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Due to their recent launch, it is not yet possible to judge their success. However, the development itself reflects the need for reliable, fast and affordable alternatives to state courts in smaller disputes. Polish state courts generally respect the wide autonomy of arbitration courts and show little inclination to interfere with their decisions as to the merits of the case.
The arbitral awards are likely to be set aside only in rare cases. As a rule, in post-arbitral proceedings, Polish courts do not address the merits of the cases decided by the arbitration courts. An arbitration-friendly approach is also visible in other aspects, such as in the broad interpretation of arbitration clauses. In mid, the Polish Supreme Court introduced a new legal instrument into the Polish legal field: an extraordinary complaint.
Although this new instrument does not refer directly to arbitration proceedings, it may be applied to any procedures before Polish state courts, including post-arbitration proceedings see Section 3 for more details. There is now a bankruptcy law and a separate, distinct restructuring law.
While this strategy has not yet been finalized, the government has generally followed the directions of development in the policy. The draft policy foresees a primary role for fossil fuels until as well as strong growth in electricity production. The government will continue to pursue developing nuclear energy and offshore wind power generation, as well as distributed generation, but may revise the time frame for reaching landmarks in these areas.
The draft policy remains skeptical of onshore wind. A company investing in Poland, either foreign or domestic, may receive assistance from the Polish government. Its main goal is to increase innovation and the competitiveness of the Polish economy. Under the amended program, it is possible to co-finance large strategic investments as well as medium-sized innovative projects. Projects that adapt modern technologies and provide for research and development activities are awarded.
The program is also conducive to establishing cooperation between the economic sector and academic centers. The support is granted in the form of a subsidy, based on an agreement concluded between the Minister of Development and the investor. The agreement regulates the conditions for the payment of subsidies and the investment implementation schedule. Under the program, investment support may be granted in two categories: eligible costs for creating new jobs and investment costs in tangible and intangible assets.
Under the new law on the PSI, companies can apply for a corporate income tax CIT exemption for a new investment to be placed anywhere in Poland. The CIT exemption is calculated based on the value of the investment multiplied by the percentage of public aid allocated for a given region based on its level of development set percentage. The CIT exemption is for years, depending on the location of the investment. A point system determines eligibility for the incentives. The deadline for utilizing available tax credits from the previous SEZ system is the end of extended from The new regulations also contain important changes for entities already operating in SEZs, even if they do not plan new investment projects.
This includes the possibility of losing the right to tax incentives in the event of fraud or tax evasion. Investors should consider carefully the potential benefits of the CIT exemption in assessing new investments or expansion of existing investments in Poland. During the seven year period of to , Poland will receive approximately USD Businesses may also take advantage of the EU primary research funding program, Horizon As of January 1, , the Innovation Box, or IP Box, reduces the tax rate applicable to income derived from intellectual property rights to 5 percent.
Taxpayers applying the IP Box shall be entitled to benefit from the tax preference until a given right expires in case of a patented invention — 20 years. In order to benefit from the program, taxpayers will be obliged to separately account for the relevant income.
The Polish government does not issue sovereign guarantees for FDI projects. Co-financing may be possible for partnering on large FDI projects, such as the planned central airport project or a nuclear project. Foreign-owned firms have the same opportunities as Polish firms to benefit from foreign trade zones FTZs , free ports, and special economic zones since January , they make up the Polish Investment Zone.
The Minister of Finance establishes duty-free zones. Most activity in FTZs involves storage, packaging, and repackaging. Duty-free shops are available only for travelers to non-EU countries. Commercial companies can operate bonded warehouses.
Only legal persons established in the EU can receive authorization to operate a customs warehouse. Investment incentives apply equally to foreign and domestic firms. Over 40 percent of firms in Special Economic Zones are Polish. Exceptions exist in sectors where data are important for national security such as critical telecommunications infrastructure and in gambling.
The cross-border transfer rules in Poland are reasonable and follow international best practices, although some companies have criticized registration requirements as cumbersome. In Poland, the Telecommunications Law Act of 16 July — unified text, Journal of Laws , item includes data retention provisions. The data retention period is 12 months.
In the telecommunication sector, the Office of Electronic Communication UKE ensures telecommunication operators fulfill their obligations. Post is not aware of excessively onerous visa, residence permit or similar requirements inhibiting mobility of foreign investors and their employees, though investors regularly note long processing times due to understaffing at regional employment offices. Both regulatory challenges and administrative delays result in permit processing times of 3 to 12 months.
This affects the hiring of new employees as well as the transfer of existing employees from outside Poland. The problem is especially acute in southern Poland. Generally, Poland does not mandate local employment, but there are a few regulations that place de facto restrictions e. There are also legal limits on foreign ownership of farm and forest lands as outlined in Section 2 of this report under Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment.
Pursuant to the Broadcasting Law, a TV broadcasting company may only receive a license if the voting share of its foreign owners does not exceed 49 percent and if they hold permanent residence in Poland. In the insurance sector, at least two members of management boards, including the chair, must speak Polish. Poland recognizes and enforces secured interests in property, movable and real. The concept of a mortgage exists in Poland, and there is a recognized system of recording such secured interests.
There are two types of publicly available land registers in Poland: the land and mortgage register ksiegi wieczyste , the purpose of which is to register titles to land and encumbrances thereon; and the land and buildings register ewidencja gruntow i budynkow , the function of which is more technical as it contains information concerning physical features of the land, class of land and its use. Generally, real estate in Poland is registered and legal title can be identified on the basis of entries in the land and mortgage registers which are maintained by relevant district courts.
Each register is accessible to the public and excerpts are available on application, subject to a nominal fee. The registers are available online. Poland has a non-discriminatory legal system accessible to foreign investors that protects and facilitates acquisition and disposition of all property rights, including land, buildings, and mortgages. However, foreigners both individuals and entities must obtain a permit to acquire property See Section 1 Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment.
Many investors, foreign and domestic, complain the judicial system is slow in adjudicating property rights cases. Under the Polish Civil Code, a contract to buy real property must be made in the form of a notary deed. Foreign companies and individuals may lease real property in Poland without having to obtain a permit. Widespread nationalization of property during and after World War II has complicated the ability to establish clear title to land in Poland, especially in major municipalities.
While the Polish government has an administrative system for reviewing claims for the restitution of communal property, former individual property owners must file and pursue claims in the Polish court system in order to receive restitution. There is no general statute of limitations regarding the filing or litigation of private property restitution claims, but there are exceptions for specific cases.
For example, in cases involving the communist-era nationalization of Warsaw under the Bierut Decree, there were claims deadlines that have now passed, and under current law, those who did not meet the deadlines would no longer be able to make a claim for either restitution or compensation.
During , Warsaw city authorities continued implementing a Law dubbed the Small Reprivatization Act. This Law aimed to stop the problem of speculators purchasing Warsaw property claims for low values from the original owners or their heirs and then applying for a perpetual usufruct or compensation as the new legal owner. Critics state the law might extinguish potential claims by private individuals of properties seized during World War II or the communist era, if no one comes forward to pursue a restitution claim within the time limit.
Any potential claimants who come forward within six months after publication of the affected property by the City of Warsaw will have an additional three months to establish their claim. The city began publishing lists in and continued to do so during It is sometimes difficult to establish clear title to properties.
There are no comprehensive estimates of land without clear title in Poland. Long-term leases of state-owned farmland are available for farmers looking to expand their operations up to hectares. Foreign investors can and do lease agricultural land. The Agricultural Land Law also imposed restrictions on sales of privately-owned farmland, giving the NCSA preemptive right of purchase. The Agricultural Land Law adversely affected tenants with long-term state-owned land leases. According to the law, leaseholders who did not return 30 percent of the land under lease to NCSA would not be eligible to have their leases extended beyond the current terms of the contract.
Currently, over entities, including U. In June , the Polish parliament amended the Agricultural Land Law to loosen land sale requirements. The amendment increased the size of private agricultural land, from 0. The new owner is not allowed to sell the land for five years. The Law on Forest Land similarly prevents Polish and foreign investors from purchasing privately-held forests and gives state-owned entities Lasy Panstwowe preemptive right to buy privately-held forest land.
Physical piracy e. However, online piracy continues to be widespread despite progress in enforcement, and a popular cyberlocker platform in Poland is included on the Notorious Markets List. Poland does not appear in the U. Polish law requires a rights holder to start the prosecution process. Rights holders express concern that penalties for digital IPR infringement are not high enough to deter violators.
The changes provide new tools to fight against infringement of trademark rights. Member states are required to transpose the reforms into national legislation by June The Ministry of Culture and National Heritage is responsible for drafting and implementing the legislation which has not yet been made available for public consultations. In February , additional amendments to Act on Industrial Property entered into force which adapt Polish standards on inventions to those of the EU so as to streamline and speed up proceedings before the Polish Patent Office.
The amendments to the Act also extend the exemption from patent and trademark renewal fees to support start-up entrepreneurs. The legislation complies with relevant provisions of the European Patent Convention and the Patent Cooperation Treaty. In July , amendments to the Code of Civil Procedure entered into force which, among other things, creates and operationalizes specialized IPR courts. This will replace the current system in which intellectual property matters, including those relating to highly specialized issues such as patents, plant varieties, and trademarks, are examined by commercial departments of common courts.
A specialized court that was previously established within the 22nd Department of the District Court in Warsaw for cases involving EU trademarks and community designs will lose the exclusive competence to deal with those cases and will consider IP claims regarding computer programs, inventions, designs utility, topography of integrated circuits, plant varieties, and trade secrets of a technical nature i. The new rules also require parties in IPR cases to be represented by professional lawyers, legal advisers, and patent attorneys.
The changes represent a positive step for the court system, further contributing to the speed and efficiency of proceedings. See Section 4 — Investment Incentives. Polish customs tracks seizures of counterfeit goods but statistics for the reporting period are currently unavailable.
The Polish regulatory system is effective in encouraging and facilitating portfolio investment. Both foreign and domestic investors may place funds in demand and time deposits, stocks, bonds, futures, and derivatives. Although the Warsaw Stock Exchange WSE is itself a publicly traded company with shares listed on its own exchange after its partial privatization in , the state retains a significant percentage of shares which allows it to control the company.
WSE has become a hub for foreign institutional investors targeting equity investments in the region. In addition to the equity market, Poland has a wholesale market dedicated to the trading of treasury bills and bonds Treasury BondSpot Poland. This treasury market is an integral part of the Primary Dealers System organized by the Finance Ministry and part of the pan-European bond platform.
Wholesale treasury bonds and bills denominated in PLN and some securities denominated in Euros are traded on the Treasury BondSpot market. Non-government bonds are traded on Catalyst, a WSE managed platform. The capital market is a source of funding for Polish companies. While securities markets continue to play a subordinate role to banks in the provision of finance, the need for medium-term financial support for the modernization of the electricity and gas sectors is likely to lead to an increase in the importance of the corporate bond market.
Foreigners may invest in listed Polish shares, but they are subject to some restrictions in buying large packages of shares. Liquidity remains tight on the exchange. The Capital Markets Development Strategy, published in , identifies 20 key barriers and offers 60 solutions. Some key challenges include low levels of savings and investment, insufficient efficiency, transparency and liquidity of many market segments, and lack of taxation incentives for issuers and investors.
The primary aim of the strategy is to improve access of Polish enterprises to financing. The strategy focuses on strengthening trust in the market, improving the protection of individual investors, the stabilization of the regulatory and supervisory environment and the use of competitive new technologies. The strategy is not a law, it sets the direction for further regulatory proposals. Poland is one of the most rigorously supervised capital markets in Europe according to the European Commission.
High-risk venture capital funds are becoming an increasingly important segment of the capital market. The market is still shallow, however, and one major transaction may affect the value of the market in a given year. The funds remain active and Poland is a leader in this respect in Central and Eastern Europe.
Banks can and do lend to foreign and domestic companies. Companies can and do borrow abroad and issue commercial paper, but the market is less robust than in Western European countries or the United States. The Act on Investment Funds allows for open-end, closed-end, and mixed investment funds, and the development of securitization instruments in Poland.
In general, no special restrictions apply to foreign investors purchasing Polish securities. Credit allocation is on market terms. The government maintains some programs offering below-market rate loans to certain domestic groups, such as farmers and homeowners. Foreign investors and domestic investors have equal access to Polish financial markets. Private Polish investment is usually financed from retained earnings and credits, while foreign investors utilize funds obtained outside of Poland as well as retained earnings.
Polish firms raise capital in Poland and abroad. Recent changes in the governance structure of the Polish Financial Supervisory Authority KNF are aimed at increasing cross governmental coordination and a better-targeted response in case of financial shocks, while achieving greater institutional effectiveness through enhanced resource allocation. The banking sector plays a dominant role in the financial system, accounting for about 70 percent of financial sector assets.
The sector is mostly privately owned, with the state controlling about 40 percent of the banking sector and the biggest insurance company. Poland had 30 locally incorporated commercial banks at the end of December , according to KNF. The number of locally-incorporated banks has been declining over the last five years. The state owns eight banks.
Over the last few years, growing capital requirements, lower prospects for profit generation and uncertainty about legislation addressing foreign currency mortgages has pushed banks towards mergers and acquisitions. At the end of , the banking sector was overall well capitalized and solid.
The share of non-performing loans is close to the EU average and recently has been falling. In December , non-performing loans were 6. The banking sector is liquid, profitable and major banks are well capitalized, although disparities exist among banks. Profitability increased Nevertheless, profits remain under pressure due to low interest rates, the issue of conversion of Swiss francs mortgage portfolios into PLN, and a special levy on financial institutions 0. The ECJ issued a judgement in October on mortgages in Swiss francs, taking the side of borrowers.
The ECJ annulled the loan agreements, noting an imbalance between the parties and the use of prohibited clauses. An additional financial burden for banks resulted from the necessity to return any additional fees they charged customers who repaid loans ahead of schedule.
Since , the Polish government established an active campaign aiming to increase the market share of national financial institutions. The State controls around 40 percent of total assets, including the two largest banks in Poland. These two lenders control about one third of the market. Rating agencies warn that an increasing state share in the banking sector might impact competitiveness and profits in the entire financial sector. There is concern that lending decisions at state-owned banks could come under political pressure.
Only individuals who earn salaries denominated in these currencies continue to enjoy easy access to loans in foreign currencies. In , NBP had relationships with 26 commercial and central banks and was not concerned about losing any of them. Poland is not a member of the Eurozone; its currency is the Polish zloty. The current government has shown little desire to adopt the Euro EUR.
Foreign exchange is available through commercial banks and exchange offices. Payments and remittances in convertible currency may be made and received through a bank authorized to engage in foreign exchange transactions, and most banks have authorization. Foreign investors have not complained of significant difficulties or delays in remitting investment returns such as dividends, return of capital, interest and principal on private foreign debt, lease payments, royalties, or management fees.
Foreign currencies can be freely used for settling accounts. Except in limited cases which require a permit, foreigners may convert or transfer currency to make payments abroad for goods or services and may transfer abroad their shares of after-tax profit from operations in Poland. In general, foreign investors may freely withdraw their capital from Poland, however, the November tax bill included an exit tax. Full repatriation of profits and dividend payments is allowed without obtaining a permit.
A Polish company including a Polish subsidiary of a foreign company , however, must pay withholding taxes to Polish tax authorities on distributable dividends unless a double taxation treaty is in effect, which is the case for the United States. Changes to the withholding tax in the tax bill increased the bureaucratic burden for some foreign investors see Section 2.
The United States and Poland signed an updated bilateral tax treaty in February that the United States has not yet ratified. As a rule, a company headquartered outside of Poland is subject to corporate income tax on income earned in Poland, under the same rules as Polish companies. An exporter may open foreign exchange accounts in the currency the exporter chooses.
Poland does not prohibit remittance through legal parallel markets utilizing convertible negotiable instruments such as dollar-denominated Polish bonds in lieu of immediate payment in dollars. As a practical matter, such payment methods are rarely, if ever, used. PFR is an umbrella organization pooling resources of several governmental agencies and departments, including EU funds.
A strategy for the Fund was adopted in September , and it was registered in February The PFR operates as a group of state-owned banks and insurers, investment bodies, and promotion agencies. Various actors within the organization can invest through acquisition of shares, through direct financing, seed funding, and co-financing venture capital. Depending on the instruments, PFR expects different rates of return.
The group will have one common strategy. The introduction of new legal solutions will increase the efficiency and availability of financial and consulting instruments. An almost four-fold increase in the share capital will enable PFR to significantly increase the scale of investment in innovation and infrastructure and will help Polish companies expand into foreign markets.
USD 2 billion directly or through managed funds. PFR, together with the support of other partners, has implemented investment projects with a total value of PLN USD 6. The most significant transactions carried out together with state-controlled insurance company PZU S. The amendment expands the competences of PFR so that it can more efficiently support businesses in the face of the coronavirus epidemic.
State-owned enterprises SOEs exist mainly in the defense, energy, transport, banking and insurance sectors. The main Warsaw stock index is dominated by state-controlled companies. Since the Law and Justice government came to power in , there has been a considerable increase in turnover in managerial positions of state-owned companies although this has also occurred in previous changes of government, but to a lesser degree and increased focus on building national champions in strategic industries to be able to compete internationally.
SOEs are governed by a board of directors and most pay an annual dividend to the government, as well as prepare and disclose annual reports. The government sees SOEs as drivers and leaders of its innovation policy agenda. For example, several energy SOEs established a company to develop electro mobility. The performance of SOEs has remained strong overall and broadly similar to that of private companies.
International evidence suggests, however, that a dominant role of SOEs can pose fiscal, financial, and macro-stability risks. As of April , there were over companies in partnership with state authorities. Among them there are companies under bankruptcy proceedings and in liquidation and in which the State Treasury held residual shares.
The Ministry of State Assets, established after the October post-election cabinet reshuffle, has control over enterprises. Their aggregate value reaches several dozens of billions of Polish zlotys. Among these companies are the largest chemical, energy, and mining groups; firms in the banking and insurance sectors; the Warsaw Stock Exchange; Poczta Polska the national postal operator ; and transport companies.
Supervision over defense industry companies has been shifted from the Ministry of Defense to the Ministry of State Assets. The value of stock owned by the state in publicly-held companies, many of which are the biggest companies in their sectors, was worth over PLN billion USD 30 billion in The same standards are generally applied to private and public companies with respect to access to markets, credit, and other business operations such as licenses and supplies.
Government officials occasionally exercise discretionary authority to assist SOEs. In general, SOEs are expected to pay their own way, finance their operations, and fund further expansion through profits generated from their own operations. On February 21, , an amendment to the Act on the principles of management of state-owned property was adopted, which provides for the establishment of a new public special-purpose fund — the Capital Investment Fund.
The Fund is a source of financing for the purchase and subscription of shares in companies. A commission for the reform of corporate governance was established on February 10, , by the Minister of State Assets. In April , it announced plans to tighten rules regarding takeovers of Polish companies by investors from outside the European Union.
In Poland, the same rules apply to SOEs and publicly-listed companies unless statutes provide otherwise. The state exercises its influence through its rights as a shareholder in proportion to the number of voting shares it holds or through shareholder proxies. In some non-strategic companies, the state exercises special rights as a result of its majority ownership but not as a result of any specific strategic interest. State representatives who sit on supervisory boards must comply with the Commercial Companies Code and are expected to act in the best interests of the company and its shareholders.
SOEs are subject to a series of additional disclosure requirements above those set forth in the Company Law. The supervising ministry prepares specific guidelines on annual financial reporting to explain and clarify these requirements.
In practice, detailed reporting data for non-listed SOEs is not easily accessible. State representatives to supervisory boards must go through examinations to be able to apply for a board position. The law creates mechanisms to protect against hostile takeovers of companies operating in strategic sectors gas, power generation, chemical, petrochemical and defense sectors of the Polish economy see Section 2 on Investment Screening , most of which are SOEs or state-controlled.
In , the government plans to introduce new legislation preventing hostile take overs. The SOE governance law of with subsequent amendments is being implemented gradually. A few sector-specific ministries e. The Polish government has completed the privatization of most of the SOEs it deems not to be of national strategic importance. With few exceptions, the Polish government has invited foreign investors to participate in major privatization projects.
In general, privatization bidding criteria have been clear and the process transparent. The government intends to keep majority share ownership of these firms, or to sell tranches of shares in a manner that maintains state control. The government is currently focused on consolidating and improving the efficiency of the remaining SOEs.
The Ordinance of the Minister of Investment and Development of May 10, , established working groups responsible for sustainable development and corporate social responsibility. Experts cooperate within 5 working groups: 1 Innovation for CSR and sustainable development; 2 Business and human rights; 3 Sustainable production and consumption; 4 Socially responsible administration, and 5 Socially responsible universities.
In , on the initiative of the then existent Ministry of Economic Development, a partnership was established for the translation into Polish of the Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector. The parties involved included representatives of the business sector, industry organizations and NGOs.
The Polish version of the Guidelines was announced on June 29, The document, available on the OECD NCP website , is a practical tool explaining how to implement the principles of due diligence, taking into account risks related to child labor, forced labor, water use, hazardous waste, etc.
Sharing experience in the field of integration of social and environmental factors in everyday business activities helps build credibility and transparency of the Polish market. For example, there is a provision for reserved contracts, where the contracting authority may limit competition for sheltered workshops and other economic operators whose activities include social and professional integration of people belonging to socially marginalized groups.
Research shows that sustainability and CSR are increasingly translating into consumer choices in Poland. According to SW Research for Stena Recycling, nearly 70 percent of Poles would like their favorite products to come from sustainable production and are willing to switch to more sustainably produced products. Starting in , approximately Polish companies were required to publish a non-financial information statement alongside their business activity report.
USD 30 million , or gross earnings from the sale of commodities and products for the fiscal year amount to at least PLN million approx. USD 46 million. Many companies voluntarily compile CSR activity reports based on international reporting standards. In total, the report contains 1, practices reported by companies. Examples of activities include activities related to reducing the consumption of plastic, a circular economy, conservation of biodiversity, environmental education, and counteracting the climate crisis.
Investors can obtain information about the Guidelines and their implementation through Regional Investor Assistance Centers. The primary extractive industries in Poland are coal and copper mining. Onshore, there is also hydrocarbon extraction, primarily conventional natural gas, with limited exploration for shale gas. The Polish government exercises legal authority and receives revenues from the extraction of natural resources and from infrastructure related to extractive industries such as oil and gas pipelines through a concessions-granting system, and in most cases through shareholder rights in state-owned enterprises.
The Polish government has two revenue streams from natural resources: 1 from concession licenses; and 2 from corporate taxes on the concession holders. License and tax requirements apply equally to both state-owned and private companies. Natural resources are brought to market through market-based mechanisms by both state-owned enterprises and private companies.
Poland has laws, regulations, and penalties aimed at combating corruption of public officials and counteracting conflicts of interest. Anti-corruption laws extend to family members of officials and to members of political parties who are members of parliament.
There are also anti-corruption laws regulating the finances of political parties. According to a local NGO, an increasing number of companies are implementing voluntary internal codes of ethics. The Finance Ministry administers tax collection and is responsible for denying the tax deductibility of bribes.
Reports of alleged corruption most frequently appear in connection with government contracting and the issuance of a regulation or permit that benefits a particular company. Allegations of corruption by customs and border guard officials, tax authorities, and local government officials show a decreasing trend.
If such corruption is proven, it is usually punished. Overall, U. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act FCPA is effective in building a reputation for good corporate governance and that doing so is not an impediment to profitable operations in Poland. Polish law classifies the payment of a bribe to a foreign official as a criminal offense, the same as if it were a bribe to a Polish official. At its March meeting, the OECD Working Group on Bribery urged Poland to make progress on carrying out key recommendations that remain unimplemented more than four years after its Phase 3 evaluation in June The Public Integrity Program of the Batory Foundation, which served as a non-governmental watchdog organization, has been incorporated into a broader operational program ForumIdei run by the Foundation.
Contact information for Batory Foundation is: batory batory. Poland is a politically stable country. Constitutional transfers of power are orderly. The last presidential elections took place in June and parliamentary elections took place in October ; observers considered both elections free and fair.
Local elections took place in October Elections to the European Parliament took place in May The next parliamentary elections are scheduled for the fall of There have been no confirmed incidents of politically motivated violence toward foreign investment projects in recent years. Poland has neither insurgent groups nor belligerent neighbors.
The Overseas Private Investment Corporation OPIC provides political risk insurance for Poland but it is not frequently used, as competitive private sector financing and insurance are readily available. Poland has a well-educated, skilled labor force.
Productivity, however, remains below OECD averages but is rising rapidly and unit costs are competitive. USD 1, per month compared to 4, approx. USD 1, in the last quarter of Eurostat measured total Polish unemployment at 2. GUS reports unemployment rates differently and tends to be higher than Eurostat figures. Unemployment varied substantially among regions: the highest rate was 8. Unemployment was lowest in major urban areas. Polish workers are usually eager to work for foreign companies, in Poland and abroad.
Under the revised procedure, local authorities may verify if potential employers have actual job positions for potential foreign workers. The law also authorizes local authorities to refuse declarations from employers with a history of abuse, as well as to ban employers previously convicted of human trafficking from hiring foreign workers.
The January revision also introduced a new type of work permit for foreign workers, the so-called seasonal work permit, which allow for legal work up to nine months in agriculture, horticulture, tourism and similar industries. Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Policy statistics show that during , , seasonal work permits of this type were issued, of which , went to Ukrainians.
Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Policy statistics also show that in , , thousand Ukrainians received work permits, compared with , in Polish companies suffer from a shortage of qualified workers. According to a report by the Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Policy, several industries suffer shortages, including the construction, manufacturing, and transportation industries. The most sought-after workers in the construction industry include concrete workers, steel fixers, carpenters, and bricklayers.
Manufacturing companies seek welders, woodworkers, machinery operators, locksmiths, electricians, and electromechanical engineers. Employment has expanded in service industries such as information technology, manufacturing, and administrative and support service activities. The business process outsourcing industry in Poland has experienced dynamic growth. The state-owned sector employs about a quarter of the work force, although employment in coal mining and steel are declining.
Since , the minimum retirement age for men has been 65, and 60 for women. Labor laws differentiate between layoffs and dismissal for cause firing. In the case of layoffs when workers are dismissed for economic reasons in companies which employ more than 20 employees , employers are required to offer severance pay. In the case of dismissal for cause, the labor law does not require severance pay.
Most workers hired under labor contracts have the legal right to establish and join independent trade unions and to bargain collectively. In January , the revised law on trade unions entered into force, which expanded the right to form a union to persons who entered into an employment relationship based on a civil law contract and to persons who were self-employed.
Trade union influence is declining, though unions remain powerful among miners, shipyard workers, government employees, and teachers. The Polish labor code outlines employee and employer rights in all sectors, both public and private, and has been gradually revised to adapt to EU standards. However, employers tend to use temporary and contract workers for jobs that are not temporary in nature.
Employers also tend to use civil instead of labor contracts because of ease of hiring and firing, even in situations where work performed meets all the requirements of a regular labor contract. Polish law requires equal pay for equal work and equal treatment with respect to signing labor contracts, employment conditions, promotion, and access to training. The law defines equal treatment as nondiscrimination in any way, directly or indirectly on the grounds of gender, age, disability, race, religion, nationality, political opinion, ethnic origin, denomination, sexual orientation, whether or not the person is employed temporarily or permanently, full time or part time.
The Law on Conflict Resolution defines the mechanism for labor dispute resolution. It consists of four stages: first, the employer is obliged to conduct negotiations with employees; the second stage is a mediation process, including an independent mediator; if an agreement is not reached through mediation, the third stage is arbitration, which takes place at the regional court; the fourth stage of conflict resolution is a strike.
However, there are several gaps in enforcing these standards, including legal restrictions on the rights of workers to form and join independent unions. Cumbersome procedures make it difficult for workers to meet all of the technical requirements for a legal strike. The law prohibits collective bargaining for key civil servants, appointed or elected employees of state and municipal bodies, court judges, and prosecutors. There were some limitations with respect to identification of victims of forced labor.
Despite prohibitions against discrimination with respect to employment or occupation, such discrimination occurs. Authorities do not consistently enforce minimum wage, hours of work, and occupational health and safety, either in the formal or informal sectors. According to labor unions, however, the NLI does not have adequate tools to hold violators accountable and the small fines imposed as punishment are an ineffective deterrent to most employers. Poland is not eligible for DFC programs outside of energy infrastructure projects.
An annual FDI report and data are published at the end of the following year. These are the ones I have been attempting myself. As with everything, practise makes perfect and in time, with more confidence I will attempt the others. One small omission from the book is that maybe there could have been the letters for which picking finger to use on which note.
I have seen this on other music and believe that this could be a great help to someone just starting to learn finger picking. Personally, this is a good introduction to another form of playing and will be frequently returning to the book Lambert 4. Reviewed in the United States on March 9, Ok I've not been playing ukulele for very long, just about 12 months, and mostly strumming chords, but have been dying to getting into something a little more intricate and this has really pushed my buttons.
I went onto a couple of sites to clearly understand Tablature, i dont read music so recommended, and though slow at first some really lovely tunes are coming out. The tabs are clear and the easy ones are marked with an asterix about ten of 'em. So if your looking to step up from strumming with some lovely arrangements this will do nicely. Good job Ryan, i'm checking out your other titles.
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on October 8, Verified Purchase With a lot less ego and a bit more effort this could have been a fantastic book. As it stands it isn't. On the plus side, the music is clearly printed and very easy to read.
Pretty much everything else is on the downside. I don't know whether one should draw any conclusions from the fact that the author has to date only posted one YouTube video see comments in other reviews of a tune from this book and it's a faltering, snail's-pace rendition of the easiest tune in the book.
Shame, this would have been very helpful. All in all? Handy collection of easy to read tunes for not a lot of money - provided that you don't mind re-doing a lot of the "arrangement" bit yourself. TBF, the regular blank pages are great for notes : Would I recommend it? Read more Report abuse JeffG 5.
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Rob MacKillop. Rebecca Bogart. Only 13 left in stock more on the way. Brent C Robitaille. Ukulele For Dummies. Alistair Wood. Register a free business account. About the Author M. Tell the Publisher! Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now.
Verified Purchase. No Youtube videos of the tunes either, despite going to the website and subscribing to the Youtube channel. I played piano growing up, so I read music. I was happy to receive a complimentary copy of this book; I would have put it on my wish list otherwise. One person found this helpful. This book is a nice little collection of Celtic ditties. This book is well organised and has both ukulele tab and musical notation in clear print.
A good book. I like this book - the tunes are challenging, and even the ones starred as " easy " need a little bit of work for an intermediate player and tab reader, in my opinion. I have been playing the ukulele for some time and needed to get away from just strumming along at my local club. Ok I've not been playing ukulele for very long, just about 12 months, and mostly strumming chords, but have been dying to getting into something a little more intricate and this has really pushed my buttons.
See all reviews. Top reviews from other countries. With a lot less ego and a bit more effort this could have been a fantastic book. Report abuse. Great book. Customers who bought this item also bought. Thomas Balinger. Jim Beloff. Tony Mizen. Pages with related products. See and discover other items: arrangements for guitar. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. Get free delivery with Amazon Prime. Back to top.
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Your partner in shaping the future become a member. What Is Human Capital? Human Capital has honestly changed my career because I have no idea where I would've ended up without Human Capital, but I am super glad I ended up at Clumio. Jennifer Isaza, Anduril Carnegie Mellon ' After being placed into my first job by Human Capital, I had the chance to observe factors contributing to different startups' successes and decided to start my own.
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Working for Anduril has been nothing short of this. Human Capital helped me get to and decide on Brex, which I have no doubt will set me on a differentiated path and in many ways already has. It's probably been one of the best outcomes I could've hoped for based on my decision to join. Overall, my journey with Human Capital has been incredible.
From hearing about it the first time my junior year to managing the ambassador team at CMU to signing with Clumio one year later, I've seen all parts of how Human Capital works. I'm very grateful for the network it has introduced me to all the talented friends I've made from across the country as well as the mentorship and career advice I've personally received. I'm excited to continue to be a part of this community beyond my college experience and to help this community grow as well.
Human Capital does an excellent job pairing college graduates with top-tier, well-funded startups. Their process is very personalized and their partners really want to make sure that your interests are heard and that you are paired with companies that are innovative and full of technical talent. Because people come with a diverse set of skills and knowledge, human capital can certainly help boost the economy. People who participate in the workforce who have higher education will often have larger salaries, which means they will be able to spend more.
Like anything else, human capital is not immune to depreciation. This is often measured in wages or the ability to stay in the workforce. The most common ways human capital can depreciate are through unemployment, injury, mental decline, or the inability to keep up with innovation. Consider an employee who has a specialized skill. If he goes through a long period of unemployment, he may be unable to keep these levels of specialization. That's because his skills may no longer be in demand when he finally reenters the workforce.
Similarly, the human capital of someone may depreciate if he can't or won't adopt new technology or techniques. Conversely, the human capital of someone who does adopt them will. The idea of human capital can be traced back to the 18th century. Adam Smith referred to the concept in his book "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations," in which he explored the wealth, knowledge, training, talents, and experiences for a nation.
Adams suggests that improving human capital through training and education leads to a more profitable enterprise, which adds to the collective wealth of society. According to Smith, that makes it a win for everyone. In more recent times, the term was used to describe the labor required to produce manufactured goods.
But the most modern theory was used by several different economists including Gary Becker and Theodore Schultz , who invented the term in the s to reflect the value of human capacities. Schultz believed human capital was like any other form of capital to improve the quality and level of production. This would require an investment in the education, training and enhanced benefits of an organization's employees. But not all economists agree.
According to Harvard economist Richard Freeman, human capital was a signal of talent and ability. In order for a business to really become productive, he said it needed to train and motivate its employees as well as invest in capital equipment. His conclusion was that human capital was not a production factor. The theory of human capital has received a lot of criticism from many people who work in education and training.
In the s, the theory was attacked primarily because it legitimized bourgeois individualism, which was seen as selfish and exploitative. The bourgeois class of people included those of the middle class who were believed to exploit those of the working class.
The human capital theory was also believed to blame people for any defects that happened in the system and of making capitalists out of workers. Business Essentials. Investing Essentials. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice.
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