical examination conduced before and after therapy. Research was conducted between 34th and 36th week of pregnancy.

Case study: 38 year old patient in her fourth singleton pregnancy. Two prior pregnancies in and were delivered with C-section and one missed abortion in occurred. During this pregnancy patient gained over 30kg. She was diagnosed with lymphatic swelling of metatarsus, lower legs and ankles in 34th week of pregnancy. Lymphatic drainage of lower limbs and anti-swelling kinesiotaping was implemented.

Results: After two weeks of therapy decrease in swelling was observed in left lower limb: in metatarsus by 8cm, in ankles by 9cm and in lower legs by 6cm. In right lower limb swelling decreased accordingly by 7cm, 10cm and 5cm. Conclusion: Anti-swelling lymphatic drainage, kinesiotherapy and kinesiotaping are effective physiotherapy methods used in treating lymphedema.

Otophyma: a case report and review of the literature of lymphedema elephantiasis of the ear. Phymas swellings, masses, or bulbs are considered the end-stage of rosacea and mostly affect the nose rhinophyma , and rarely involve the chin gnatophyma , the cheek metophyma , eyelids blepharophyma , or ears otophyma.

Herein, we report the case of a year-old man who developed unilateral enlargement of his left ear over 2 years. Biopsy revealed changes of rosaceous lymphedema associated with Demodex infestation. Corticosteroid and minocycline therapies resulted in partial reduction of the ear enlargement. Literature review examining for cases of lymphedema elephantiasis of the ear revealed that chronic inflammatory disorders rosacea most frequent , psoriasis, eczema , bacterial cellulitis erysipelas , pediculosis, trauma, and primary congenital lymphedema can all lead to localized, lymphedematous enlargement of the ear.

Depending on the severity, medical treatment directed at the inflammatory condition for mild, diffuse enlargement to surgical debulking for extensive diffuse enlargement or tumor formation can improve the signs and symptoms of otophyma. Decreased immune surveillance secondary to rosaceous lymphedema may explain why Demodex infestation is common in rosacea and support the suspicion that phymatous skin is predisposed to skin cancer development.

Financial cost of lymphedema borne by women with breast cancer. Abstract Objective Our study examines the financial cost of lymphedema following a diagnosis of breast cancer and addresses a significant knowledge gap regarding the additional impact of lymphedema on breast cancer survivors. The cost of compression garments formed a large proportion of these costs The average number of attendances to a therapist each year was 5.

The incidence of cellulitis was 7. Conclusions This study identifies an additional detrimental effect of lymphedema on women in terms of financial costs. Induction of bulb organogenesis in in vitro cultures of tarda tulip Tulipa tarda Stapf. A protocol for obtaining bulbs via in vitro organogenesis was developed for tarda tulip Tulipa tarda Stapf.

Scale explants were obtained from bulbs formed at the base of seedlings or from adventitious bulbs that developed from callus tissue forming on stolons or on germinating seeds. Callus tissue developed mainly on media without growth regulators or with BAP. Less callus was formed from chilled explants compared with non-chilled explants.

Newly formed adventitious bulbs appeared on the explants via direct and indirect organogenesis. ABA inhibited the induction of adventitious bulbs and callus. The adventitious bulbs obtained in these experiments contained a meristem, which was evidence that they had developed properly. MRI and CT features of hyperplastic callus in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. We describe the MRI and CT findings of hyperplastic callus formation simulating a tumour of pelvis in patient with osteogenesis imperfecta tarda.

Possible differential diagnoses and the impact of different imaging techniques on the correct diagnosis are discussed. Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is very seldom a cause for gastroenteritis in humans. This organism can also cause extraintestinal infections, such as soft tissue infections, meningitis, peritonitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis and hepatobiliary tract disease, particularly in the setting of compromised immunity. We describe, for the first time a case of E. Pure cultures of Edwarsiella tarda were isolated from body ulcers and internal organs of wild European eels caught in a Mediterranean freshwater coastal lagoon Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain over a 1 yr period.

Overall, the E. All 22 E. The E. This study is the first description of edwardsiellosis in a wild European eel population, and alerts us to the presence of E. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased.

Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity.

Data were collected from women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema , and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema.

Full Text Available Porphyria cutanea tarda PCT is a cutaneous porphyria that presents later in life with cutaneous findings in sun-exposed sites. We report a complex case of PCT in a year-old woman with an unusual constellation of cutaneous findings: scleroderma, acquired ichthyosis, and nonscarring alopecia. Possible triggers for her PCT include tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer and carrier status of the hemochromatosis gene.

High-dose chloroquine was used to successfully achieve clinical remission and normalize her uroporphyrins. While on chloroquine she developed extensive classic vitiligo. It is not clear if this is another feature of her complex and unusual PCT, or a consequence of her antimalarial therapy. Elephantiasis nostras verrucosa ENV is a rare cutaneous sequela of chronic lymphedema. Treatment of ENV remains poorly elucidated but has historically involved conservative management aimed at relieving the underlying lymphedema , with a few cases managed by surgical intervention.

We report a case of a year-old male with primary lymphedema complicated by large painful ENV lesions on his left foot that we excised surgically with good functional and cosmetic results as validated by the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of ENV with a pedunculated morphology and the presence of a deep invasive stalk. Published by Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available There are various treatment options in the management of filarial lymphedema of the lower extremities.

The end point, regardless of the method adopted is a reduction of the girth of the limb, prevention of future increases in limb girth, prevention of recurrent episodes of streptococcal cellulitis; more important the treatment method used should not lead to any secondary problems that may far out shadow the primary co Majority of the methods adopted are mainly of the secondary prevention kind; very few of the procedures to date cure the disease condition.

A few of the methods have been historically found to be more effective than the others; this may be real or apparent as the methodology of - reporting swelling in the lower limb may not have been consistent and there are too many variables to consider. This study seeks to evaluate the efficacy of one such treatment protocol for the management of filarial lymphedema of the lower limb 80 patients were admitted for filarial lymphedema of the lower limbs from to Of these 42 patients underwent surgical treatment; operative records for 8 of these patients was insufficient to analyse; among the remaining 34 patients 19 patients were unavailable for review.

This left us a patient population of 15 for the final analysis. The surgical treatment of all of the 15 patients was identical, after preop preparation by using compression ba n dages to soften the edema along with a period of bed rest debulking of excess skin and subcutaneous tissue and primary closure was done. The intro operative application of Esmarch bandages helped in expelling fluid from the tissues and this ensured that closure was obtained with no tension at the margins.

Patients were kept for at least 5 days post op before discharge; the routine use of compression crepe bandages postop along with bed rest ensured that we did not have a single case of skin necrosis or wound disruption in the postop period.

All patients were given. Insights on the virulence mechanisms of European Edwardsiella tarda strains isolated from turbot. Full Text Available Edwardsiella tarda is a common inhabitant of diverse ecological niches as well as a common guest of a high variety of animals including fish, reptiles, amphibians, chickens and other warm-blooded animals as humans.

With regard to the aquatic environments, E. Several potential pathogenic properties have been suggested to contribute to the infection process of E. Identification of these virulence-related genes is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of the species. Since E. However, all these studies were conducted employing Asian isolates. Being E.

Enzymes such as chondroitinase are believed to play an important role in the pathogenicity of bacteria that cause infections Tam et al. Chondroitinase activity was proposed to be one virulence contributor in Edwardsiella spp. In Gram-negative bacteria, the most intensively studied quorum sensing systems rely on the use of N-acylhomoserine lactones AHLs, which production is common among marine and fish pathogenic Proteobacteria, controlling the expression of key virulence factors.

In the case of E. It is likely. Optimization of protectant, salinity and freezing condition for freeze-drying preservation of Edwardsiella tarda. Novel preservation condition without ultra-low temperature is needed for the study of pathogen in marine fishes. Freeze-drying is such a method usually used for preservation of terrigenous bacteria. However, studies using freeze-drying method to preserving marine microorganisms remain very limited.

In this study, we optimized the composition of protectants during the freeze-drying of Edwardsiella tarda , a fish pathogen that causes systemic infection in marine fishes. We found that the optimal composition of protectant mixture contained trehalose 8. Orthogonal and interaction analyses demonstrated the interaction between serum and skim milk or sodium citrate. The highest survival rate of E.

When E. Under the optimized conditions, when the protectant mixture was used during freeze-drying process, the survival rate Scanning electron microscopy SEM image indicated that E. In sum, the protectant mixture may be used as a novel cryoprotective additive for E. We report on the preliminary evaluation of a well-designed program, Living with Lymphedema. This longitudinal cohort study assessed patients' quality of life using questionnaires. Our main objective was to evaluate the satisfaction of the patients and their adherence to the program.

This was done using a specific questionnaire of satisfaction as well as by noting patients' adherence to the program number of patients attending all three consultations. The secondary objective was to assess the effect of the program on the patient's quality of life. The Living with Lymphedema program targeted all patients with lymphedema in the Grenoble France conurbation and within the GRANTED health care network that includes vascular medicine specialists, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and dietitians in the Alpine region of France.

All studied patients were ambulatory patients. All patients with primary or secondary lymphedema were offered the Living with Lymphedema program, whatever their age and the location of the lymphedema upper or lower limbs.

The collection of patient data conformed to the ethical and administrative regulations of the regional health authority. The program was built around one-to-one consultations, group workshops, and more specialized appointments. It was complementary to the routine medical care received by the patient not evaluated in this study.

It proposed three individual "educational" consultations, seven group workshops, and two specialized consultations with a dietitian. All the consultations or workshops were. Lymphedema -lymphangiectasia-mental retardation Hennekam syndrome: A review. The Hennekam syndrome is an infrequently reported heritable entity characterized by lymphedema , lymphangiectasia, and developmental delay.

Here we add an additional 8 patients, and compare their findings to the 16 cases from the literature. The lymphedema is usually congenital, can be markedly. Efficacy of night-time compression for breast cancer related lymphedema LYNC : protocol for a multi-centre, randomized controlled efficacy trial. McNeely, Margaret L. Lymphedema is a prevalent long-term effect of breast cancer treatment that is associated with reduced quality of life.

More recent observational data suggest that the addition of night-time compression to day-time use of a compression garment results in better long-term control of arm lymphedema. The primary objectives of the randomized controlled phase of the trial are to determine the efficacy of night-time compression on arm lymphedema volume maintenance and quality of life in breast cancer survivors who have completed intensive reduction treatment for their lymphedema.

The study will be a parallel 3-arm, multi-centre randomized fast-track trial. The duration of the primary intervention period will be 12 weeks. The follow-up period after the intervention weeks 13 to 24 will follow a longitudinal observational design. The primary outcome variables: differences from baseline to week 12 in arm volume and quality of life Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire: Lymph-ICF.

Secondary outcomes include bioimpedance analysis, sleep disturbance and self-efficacy. All measurements are standardized and will be performed prior to randomization, and at weeks 6, 12, 18 and The use of night-time compression as a self-management strategy for chronic breast cancer related lymphedema is seen as an innovative approach to improve long-term control over the condition. This trial aims to advance the knowledge on self-management strategies for lymphedema.

Full Text Available There are reported cases of diphencyprone used in treating cutaneous metastases of melanoma. Here, we report a patient with previous primary melanoma on his left back treated with surgical excision and lymphadenectomy, followed by radiotherapy for the recurrent tumor on the primary site.

Despite radiotherapy and treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib, in-transit metastases have developed and topical diphencyprone was applied to these metastases. Six weeks later, the patient developed fever and a spreading erythematous tender indurated plaque covering the left side of the body including axillae, back, and flank, clinically suggestive of cellulitis.

Systemic antibiotic therapy did not improve the condition and a biopsy showed sparse lymphocytic infiltrate. With the diagnosis of possible acute lymphedema , a CT scan was requested that showed significant axillary lymph node metastasis. The fever was considered secondary to dabrafenib and trametinib therapy. This case highlights that, in patients with lymphadenectomy, atypical forms of lymphedema on the body may appear.

Truncal lymphedema is an infrequent event. Debulking surgery for elephantiasis nostras with large ectatic podoplanin-negative lymphatic vessels in patients with lipo- lymphedema. Elephantiasis nostras is a rare complication in advanced lipo- lymphedema.

While lipedema can be treated by liposuction and lymphedema by decongestive lymphatic therapy, elephantiasis nostras may need debulking surgery. We present 2 cases of advanced lipo- lymphedema complicated by elephantiasis nostras. After tumescent microcannular laser-assisted liposuction both patients underwent a debulking surgery with a modification of Auchincloss-Kim's technique. Histologic examination of the tissue specimen was performed.

The surgical treatment was well tolerated and primary healing was uneventful. After primary wound healing and ambulation of the patients, a delayed ulceration with lymphorrhea developed. It was treated by surgical necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure leading to complete healing. Mobility of the leg was much improved. Histologic examination revealed massive ectatic lymphatic vessels nonreactive for podoplanin. Debulking surgery can be an adjuvant technique for elephantiasis nostras in advanced lipo- lymphedema.

Although delayed postoperative wound healing problems were observed, necrectomy and vacuum-assisted closure achieved a complete healing. Histologic data suggest that the ectatic lymphatic vessels in these patients resemble finding in podoplanin knockout mice. The findings would explain the limitations of decongestive lymphatic therapy and tumescent liposuction in such patients and their predisposition to relapsing erysipelas.

MRI study in spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda with progressive arthropathy. Methods: MRI of spine, bilateral hips, and knees was taken in 2 cases with clinically and radiographically proven SEDT-PA, who were sister and brother and whose parents were healthy and not inbreeding. The sister's femoral heads were resected bilaterally and the tissues were used for pathological study.

Results: MRI showed that the kyphosis and lateroflexion of the spine, and the degenerative signs of the intervertebral discs became more evident along with the growth of the patients. The anterior annular secondary ossification centers of cartilaginous epiphyses of some vertebral bodies didn't appear. So the affected vertebral bodies were like 'inverted vase' or the end p late like 'steps'. Bilateral acetabular cartilage and medial epicondylian cartilaginous epiphyses of the femurs in the young brother showed regional high signal intensity on coronal fat-saturated proton density weighted MR images and degenerative signs on the elder sister.

The regional hyperplasia and hypogenesis of the femoral head cartilage could be seen by microscope. Ayurvedic management of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda , a rare hereditary disorder. Full Text Available Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda SEDT is a rare genetic disease in which patient suffers from short stature, short trunk and neck with disproportionately long arms, coxa vara, skeletal features such as barrel shaped chest, kyphosis, scoliosis and early arthropathy.

Only limited medical and surgical management is available in modern medicine. A 15 years old male suffering from SEDT and diagnosed as Vata vyadhi was treated with Panchakarma therapy and selected Ayurvedic oral medicines.

Ayurvedic treatment was directed to ameliorate the orthopaedic clinical conditions in this case. Panchakarma procedures such as Shalishastika pinda svedana for a month and Mustadi yapana basti for 16 days were given along with oral Ayurvedic medicines. Same Panchakarma procedures were repeated after an interval of 2 months.

Eight scales based Medical outcome study MOS — 36 item short form — health surveys was assessed for outcome which shows good improvement. Kyphosis, scoliosis and pain were moderately reduced. Clinical experience of this case indicates that Ayurvedic herbs along with Panchakarma can play a major role in the management of hereditary disorder SEDT.

Septicaemia caused by Edwardsiella tarda and Plesiomonas shigelloides in captive penguin chicks. Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from to The affected penguins were of two different species king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death.

The causative agents, E. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed. The use of Curcuma longa extract to control Edwardsiella tarda infection on Clarias sp. Previous works had shown that turmeric Curcuma longa has antibacterial activity.

The objectives of this research were to determine the best method of extraction and to evaluate the efficacy of turmeric extract as feed additive to control Edwardsiella tarda disease in catfish culture. Briefly, the objective was achieved through in vitro assay based on inhibition ability of extraction method against E. A complete randomized design with three replications was used for each assay.

The results showed that 15 minutes decoction method allowed the best inhibition with diameter 7. Clinical signs such as swelling, hemoraghic, body ulcer, gastroentritis and gaseous captivity were observed on challenged fish.

However, there were no significant different among treatments for specific growth, body weight, and absolute length parameters. Hasil beberapa penelitian membuktikan bahwa kunyit Curcuma longa terbukti memiliki zat aktif yang bersifat antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari metode ekstraksi terbaik dan mengevaluasi efektivitas penambahan ekstrak kunyit pada pakan untuk pengendalian patogen Edwardsiella tarda pada ikan lele.

Metoda ekstraksi kunyit diuji secara in vitro dengan metoda zona hambat, sedangkan efikasi. Prospective Lymphedema Surveillance in a Clinic Setting. Full Text Available The potential impact of breast cancer-related lymphedema LE is quite extensive, yet it often remains under-diagnosed until the later stages.

This project examines the effectiveness of prospective surveillance in post-surgical breast cancer patients. Findings revealed a visit timeframe mean of Visit and measurement times decreased as clinic staff gained measurement experience; measurement time mean was Giant cell angiofibroma represents a rare soft tissue neoplasm with a predilection for the orbit.

We recently encountered a mass removed from the lower eyelid of a year-old female that histopathologically resembled giant cell angiofibroma. The process consisted of haphazardly arranged CDpositive spindled and multinucleated cells within an edematous, densely vascular stroma. However, the patient had recently undergone laryngectomy and radiotherapy for a laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. A similar mass had arisen on the contralateral eyelid, and both had developed several months post-therapy.

Lymphedema of the orbit can present as tumor-like nodules and in some cases may share histopathologic features purported to be characteristic of giant cell angiofibroma. A relationship between giant cell angiofibroma and lymphedema has not been established, but our case suggests there may be one.

The potential overlap of these two conditions should be recognized, as should other entities that may enter the differential diagnosis. Clinical effectiveness of decongestive treatments on excess arm volume and patient-centered outcomes in women with early breast cancer-related arm lymphedema : a systematic review. A narrative and tabular format was used to synthesize results from identified and included studies.

Results: Seven studies reporting results for outcomes of interest were critically appraised and included in the review: five randomized controlled trials and two descriptive uncontrolled studies. Reported outcomes included excess arm volume five studies , health-related quality of life three studies , arm heaviness one study , arm function two studies and patient-perceived benefit two studies. There was some evidence that decongestive treatments were effective for women presenting within either 12 months or a mean of nine months of developing breast cancer-related arm lymphedema , but the wide range of data prevented comparison of treatment findings which limited our ability to answer the review questions.

Conclusions: Weak evidence grade B for the impact of decongestive lymphedema treatment on women with early lymphedema i. Findings provided no justification to support change to current practice. Future primary research needs to focus on the most effective treatment for women when they first present with lymphedema symptoms, e.

Studies should be adequately powered and recruit women exclusively with less than 12 months duration of breast cancer-related lymphedema symptoms, provide longer follow-up to monitor treatment effect over time, with comparable treatment protocols, outcome measures and reporting methods. Helium Neon laser therapy for post mastectomy lymphedema and Dec 8, Mohamed M.

The patients were In this study, we will assess whether modifiable factors, including body weight, physical activity, smoking and breast reconstruction, influence risk of arm lymphedema among women treated for breast cancer In this study, we will assess whether modifiable factors, including body weight, physical activity, smoking and breast reconstruction, influence risk of arm Lymphedema among women treated for breast cancer Surgical treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum.

PURPOSE: Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum, regardless of its etiology, is determined by reduced lymphatic flow with subsequent enlargement of the penis and scrotum. The clinical course of this condition is characterized by extreme discomfort for patients, with limitation of local hygiene, ambulation, sexual intercourse, and voiding in the standing position.

The purpose of the present study is to present the experience and results of the treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum by r Polymicrobial bacteremia caused by Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda , and Shewanella putrefaciens. Edwardsiella tarda , a member of Enterobacteriaceae, is found in freshwater and marine environments and in animals living in these environments. This bacterium is primarily associated with gastrointestinal diseases, and has been isolated from stool specimens obtained from persons with or without clinical infectious diseases.

Shewanella putrefaciens, a saprophytic gram-negative rod, is rarely responsible for clinical syndromes in humans. Debilitated status and exposure to aquatic environments are the major predisposing factors for E. A year-old woman was febrile with diarrhea 8 hours after ingesting shark meat, and two sets of blood cultures grew Escherichia coli, E. She was successfully treated with antibiotics.

We present this rare case of polymicrobial bacteremia caused by E. This rare case of febrile diarrhea with consequent polymicrobial bacteremia emphasizes that attention should always be extended to these unusual pathogens. Dobrocky, I. With 3 figs. Porhyria cutanea tarda PCT is a rare, inherited or acquired disorder due to decreased activity or deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase UROD , one of the enzymes in the haem synthetic pathway.

It is characterized by cutaneous manifestations such as erosions, blisters and bulae in the dorsum of the hand, Microsurgery for groin lymphocele and lymphedema after oncologic surgery. Groin lymphocele GL is a frequent complication of inguinal lymph node dissection, and conservative treatment is not always successful.

Different surgical methods have been used to treat lymphoceles arising from lymphatics injured during groin surgery. However, they all involve the closure of lymphatics merging at the lymphocele, increasing the risk of postoperative lower limb lymphedema or of worsening lymphedema if already clinically evident. We assessed the efficacy of a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to manage inguinal lymphoceles using lymphoscintigraphy LS and microsurgical procedures. Sixteen GL [seven associated with leg lymphedema LL ] were studied by LS preoperatively and treated by complete excision of lymphocele and microsurgical lymphatic-venous anastomoses between afferent lymphatics and a collateral branch of great saphenous vein.

Lower limb lymphatics were identified intraoperatively using Patent Blue dye injection. Nine patients without lymphedema had complete healing of lymphocele and no appearance of lower limb postoperative lymphedema. The other seven patients with associated secondary lymphedema had complete disappearance of lymphocele and a remarkable reduction of leg volume. Four of them completely recovered without the need of any compression garment, after the first year postoperative. Inguinal lymphocele nonresponsive to conservative treatment can be advantageously studied by LS and successfully treated by microsurgical reconstructive procedures, above all if associated to LL.

Compulsive masturbation and chronic penile lymphedema. Chronic penile lymphedema arises from the abnormal retention of lymphatic fluid in the subcutaneous tissues and may be secondary to local and systemic medical conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases, filariasis, malignancy, local radiotherapy, and surgery. This case report aims to consider compulsive masturbation as a possible cause of chronic penile edema.

A year-old man was referred to our institute for behavioral disturbance, including compulsive masturbation. Neuropsychiatric evaluation showed moderate mental retardation, mild dysarthria and limb incoordination, anxiety, depressed mood, and impulse dyscontrol. Brain MRI pointed out diffuse white matter lesions.

Urogenital examination revealed an uncircumcised penis with non-tender edema of the shaft and prepuce with areas of lichenification. Since the most common local and systemic causes of edema were excluded, chronic penile edema due to compulsive masturbation was diagnosed and the compulsive behavior treated with an antidepressant and low-dose neuroleptics.

Compulsive masturbation should be taken into account when counselling patients with penile edema. Lymphoscintigraphy in the diagnosis of extremity lymphedema. Lymphoscintigraphy, using 99m Tc labeled antimony sulfur colloid and 99m Tc labeled dextran, was performed on 25 patients with swelling of upper or lower extremities for diagnosis of lymphedema. Five different lymphoscintigraphic patterns were identified, that is normal 4 cases , collaterals 2 cases , mixed 13 cases , dermal backflow 4 cases and no backflow pattern 2 cases.

Eight patients underwent operations for lympho-venous anastomoses on the involved extremity. The results indicate that lymphoscintigraphy has many advantages, such as simplicity and non-invasiveness, safety and reliability, being able to differentiate properties of extremity edema, to provide the information of morphologic changes and dynamically display lymphatic drainage and obstructive extent in the lymphatic system.

The procedure is valuable for determination of the treatment modalities and the selection of patient for lymphatic microsurgery. Recently, a lot of new researches have highlighted the critical roles of sRNAs in fine-tune gene regulation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Edwardsiella tarda E. Thus far, no sRNA has been reported in E. The present study represents the first attempt to identify sRNAs in E. However, the other candidate sRNAs have not been reported till now.

The cellular abundance of 10 validated sRNA was detected by qPCR at different growth phases to monitor their biosynthesis. And the expression of the nine sRNAs was growth phase-dependent. These results preliminary showed that sRNAs probably play a regulatory role of virulence in E.

Interstitial MR lymphangiography in patients with lower extremity lymphedema : a preliminary report. Objective: To assess the feasibility of interstitial MR lymphangiography MRL with subcutaneous injection of a commercially available, non-ionic, extracellular paramagnetic contrast agent, to visualize lymphatic vessels in patients with primary lymphedema. Methods: Forty lower extremities in 31 patients with clinically advanced stages of primary lymphedema were examined with magnetic resonance lymphangiography.

A 1 ml mixed liquor of gadobenate dimeglumine and mepivacainhydrochloride were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal aspect of both feet. For MRL, a 3D fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo T 1 -weighted images with a fat saturation technique T 1 high resolution isotropic volume excitation, THRIVE were performed after subcutaneous application of the contrast material. To outline lymphatic vessels, source images were used to reconstruct images of MIP.

The significance of the differences of the data comparisons was assessed using an unpaired student t test. Results: Of the 40 lower extremities, the beaded appearance of dilated lymphatic vessels was detected in 36 lower legs The numbers of the dilated lymphatic vessels displayed in all segments of lower extremities added up to and its mean diameter was 3.

Alders, M. The lymphedema -lymphangiectasia-intellectual disability Hennekam syndrome HS is characterised by a widespread congenital lymph vessel dysplasia manifesting as congenital lymphedema of the limbs and intestinal lymphangiectasia, accompanied by unusual facial morphology, variable intellectual. Lymphedema is a common complication of cancer treatment, resulting in swelling and subjective symptoms.

Reliable and valid measurement of this side effect of medical treatment is important. The purpose of this study was to provide best evidence regarding which measurement instruments are most appropriate in measuring lymphedema in its different stages. Data on reliability, concurrent validity, convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity, applicability, and costs were extracted.

Pooled data showed good intrarater intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs. In the upper extremities, the standard error of measurement was 3. Sensitivity of tape measurement in the upper extremities, using different cutoff points, varied from 0. No uniform definition of lymphedema was available, and a gold standard as a reference test was lacking. Items concerning risk of bias were study design, patient selection, description of lymphedema , blinding of test outcomes, and number of included participants.

Measurement instruments with evidence for good reliability and validity were BIS, water volumetry, tape measurement, and perometry, where BIS can detect alterations in extracellular fluid in stage 1 lymphedema and the other measurement instruments can detect alterations in volume. Deng Jie, E-mail: jie. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer HNC.

Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum, regardless of its etiology, is determined by reduced lymphatic flow with subsequent enlargement of the penis and scrotum. The purpose of the present study is to present the experience and results of the treatment of lymphedema of the penis and scrotum by removing affected tissues and correcting the penoscrotal region. Seventeen patients with lymphedema of the penis and scrotum were treated with a modified Charles procedure, which consists of the excision of the affected skin followed by scrotoplasty and midline suture simulating the scrotal raphe.

The penis is covered with a split-thickness skin graft by means of a zigzag suture on its ventral surface. Regression of symptoms and improvement of previous clinical conditions were verified in the follow-up which ranged from 6 months to 6 years.

One patient who had undergone lymphadenectomy with radiation therapy due to penile cancer had recurrent scrotum lymphedema. The modified Charles procedure for the treatment of penoscrotal lymphedema is easily reproducible and allows better local hygiene, easier ambulation, voiding in the standing position, resuming sexual intercourse, and finally, better cosmetic results in the affected area with remarkable improvement in quality of life. Effect of physical therapy on breast cancer related lymphedema.

CDT consists of the following components; skin care, manual lymphatic drainage, bandaging and exercises. The scientific evidence regarding what A total of breast cancer patients with arm lymphedema will be recruited from 3 hospitals and randomized into one of two treatment groups A: Complete Decongestive Therapy including manual drainage or B: Complete Decongestive Therapy without manual lymphatic drainage.

The intervention period The objective of this study is to investigate whether CDT is equally effective if it includes manual lymphatic drainage or not in the treatment of arm lymphedema among patients with breast cancer. Gomez, F. Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female 8 years old [patient no. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy patient no.

All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide Guerbet were injected at a rate of 0. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels.

Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases patients no.

No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography. Afterward, 4—8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide Guerbet were injected at a rate of 0. Precipitating factors of porphyria cutanea tarda in Brazil with emphasis on hemochromatosis gene HFE mutations. Study of 60 patients. Porphyria cutanea tarda is the most common form of porphyria, characterized by the decreased activity of the uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase enzyme.

Several reports associated HFE gene mutations of hereditary hemochromatosis with porphyria cutanea tarda worldwide, although up to date only one study has been conducted in Brazil. An ambispective study of 60 patients with PCT was conducted during the period from to Serological tests for hepatitis C and HIV were performed and histories of alcohol abuse and estrogen intake were investigated. Porphyria cutanea tarda predominated in males and alcohol abuse was the main precipitating factor. Hepatitis C was present in All HIV-positive patients Allele frequency for HFE mutations, i.

HFE mutations had no association with the other precipitating factors. Alcohol abuse, hepatitis C and estrogen intake are prevalent precipitating factors in our porphyria cutanea tarda population; however, hemochromatosis in itself can also contribute to the outbreak of porphyria cutanea tarda , which makes the research for HFE mutations necessary in these patients. The use of bioimpedance analysis to evaluate lymphedema. Lymphedema , a chronic disfiguring condition resulting from lymphatic dysfunction or disruption, can be difficult to accurately diagnose and manage.

Of particular challenge is identifying the presence of clinically significant limb swelling through simple and noninvasive methods. Many historical and currently used techniques for documenting differences in limb volume, including volume displacement and circumferential measurements, have proven difficult and unreliable.

Bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis, a technology that uses resistance to electrical current in comparing the composition of fluid compartments within the body, has been considered as a cost-effective and reproducible alternative for evaluating patients with suspected lymphedema. A total of 15 patients mean age: Seven healthy medical students and surgical residents mean age: All study participants underwent analysis of both limbs, which allowed participants to act as their own controls.

The multifrequency bioimpedance device documented impedance values for each limb, with lower values correlating with higher levels of accumulated protein-rich edematous fluid. The average ratio of impedance to current flow of the affected limb to the unaffected limb in lymphedema patients was 0. In the control group, the average impedance ratio of the participant's dominant limb to their nondominant limb was 0.

Bioimpedance spectroscopy can be used as a reliable and accurate tool for documenting the presence of lymphedema in patients with either upper- or lower-extremity swelling. Measurement with the device is quick and simple and results. Giant lymphedema of the penis and scrotum: a case report. Lymphedema of the penis and scrotum is a rare entity characterized by enlargement of the skin and subcutaneous tissue of the genital region due to lymphatic drainage impairment.

This clinical condition is more frequent in tropical countries due to a higher incidence of filariasis, which, in turn, is the main etiology. We describe the case of a year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hyalinization.

Four consecutive surgical interventions were necessary to remove the great part of the affected tissue, which enabled satisfactory results and improved the patient's quality of life. We describe the case of a year-old man with large lymphedema of the scrotum and penis due to an acute and chronic inflammatory process, foreign body granuloma, and marked hya Hexachlorobenzene impairs glucose metabolism in a rat model of porphyria cutanea tarda : a mechanistic approach.

Hospital de Ninos, Dr. The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of HCB on some aspects of glucose metabolism, particularly those related to its neosynthesis in vivo. For this purpose, a time-course study on gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase PC , phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase PEPCK , glucosephosphatase GPase and on pyruvate kinase PK , a glycolytic enzyme, was carried out. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, hepatic glycogen, tryptophan contents, and the pancreatic insulin secretion pattern stimulated by glucose were investigated.

Oxidative stress and heme pathway parameters were also evaluated. The effect was observed at an early time point and grew as the treatment progressed. The plasma glucose level was reduced one-third loss , while storage of hepatic glucose was stimulated in a time-dependent way by HCB treatment.

A decay in the normal plasma insulin level was observed as fungicide intoxication progressed twice to four times lower. However, normal insulin secretion of perifused pancreatic Langerhans islets stimulated by glucose during the 3rd and 6th weeks of treatment did not prove to be significantly affected.

HCB promoted a time-dependent increase in urinary chemiluminiscence fourfold and hepatic malondialdehide MDA content fivefold , while the liver tryptophan level was only raised at the longest intoxication times. In respect of breaches committed abroad by a Belgian national against a foreigner, no filing of complaint by the foreigner or his family or official notice by the authority of the country in which the breach was committed shall be required. Criminal Code , , Articles — and — Criminal Code , , Article 1 ; see also Article 1.

The criminal legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall apply to anyone who, outside of its territory, perpetrates:. Criminal Code , , Article 12 c. Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 3 1 and 2. Penal Code , , as amended in , Articles — The present law has the objective of integrating into Burundian legislation the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, and to organize the procedure of prosecution and of bringing to trial persons accused of the aforementioned crimes.

The crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes must be the subject of an inquiry and the persons against whom clues of guilt have been collected [must be] arrested, brought before the competent courts and, if found guilty, punished in conformity with the procedure foreseen by the criminal procedure code or by other specific provisions foreseen by the law.

Any person who … orders [or] instigates to commit … one of the offences proscribed by Articles 2, 3 and 4 of the present law, is culpable of the crime of genocide, a crime against humanity or a war crime, respectively, according to the modes of criminal participation as they are set out by Articles 67 to 69 of the penal code.

Any offence [including genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes] committed in the territory of Burundi by Burundians or foreigners is … punishable according to the criminal law of Burundi. Any crime committed abroad by a Burundian or a foreigner is, subject to conventions on extradition, punished by the criminal law of Burundi if the perpetrator is present in Burundi or if the victim has the Burundian nationality, and if the fact is punishable pursuant to the legislation of the country where it was committed.

The jurisdiction of Burundian tribunals over genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes is not subject to these crimes being punishable pursuant to the legislation of the country where they were committed, nor is it subject to conventions on extradition. Penal Code , , Articles 8 and In case of conviction for rape, torture, crime of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or in case of conviction for tentative or complicity regarding war crimes, crimes against humanity and crime of genocide, the courts and tribunals cannot suspend the sentence.

Penal Code , , Article As laid down in its Article 2 new, the Law therefore provides for the establishment of:. Extraordinary Chambers … in the existing court structure, namely the trial court and the supreme court to bring to trial senior leaders of Democratic Kampuchea and those who were most responsible for the crimes and serious violations of Cambodian laws related to crimes, international humanitarian law and custom, and international conventions recognized by Cambodia, that were committed during the period from 17 April to 6 January Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 3 1 and 2.

Code of Military Justice , , Articles — The persons protected are: civilians, persons not taking part in the hostilities and civilians in the power of the adverse party, wounded, sick and shipwrecked placed hors de combat , combatants who have laid down their arms because of capture, surrender or any similar reason, persons considered as stateless or refugees before the beginning of the conflict, and the persons protected under the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols I and II.

Penal Code , , Articles — Penal Code , , as amended in , Article 7. Whoever, in the event of an armed conflict, commits or orders to be committed acts which can be qualified as grave breaches or war crimes, in conformity with the provisions of international treaties to which Costa Rica is a party, regarding the conduct of hostilities, the protection of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, the treatment of prisoners of war, the protection of civilian persons and the protection of cultural property, [applicable] in cases of armed conflict, and under any other instrument of international humanitarian law.

Penal Code , , as amended in , Article The Code further provides for the punishment of crimes against humanity. It further provides for the punishment of the illegal use of distinctive signs and emblems Article Penal Code , , as amended in , Articles — and The explanatory statement of the draft law amending the Penal Code notes:. Indeed, articles 5, 6, 7 and 8 of the Rome Statute provide for offences such as the crime of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, the punishment of which must be effectively ensured, first and foremost, by the States Parties, through measures taken at the national level.

Law No. However, it does not exhaustively contain all these offences that today constitute the field of intervention of international criminal justice. In this respect, the main purpose of the present reform of the penal code proposed through the present draft law is to take into account this new requirement, therefore referring to all incriminations under denominations used by the Rome Statute.

Draft l aw No. Military Criminal Code , , Articles 42— It further provides:. In case an offence provided by this Article has been committed outside the Republic, a person may be prosecuted, charged with the offence, be tried and punished anywhere within the territory of the Republic, as if the offence had been committed in this territory; for all purposes relative or relevant to the trial or punishment, the offence is considered being committed in this territory.

Geneva Conventions Act , , Sections 4 1 and 2. Additional Protocol I Act , , Sections 4 1 and 2. Criminal Code , , as amended in , Articles — a and — Code of Military Justice , , as amended in , Articles , , and — Any person who uses war instruments or procedures the application of which violates an international agreement entered into by Denmark or the general rules of international law, shall be liable to the same penalty [i. Code of Military Justice , , Article Code of Military Justice , , Articles 68— Penal Code , , Articles — and — Article Criminal Code , , Article 15 2.

Revised Penal Code , , Chapter 11, Section 1 1. Criminal Code , , as amended to , Chapter 11, Section 5 1. Ordinance on Repression of War Crimes , , Article 1. Penal Code , , Articles 1 — 3. The authorities qualified to engage in prosecution and, if they have received the assignment to do so, the commissioners of government take or have [others] take all necessary measures for the investigation and the prosecution of offences relevant for the jurisdictional competence of the armed forces.

Code of Military Justice , , Article L. Criminal Code , , Articles , and Criminal Code , , as amended in , Sections — Geneva Conventions Act , , Sections 3 and 4. Any person, whatever his or her nationality, who, whether in or outside the State, commits or aids, abets or procures the commission by any other person of a grave breach of any of the [ Geneva] Conventions or [the Additional Protocol I] shall be guilty of an offence and on conviction on indictment [be liable to punishment].

Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 3. Any person, whatever his nationality, who, in the State, commits, or aids, or abets or procures the commission in the State by any other person of any other minor breach of any of the [ Geneva] Conventions or of [the Additional Protocol I] or [the Additional Protocol II] shall be guilty of an offence.

Any person, whatever his nationality, who, outside the State, commits, or aids, or abets or procures the commission outside the State by any other person of any other minor breach of any of the [ Geneva] Conventions or of [the Additional Protocol I] or [the Additional Protocol II] shall be guilty of an offence. Any person who is guilty of an offence under this section shall be liable [to punishment].

Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 4. Wartime Military Penal Code , , Articles — Military Penal Code , , Article Criminal Code , , Articles , and — Criminal Code , , Sections 71— Considering that the civil conflict was generally characterized by … violation of international humanitarian laws and standards.

Section 4. Notwithstanding the period specified herein, the Commission may, on an application by any person or group of persons, pursue the objectives set out in this Article IV Mandate of the Commission in respect of any other period preceding The TRC [Truth and Reconciliation Commission] shall enjoy and exercise such functions and powers as are relevant for the realization of its mandates. Its functions and powers shall include, but not be limited to:.

Criminal Code , , as amended in , Articles — Law on the Repression of War Crimes , , Article 1. Law on the Punishment of Grave Breaches , , Articles 1—8. Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 4 1 and 2.

Penal Code , , Articles 29— Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 3 1 , 3 and 4. Penal Code , , as amended to , Article Code of Military Justice , , as amended in , Articles — and — Military Criminal Law , , Articles 83— Criminal Law in Wartime Act , , as amended in , preamble.

The International Crimes Act of the Netherlands provides for the punishment of genocide Article 3 , crimes against humanity Article 4 , war crimes committed in international armed conflicts Article 5 or non-international armed conflicts Article 6 , and torture Article 8. International Crimes Act , , Articles 3—8. Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 3 1 and 3.

War crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity are defined as the acts specified in the ICC Statute. Military Penal Law , , Articles 80— Military Penal Code , , Articles 47— Revised Penal Code , , Article Penal Code , , as amended in , Articles Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 7 2 and 3.

Military Penal Code , , Articles — Penal Code , , Articles and — Code of Military Justice , , Articles 91— Penal Code , , Articles —, , , and — Penal Code , , Articles , and — The peoples of the Soviet Union that suffered losses during the war cannot let fascist barbarians go unpunished.

The Soviet State has always proceeded from the universally recognized rules of international law that provide for the inevitable prosecution of Nazi criminals, no matter where and for how long they have been hiding from justice. Decree on the Punishment of War Criminals , , preamble. Criminal Code , , Article The Code further provides for the punishment of offences such as genocide, ecocide, use of, and participation by, mercenaries in an armed conflict or hostilities, and assaults on persons or institutions enjoying international protection.

Law Setting up Gacaca Jurisdictions , , Article 1. This Organic Law terminates Gacaca Courts charged with prosecuting and trying persons accused of the crime of genocide perpetrated against Tutsi and other crimes against humanity committed between October 1, and December 31, It also determines mechanism of solving pending issues that were under their jurisdiction and any issues, which may rise after. Gacaca Courts charged with prosecuting and trying persons accused of the crime of genocide perpetrated against Tutsi and other crimes against humanity committed between October 1, and December 31, , are hereby terminated.

Article 3: Laws governing the prosecution and punishment of acts constituting the crime of Genocide perpetrated against Tutsi and other crimes against humanity. The prosecution and punishment of acts constituting the crime of genocide perpetrated against Tutsi and other crimes against humanity which were committed between October 1, and December 31, in the jurisdiction of Gacaca Courts shall be exercised by competent organs according to laws in force applicable in these matters.

Article 4: Acts constituting the crime of genocide perpetrated against Tutsi and other crimes against humanity within the jurisdiction of the Intermediate Court. The following offences shall be tried at the first instance by the Intermediate Court:. The government authorities of the Republic of Serbia set out under this Law shall have jurisdiction in proceedings for criminal offences specified in Article 2 hereof, committed on the territory of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia, regardless of the citizenship of the perpetrator or victim.

Criminal Code , , Article 1 — 2. A court martial may try a person for an offence which under the Armed Forces of Sierra Leone Act is triable by that court although the offence is also an offence under section 2. Geneva Conventions Act , , Sections 1—3. Criminal Code , , as amended, Articles — a and — Where a commander orders or authorizes the use of forbidden means of warfare.

The commander of a military force who, to harm the enemy, orders or authorizes the use of any of the means or methods of warfare that are forbidden by law or by international agreements, or that are contrary to military honour, shall be liable to confinement for not less than five years, except where the act is specified as an offence by a special provision of law.

If the act leads to a massacre, a penalty of confinement for not less than 10 years shall be applied. Use of forbidden means of warfare by a person other than a commander. The penalties prescribed in the preceding article apply also to anyone who, to harm the enemy, employs means or methods that are forbidden by law or by international agreements.

Military Criminal Code , , Articles — When a soldier within the squad is involved in a serious crime or a serious disciplinary matter, the Commanding Officer, through the Commanding Officer of the platoon, shall inform the Commanding Officer of the army; providing [a] detailed account of the incident and any witnesses. He must also attach the individual report regarding the conduct of the alleged person. He then shall send the collated information and evidences in the form of a report.

Act of Military Discipline , , Articles 24 and Implementation of the Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 5. Law on Judicial Power , , Article 23 4. That the offender has not been acquitted, pardoned or sentenced abroad or, in the latter case, has not completed his or her sentence abroad.

If he or she only completed it partly, this will be taken into account in order to proportionally reduce the [sentence] which he or she must complete. Any other [act] that according to international treaties and conventions, in particular those Conventions on international humanitarian law and the protection of human rights, must be prosecuted in Spain.

Without prejudice to that disposed by the treaties and international conventions that Spain is a party to, in order for Spanish tribunals to have jurisdiction over the above-mentioned offences it must be demonstrated … that no other procedure leading to an investigation or effective prosecution, as the case may be, of the same punishable acts has been initiated in another country with jurisdiction or within an international tribunal. The prosecution initiated before Spanish courts will be temporarily dismissed when it is established that another process on the denounced acts has been initiated in the country or tribunal referred to in the above paragraph.

If the prosecution is transferred to Spain according to the conditions in … paragraph 4, paragraph 2 c of this article will in any case be applicable. Law on Judicial Power , , as amended on 3 November , Article 23 2 c , 4 h and 5. Military Criminal Code , , Articles 69— Penal Code, , Articles — Penal Code , , as amended on 25 November , Article Penal Code , , as amended on 23 June , Article Subject to the provisions of section 6, every prosecution for an offence in terms of section 2 shall be by way of direct indictment filed by the Attorney-General.

Geneva Conventions Act , , Sections 2—3. Each High Contracting Party shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed, or to have ordered the commission of such grave breaches, and shall bring such persons, regardless of their nationality, before its own courts.

Military Criminal Code , , as amended, Articles — Other offences, such as pillage committed in time of war or marauding on the battlefield are also to be punished. Military Criminal Code as amended , , Articles — The provisions of the present chapter apply in case of declared wars and other armed conflicts between two or more States …. The provisions of international agreements are also punishable if these agreements provide for a wider scope of application.

Any person who has contravened the prescriptions of international conventions on the conduct of hostilities and on the protection of persons and objects, [and]. Persons subject to military service, during their military service, with the exception of those on leave who commit, without a link to service of the troop, offences under art.

Officials, employees and workers of the military administration of the Confederation and the cantons, for acts relevant to national defence, and when they are in uniform;. Persons subject to military service, when they are in uniform outside service and commit offences under art. Persons subject to military service, even outside service, in relation to their military situation and their official duties, as well as persons who were subject to military service insofar as they have not fulfilled their official duties;.

Professional military persons, contracted military persons, persons who are part of the border guard corps as well as persons who, according to Article 66 of the Federal law of 3 February on the army and the military administration, carry out peace support service, for offences committed during the service, offences committed outside service but related to their military obligations or military situation, and offences they commit in uniform;.

Civilians or foreign military persons, for acts under art. Civilians or foreign military persons who commit abroad against a Swiss military person one of the acts under … chapter 6 bis art. In case of active service are subject to military criminal law also, if and to the degree decided by the Federal Council:. Officials, employees and workers of the military administration of the Confederation and the cantons, including those of military establishments and workshops, of services and establishments of vital interest, in particular of water distribution services, waterworks, electrical power stations, gas works and hospitals.

Civilians who make themselves culpable of one of the following offences:. Prisoners of war, for offences under this code, including those they have committed, in Switzerland or abroad, during the war and before the beginning of their captivity, against the Swiss state or army, or against persons belonging to the Swiss army;. Enemy parlementaires and the persons accompanying them, if they abuse their position to commit an offence;.

Foreign military persons who make themselves culpable of … a war crime Part 2, chapter 6 bis , and article Articles — [listing a number of violations of IHL, in addition to those under Art. This Code does not apply to persons whose offences are subject to military criminal law. Articles d — j [listing a number of violations of IHL] apply in the context of international armed conflicts, including in situations of occupation, and, if the nature of the offence does not exclude it, in the context of non-international armed conflicts.

The penalty shall be a custodial sentence not exceeding three years or a monetary penalty for any person who, in the context of an armed conflict, violates, in a way not repressed by Articles c — i , a provision of international humanitarian law whose violation is punishable by virtue of customary international law or an international treaty recognized as binding by Switzerland. Penal Code , , taking into account amendments entered into force up to , Articles 3 1 , 9 1 , b , c , j and m ; see also Articles 4—7.

Criminal Code , , Articles and — Prisoners of War Act , , Sections 12— Geneva Conventions Act , , Section 1 1 and 2. Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 1 1 and 2. Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended on 2 July , Section 1 1.

The UK War Crimes Act grants the UK courts jurisdiction over war crimes committed in Germany or German-occupied territory during the Second World War by persons who are now UK citizens or residents, irrespective of their nationality at the time of the alleged offence. If a person commits, outside the United Kingdom, any act to or in relation to a UN worker which, if he had done it in any part of the United Kingdom, would have made him guilty of [murder, manslaughter, culpable homicide, rape, assault causing injury, kidnapping, abduction or false imprisonment], he shall in that part of the United Kingdom be guilty of that offence.

UN Personnel Act , , Section 1. UN Personnel Act , , Section 4 3. There is a similar provision for Northern Ireland. War Crimes Act , , Section The US Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act states with regard to the treatment of aliens who commit acts of torture, extrajudicial killings or other atrocities abroad:.

A the availability of criminal prosecution under the laws of the United States for any conduct that may form the basis for removal and denaturalization; or. B the availability of extradition of the alien to a foreign jurisdiction that is prepared to undertake a prosecution for such conduct. Rumsfeld in , amends Title 10 of the United States Code as follows:.

No foreign or international source of law shall supply a basis for a rule of decision in the courts of the United States in interpreting the prohibitions enumerated in subsection d of such section The Executive Order stated:. Section 1.

Establishment of Military Commissions. There are hereby established military commissions to try alien unlawful enemy combatants for offenses triable by military commission as provided in chapter 47A of title Military Penal Code , , as amended, Article Geneva Conventions Act , , Sections 4 and 5. Code of Military Justice , , as amended, Article The Prosecutor … may ask the supervisory judge for the authorization to terminate prosecution, totally or partially, or to limit it to some of the persons that took part in the act ….

The cases referring to the investigation of … war crimes … and related crimes are excluded from the application of this provision. Penal Procedure Code, , Article The ordinary tribunals are responsible for exercising jurisdiction to decide on the matters submitted before it, in accordance with this Code and with special laws, as well as of penal proceedings that must be heard by the Venezuelan tribunals as provided by the Penal Code, treaties, conventions and international agreements to which the Republic is a party.

The Prosecution Office will terminate the preparatory phase [of the proceedings] with the diligence required by the case. The cases referring to the investigation of … war crimes … are excluded from the application of this provision. The cases referring to the investigation of … war crimes are excluded from the application of this provision. Penal Procedure Code , , Article Eight months after the identification of the defendant, the defendant or the victim may request the Supervisory Judge to fix a reasonable timeframe for the conclusion of the investigation.

This timeframe must not be of less than thirty days and of more than forty-five. In cases referring to the investigation of … war crimes … the reasonable timeframe mentioned in the first indention must not be of less than a year and of more than two. The accused person may … admit [having committed] the acts under trial and request that the respective penalty be immediately imposed.

In cases related to … war crimes, the judge may only reduce the penalty by a third. Military Criminal Code , , Articles 5 and 20— A commentary on these provisions emphasizes that these crimes can be committed in time of war, armed conflict or occupation.

Penal Code as amended , , Commentary to Articles —, , — and Geneva Conventions Act , , as amended in , Section 3 1 , 2 and 3. National Case-law. Priebke case , Judgment, 23 August , Point V. In satisfying that obligation, it was said, Australia may itself prosecute and punish or it may extradite the offender to the country where the offence is alleged to have been committed.

The Court concluded that the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols were not applicable to the armed conflict in Somalia and that, therefore, the civilian population could not be granted protection on this basis. The Court also held that common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions did not apply to the situation, as the Somali militia did not have an organized military structure, a responsible leadership or exercise authority over a specific part of the territory.

In The Four from Butare case in , a Belgian court found four Rwandan nationals individually responsible and guilty of war crimes during the genocide in Rwanda. They were charged with violations or grave breaches of provisions of the Geneva Conventions and of the Additional Protocol I, as well as with violations of common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions and Articles 1, 2 and 4 of the Additional Protocol II.

The judgment was confirmed by the Belgian Court of Cassation in The Four from Butare case , Judgment, 9 January According to the universal jurisdiction principle, customary international humanitarian law is obligatory for each state throughout the world, regardless of whether it has ratified the appropriate international legal instruments.

Therefore, each state is bound to prosecute or extradite aut dedere aut judicare all persons suspected of having violated customary international humanitarian law. The Court held that there was no evidence that the soldier had formed the necessary mens rea to commit the offences charged. It was further held that no armed conflict existed in Somalia at the relevant time, nor were the Canadian forces to be considered as a party to the conflict, as they were engaged in a peacekeeping mission.

The Court held:. He is the first to be prosecuted under that legislation in Canada. Its complete title is the Act respecting genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes and to implement the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, and to make consequential amendments to other Acts.

The Board stated:. For the purposes of this hearing section[s] 6 and 7 of the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act are the relevant [ones] as they deal with offences committed outside of Canada and I will make reference to the relevant sections in respect of this case. Subsection 6 1 indicates that every person who either before or after coming into force of this section commits outside of Canada, a genocide, b a crime against humanity, or c [a] war crime, is guilty of an indictable offence and may be prosecuted for that offence in accordance with section 8.

I would also note that the Criminal Code of Canada has incorporated this definition into the legislation and it is an established principle in international [and] domestic law that people who have personally [committed] war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, and other international crimes, would generally be held accountable for those crimes.

Article … [of the Geneva Convention IV] sets out the obligation of Contracting States to enact any legislation necessary to establish the appropriate penal sanctions to apply to persons who commit or order the commission of any of the grave breaches specified in the Convention; these States are also obliged to search for these persons and to bring them before their own courts and to take all measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the Convention.

Article of … [the Geneva Convention IV] sets out the obligation of Contracting States to enact any legislation necessary to establish the appropriate penal sanctions to apply to persons who commit or order the commission of any of the grave breaches specified in the Convention; these States are also obliged to search for these persons and to bring them before their own courts and to take all measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the Convention.

Article … [of the Geneva Convention IV] stipulates the obligation of its parties to enact any legislation necessary to establish the appropriate penal sanctions to apply to persons who commit or order the commission of any of the grave breaches specified in the Convention. Likewise, the states parties are obliged to search for these persons and to bring them before their own tribunals and to take all measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the Convention.

Episode of San Javier case , Case No. In , in the Constitutional Case No. Constitutional Case No. Article 6 [of Law of ], when defining the right to justice, affirms that a State has the duty to carry out an effective investigation that is conducive to the identification, capture and punishment of persons responsible for crimes committed by members of unlawful armed groups.

At the international level, the State obligation to respect and ensure respect for international humanitarian law is found in Article 1 common to the Geneva Conventions and has acquired customary status. In its consideration of the charge, the Court focused on the grave breaches provisions of the Geneva Conventions. Javor case , Order establishing partial lack of jurisdiction and the admissibility of a civil suit, 6 May The Court of Appeal reversed this decision and held, inter alia , the absence of direct applicability of the Geneva Conventions.

Javor case , Judgment, 24 November Against the decision of the investigating chamber of the Court of Appeal of Lyon of 20 May , which confirmed the order of the investigating judge, refusing to hold an investigation upon their criminal complaint for counts of arrest, illegal detention, arbitrary detention, deliberate failure to end arbitrary detention;. But whereas by deciding thus, by an abstract examination of the complaint only, without researching by way of a prior investigation whether the arrest and the detention conditions of the complainants — which it had to analyse from the point of view, in particular, of Geneva Convention III of 12 August and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights of 19 December — fell under the provisions of Article of the Penal Code and, as such, because of the French nationality of the said complainants, came under the competence of the French laws and courts, the investigating chamber did not justify its decision;.

Against the decision of the first section of the investigating chamber of the Court of Appeal of Paris of 22 November , which, in the investigation upon their complaint against unnamed person on counts of crimes against humanity, acts of torture and abductions of persons, pronounced on a request for annulment of parts of the proceedings;.

Considering Articles , , , 40, 41 and 80 of the Criminal Procedure Code;. Whereas, first, according to the first three of these Articles, French courts can prosecute and try any person, if in France, who, outside the territory of the Republic, has rendered himself guilty of torture in the sense of Article 1 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, adopted in New York on 10 December ;. Whereas, second, the Prosecutor of the Republic, from the three latter of these Articles above, receives the right to request the opening of an investigation in view of any information of which he is the recipient, and whereas the introductory submission can only be annulled if its form does not satisfy the essential conditions of its legal existence;.

Whereas the Prosecutor of the Republic of Paris transmitted the complaint to the public prosecution department of Meaux, territorially competent due to the known domicile of Norbert Dabira …; whereas, the preliminary investigation having verified the domicile of Norbert Dabira and his family at that address, the Prosecutor of the Republic requested the opening of an investigation on counts of crimes against humanity, acts of torture and abductions of persons;.

But whereas, by determining thus, while, first, the introductory submission, duly dated and signed by a prosecutor, aimed at annexed preliminary inquiry minutes, and, second, the persons suspected of having committed the acts denounced were designated by name, and, finally, there were, at the moment when the prosecutions began, sufficient elements on the presence of at least one of them in France, Norbert Dabira having his ordinary residence on the French territory where he is settled with his family, the investigating chamber misread the meaning and the impact of the Articles mentioned above and the principles recalled above;.

The accused was found guilty of complicity in 14 counts of murder and 1 count of attempted murder. The Court based its jurisdiction on Article 6 9 of the German Penal Code which extends the jurisdiction of German courts to acts which are committed abroad and which are prosecuted in Germany on the basis of an international agreement binding on Germany. The accused was found guilty of complicity in genocide, in conjunction with dangerous bodily harm, deprivation of liberty and murder.

In , the Federal Court of Justice upheld the conviction for the most part. In its judgment in , the Federal Constitutional Court confirmed that the accused could be tried by German courts and under German penal law. Moreover, it stated:. A norm of international customary law prohibiting the extension of German competence to legislate in criminal matters … was at variance with Art.

VI of the [] Genocide Convention. With regard to the principle of non-interference recognised in international customary and international treaty law Art. In criminal law, a meaningful link is constituted not only by the principles of territoriality, protection, active and passive personality, and criminal representation, but also by the principle of universal jurisdiction … The principle of universal jurisdiction applied to conduct deemed to constitute a threat to the protected interests of the international community.

It therefore differs from the principle of criminal representation, codified in Article 7 2 2 of the [German Penal Code], in that the conduct does not need to be punishable by the law of the place where it occurred and no failure to extradite is required. The Court held that, according to Article 6 9 of the German Penal Code and in connection with the provisions of the Geneva Conventions, German domestic courts had jurisdiction over grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions committed in the course of the conflict in the former Yugoslavia.

The Senate is nevertheless inclined not to require such additional link, in any case with regard to [Article 6 9 of the German Penal Code] … Indeed, the prosecution and punishment in accordance with German penal law by the Federal Republic of Germany, acting in fulfilment of an internationally binding obligation accepted under agreement between States, of an act committed abroad by a foreigner against foreigners, can hardly be said to be an infringement of the principle of non-interference.

However, the Federal Court of Justice stated that in this case it did not fall to it to reach a decision in the matter. The accused was sentenced to life imprisonment for, inter alia , genocide in conjunction with six counts of murder. The Court found that a specific link to Germany, necessary for the prosecution under German penal law of acts committed abroad by a non-German national and against non-German victims, was established.

In , the Federal Court of Justice revised this judgment into a life sentence for, inter alia , six counts of murder. It considered the acts of the accused to be grave breaches in the meaning of Articles and of the Geneva Convention IV. On 30 November , attorney-at-law …, filed a criminal complaint, on behalf of the Center for Constitutional Rights, … New York, United States of America, as well as four Iraqi citizens. The complaint, amended on 29 January , is directed against Donald H.

Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense of the United States of America, and 10 named persons as well as further unnamed persons, who are alleged to have participated in criminal offences according to the [German] International Crimes Code …. The criminal complaint alleges that the persons reported therein rendered themselves liable to prosecution as civilian and military superiors of directly acting persons, according to Sections 4, 13, 14 of the International Crimes Code.

They allegedly gave instructions to subordinates on the treatment of detainees, which contravene internationally applicable protective provisions, inter alia the UN Torture Convention. Despite knowledge of ill-treatment, they allegedly failed to take measures to prevent further assaults by their subordinates and to repress ill-treatment already committed.

It is not necessary to examine whether the matter raised by the initiators of the criminal complaint is capable of giving rise to an initial suspicion which would justify the initiation of criminal investigation proceedings. Likewise, it is not necessary to examine to what extent immunity provisions prevent the initiation of criminal investigation proceedings.

The balancing assessment as required by Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code has the result that in view of the subsidiarity principle there is no room for the German criminal investigation authorities to become active. It is true, the principle of universal jurisdiction does indeed apply to the crimes threatened with punishment in the International Crimes Code Section 1 International Crimes Code.

Accordingly, no link to [Germany] whatsoever is required for the application of the International Crimes Code. However, the principle of universal jurisdiction does not automatically legitimate an unrestricted criminal prosecution. It is the aim of the International Crimes Code to close gaps in criminal liability and criminal prosecution.

This, however, has to take place before the background of non-interference in the affairs of foreign States. For the same reasons, a third State may not review the legal practice of foreign states based on its own standards, correct it in the individual case, or even replace it. The national legislator of the Federal Republic of Germany has taken subsidiarity into account not by revoking the basic decision for the principle of universal jurisdiction, but with the differentiated procedural regulation of Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code, which came into force at the same time as the International Crimes Code … The Statute of the International Criminal Court is the guideline in the interpretation and application of Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code.

Accordingly, the obligation to prosecute criminal offences under the International Crimes Code is regulated in tiers:. Primarily, the State in which the conduct in question occurred and the home State of the perpetrator and victim, as well as a competent international court of justice, are competent to prosecute … In contrast, the competence of uninvolved third States is to be understood as a subsidiary competence, which is meant to avoid impunity, but, apart from that, not to push aside inappropriately the primarily competent jurisdictions … Only if criminal prosecution by primarily competent States or an international criminal court is not or cannot be ensured, for example because the perpetrator has absconded from criminal prosecution by fleeing abroad, the subsidiary competence of the German criminal prosecution authorities comes into action.

This tiered approach is justified by the special interest in criminal prosecution of the home State of perpetrator and victim and because the primarily competent jurisdictions usually are closer to the evidence …. The conditions of Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code are fulfilled. Based on these principles, the United States of America as the home State of the persons reported is primarily competent for the criminal prosecution. The reported acts were committed outside the territorial scope of the Criminal Procedure Code in the sense of Section c of the Criminal Procedure Code.

Also taking into consideration the matters raised by the initiators of the criminal complaint, the Federal Republic of Germany is insofar neither the place where the perpetrator acted nor the place in which the result of the act occurred Section 9 of the Criminal Code.

There is no indication that a German national participated in the commission of the reported offence as a perpetrator Section f , paragraph 1, sentence 2, paragraph 2, sentence 1, no. The requirement of prosecution elsewhere Section f , paragraph 2, sentence 1, no. The term prosecution of the offence must be interpreted in relation to the complex as a whole and not in relation to an individual suspect and his specific contribution to the offence.

According to the wording of the provision, the offence as a whole is decisive. Such an interpretation of the term offence follows from the Rome Statute, which the International Crimes Code implements. In which order and by which means the primarily competent State investigates against an individual within a complex as a whole, must, because of the subsidiarity principle, be left to that State.

This is different only if investigations are merely in pretence or are carried out without a genuine will to prosecute …. Here, nothing indicates that the authorities and courts of the United States of America have dispensed with penal law measures regarding the assaults described in the criminal complaint, or will do so. Several proceedings regarding the incidents in Abu Ghraib against participants in the offence … have already been carried out. By what means and at what time investigations against further potential suspects in relation to the assaults described in the criminal complaint are carried out, must be left to the judicial authorities of the United States of America.

Insofar as the reported persons are not present in the area of application of the International Crimes Code and are not anticipated to be present there, the conditions of Section f , paragraph 1, sentence 1 of the Criminal Procedure Code are fulfilled. With regard to the reported persons present in the Federal Republic of Germany or anticipated to be present there, the criminal complaint is not to be pursued in accordance with Section f , paragraph 2, sentence 2 of the Criminal Procedure Code.

The reported persons who, according to the criminal complaint …, are present in Germany, are stationed in US army bases in Germany as members of the US army. They are subject to a special duty of obedience towards their employer, also as regards their presence. The United States of America as prosecuting State therefore have unrestricted access to these persons.

A gap of criminal responsibility, to be avoided in accordance with the principle of universal jurisdiction, does not exist, which is why there is no room for the subsidiary competence of the German criminal prosecution authorities. This also follows from Section f , paragraph 2, sentence 2 of the Criminal Procedure Code, according to which prosecution can be dispensed with if extradition to the prosecuting State is admissible and intended.

This must apply even more if the prosecuting State, like in the present case, has unrestricted access to a suspect, an extradition therefore not being necessary. Similar considerations apply with regard to a temporarily limited presence to be anticipated in the area of application of the International Crimes Code, if investigations of the complex as a whole are carried out in the State which has priority rights. Also in that case, the reported persons would not be out of reach of a criminal prosecution by the judicial authorities of the United States.

There are no indications, which could justify the initiation of investigations despite the fulfilment of the conditions of Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code. At the most, due to the subsidiarity principle, only such measures could be considered which the US authorities, primarily competent to examine the incidents, could not take themselves due to factual or legal obstacles.

Here, such obstacles are not apparent. Abu Ghraib case , Press release, 10 February The Higher Regional Court found the motion to be inadmissible, holding that, according to Section , paragraph 2, sentence 3 of the Criminal Procedure Code in conjunction with Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code, proceedings to force criminal prosecution were not admissible against decisions to dispense with prosecuting offences under the International Crimes Code.

The conditions for the application of Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code had been fulfilled, and no legal fault could be found with the way the Federal Prosecutor General had exercised the discretion within the framework of Section f of the Criminal Procedure Code when deciding to dispense with prosecuting the reported incidents.

Abu Ghraib case , Decision, 13 September , pp. On 14 November — last amended on 28 March — attorney-at-law …, on behalf of altogether 44 organizations and individuals, filed a criminal complaint against the former Secretary of Defense of the United States of America, Donald H.

Rumsfeld, 13 individually named and further unnamed citizens of the United States, based on the suspicion of violations against Sections 4, 8, 13 and 14 of the [German] International Crimes Code and against Sections et seq. Already on 30 November , attorney-at-law …, on behalf of the Center for Constitutional Rights and four Iraqi citizens, had filed a criminal complaint against Donald H.

Insofar as the report concerns incidents in the prison complex Abu Ghraib, the vast majority of them have already been reported on 30 November Beyond the incidents described at that time, the initiators of the criminal complaint have now additionally reported further incidents, in particular such which allegedly occurred after 8 January Prosecution by the International Criminal Court were out of the question, because the United States of America had withdrawn the signature of the Rome Statute and had excluded a ratification.

The legal provisions of the International Crimes Code, in particular the principle of universal jurisdiction enshrined in its Section 1, forced the competent German criminal prosecution authorities to initiate investigation proceedings against the reported persons. The Federal Republic of Germany therefore had to take on the criminal prosecution, acting for the international community of States, in order to prevent the reported acts from going unatoned.

The initiation of investigation proceedings is dispensed with in accordance with Section f , paragraph 1, sentence 1 of the Criminal Procedure Code. Insofar as incidents have been reported which allegedly occurred in Iraq between 15 September and 8 January , the decision of 10 February remains applicable. Section f , paragraph 1, sentence 1 of the Criminal Procedure Code allows to dispense with the initiation of investigation proceedings for offences committed abroad in the sense of Section c , paragraph 1, no.

This is the case here:. In none of the reported cases have the acts of which the reported persons are accused caused results of crime elements in the sense of Sections 8 et seq.

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