Education Trends. For more than 30 years, Education Commission of the States has tracked instructional time and frequently receives requests for information about policies and trends. In this Education Trends report, Education Commission of the States addresses some of the more frequent questions, including the impact of instructional time on achievement, variation….
This deformation, related to the India-Seychelles rifting during Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene, was studied, and the paleostress tensors were deduced. Near N-S trending shear zones, lineaments, and faults were already reported without significant detail. Slickenside-bearing fault planes, brittle shear zones, and extension fractures in meso-scale enabled us to estimate the paleostress tensors directions and relative magnitudes.
The field study was complemented by remote sensing lineament analyses to map dykes and shear zones. This information was used to derive regional paleostress trends. Paleostress analyses indicate that this is an oblique rifted margin. The observed deformation was matched with offshore tectonics deciphered mainly from faults interpreted on seismic profiles and from magnetic seafloor spreading anomalies.
These geophysical findings too indicate oblique rifting in this part of the W Indian passive margin. We argue that the Seychelles microcontinent separated from India only after much of. The present computations are found in good agreement with DSMC and experimental results. The present method provides an efficient way to predict the hypersonic aerodynamics in near-continuum transitional flow regime.
Federal Register , , , , Department of Transportation, Maritime [[Page Skiing trends. A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends , income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing.
Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are Environmental Trends. This document consists of data which highlight trends in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones ; human settlements; transportation;….
TREND Stennis Space Center to facilitate the integration of technology into schools' curriculums by providing innovative and creative classroom strategies using state-of-the-art technology. Historical Trends. Since its establishment in , the National Cancer Institute has served as a scientific cornerstone of the National Institutes of Health.
Find information about the history of NCI appropriations and the Professional Judgment Bypass Budget, as well as data on funding trends and staffing levels. Food Trends. An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population.
Global trends. Megie, G. Measuring trends in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output.
Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth.
The various observational methods relevant to trend detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term trends or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric temperature, source gases and aerosols. We discuss the influence of atomic scale roughness of the interface on the properties of the N-S contact systems. To treat the interface roughness effects we extend our previous quasi-classical theory of the rough surface effect and construct a formal solution for the quasi-classical Green's function.
We apply the formulation to N-S systems with two-dimensional anisotropic d x2-y2 superconductor and calculate the self-consistent pair potential and the density of states at the interface. A N-S fossil transform fault reactivated by the March 2, Mw7. The Mw7. Next, the rupture direction of the earthquake was further determined using the rupture directivity analysis to P-waves from the global seismic network GSN.
Finally, we inverting these GSN waveforms on a defined N-S striking vertical fault for a kinematic source model. The results show that the earthquake reactivates a degree N-S striking vertical fossil transform fault and asymmetrically bilaterally ruptures a 65 km by 30 km asperity over 35 s.
Specifically, the earthquake first bilaterally ruptures northward and southward at a speed of 1. Wysession, M. Analyses of seismicity and seismic structure within Madagascar suggest the current occurrence of crustal extension, which may be related to continental rifting associated with a diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle tectonic plates. Madagascar has participated in two major rifting events as part of the break-up of Gondwana: the break-away of Greater India Madagascar, India, the Seychelles away from mainland Africa during the Jurassic and the break-away of India from Madagascar during the Cretaceous.
Seismic activity and the structures obtained from it, using data from the 2-year MACOMO project, suggest that this break-up may not be finished, and that continental rifts may be developing again. There are fairly high levels of intraplate seismicity within Madagascar: over events located during the 22 months of the deployment.
For comparison, a 2-year deployment of seismometers within the upper Midwest of the U. While the Madagascar seismicity occurs across the island, it is strongly concentrated in the central region, where Cenozoic volcanism has occurred through the Holocene, and earthquakes align along N-S-trending lineations associated with N-S-trending pull-apart graben structures.
Normal faulting is not observed everywhere on the island, however; seismicity in the north is largely strike-slip, and seismicity in the south appears to be largely reverse faulting. Several studies have suggested that the diffuse boundary between the Somalia and Lwandle plates runs roughly E-W across Madagascar.
Extensional faulting seems to predominate only within central Madagascar, likely associated with the current volcanic activity, which also appears to be associated with the. Nutrient homeostasis, C: N:S ratios, protein, and oil content in Cuphea seed. Macro- and micro-nutrient densities, carbon:nitrogen C:N , nitrogen:sulphur N:S , protein, and oil contents and interrelationships were assessed during a 3-year study in seeds of the indeterminate Cuphea germplasm line PSR23 selected from an inter-specific cross between two species of the Lythrace Diploma R.
Need for additional college education or career change is becoming common for registered nurses who are graduates of hospital diploma programs. This creates challenges for career planning and placement professionals, including counseling of R. With regard to experiments on the effects of high-power microwave radiation on the current-voltage IV characteristics of superconducting films, their classification was performed and the families of IV curves of inhomogeneous superconductors carrying a current containing a high-frequency component of large amplitude.
Several IV curves exhibited a hysteresis of thermal nature. The model predicts the onset and accumulation of transverse matrix cracks in uniformly stressed laminates, the effect of matrix cracks on the stiffness of the laminate, as well as the ultimate failure of the laminate. The model also accounts for the effect of the ply thickness on the ply strength. Predictions relating the elastic properties of several laminates and multiaxial loads are presented.
However, corresponding vibrational modes for these conformers show only small shifts which would not allow confidently detecting the rather small contribution of this second form in the experimental spectra. In this work, we investigate an innovative process for doping graphene nanostructures. We optimize a novel synthetic route based on aerosol preparation, which allows the simultaneous doping, crumpling, and reduction of graphene oxide GO.
In the aerosol process, every aerosol droplet can be considered as a microreactor where dopant precursors undergo thermal decomposition and react with the GO flakes. Simultaneously, thanks to the relatively high temperature, GO undergoes crumpling and partial reduction. Using a combination of spectroscopic and microscopic characterization techniques, we investigate the morphology of the obtained materials and the chemical nature of the dopants within the crumpled graphene sheets.
This study highlights the versatility of the aerosol process for the design of new CMG materials with tailored electrocatalytic properties. Dissociative Functions in the Normal Mourning Process. Sees dissociative functions in mourning process as occurring in conjunction with integrative trends. Considers initial shock reaction in mourning as model of normal dissociation in mourning process.
Dissociation is understood to be related to traumatic significance of death in human consciousness. Discerns four psychological categories of…. Normalized modes at selected points without normalization. Thus, the normalization is the result of an explicit calculation applied to the modes after they were obtained by some means. However, we show herein that the normalized modes are not merely convenient forms of scaling, but that they are actually intrinsic properties of the pair of matrices K , M, that is, the matrices already "know" about normalization even before the modes have been obtained.
This means that we can obtain individual components of the normalized modes directly from the eigenvalue problem, and without needing to obtain either all of the modes or for that matter, any one complete mode. These results are achieved by means of the residue theorem of operational calculus, a finding that is rather remarkable inasmuch as the residues themselves do not make use of any orthogonality conditions or normalization in the first place.
It appears that this obscure property connecting the general eigenvalue problem of modal analysis with the residue theorem of operational calculus may have been overlooked up until now, but which has in turn interesting theoretical implications. We investigated the thermodynamic properties of Heusler compounds Fe2-x C ox m n S i 0.
This means the canting angle of spins from the  direction decreases by the substitution of Fe atoms with Co atoms, based on the magnetic structure model of Fe2MnSi proposed by Miles et al. For compounds with 0. The electronic specific heat coefficient decreases monotonically with x. Childbirth educators need to be aware that the clothes they wear when teaching classes send a nonverbal message to class participants. Regardless of who wears the clothing or what is worn, clothes send a message; thus, both the advantages and disadvantages related to clothing choice should be considered.
Ultimately, the message should reflect the values of supporting normal birth. For childbirth educators who are allowed to choose their own apparel to wear in their classes, street clothes may be the benchmark for which to strive. Preparation of W and N , S -codoped titanium dioxide with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. The nanostructures exhibit a unique composite architecture, with uniformly dispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles and N , S co-doped graphene encapsulant.
Marketing Trends to Watch. This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection. Trends In Satellite Communication. Poley, William A. Report assesses trends in satellite communication from present to year Examines restrictions imposed by limited spectrum resource and technology needs created by trends.
Personal communications, orbiting switchboards, and videophones foreseen. Lung Cancer Trends. Breast Cancer Trends. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds. J Nutr. Trends in Education. Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology.
Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. Porous carbon nanofibers codoped with nitrogen and sulfur NFs were prepared by pyrolysis of trithiocyanuric acid, silica nanospheres and polyacrylonitrile PAN followed by electrospinning.
The stripping peak current typically measured at 0. Visual Memories Bypass Normalization. How distinct are visual memory representations from visual perception? Although evidence suggests that briefly remembered stimuli are represented within early visual cortices, the degree to which these memory traces resemble true visual representations remains something of a mystery. Here, we tested whether both visual memory and perception succumb to a seemingly ubiquitous neural computation: normalization.
Observers were asked to remember the contrast of visual stimuli, which were pitted against each other to promote normalization either in perception or in visual memory. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores-neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs.
These results provide unique insight into the nature of visual memory representations, illustrating that visual memory representations follow a different set of computational rules, bypassing normalization , a canonical visual computation. Our results revealed robust normalization between visual representations in perception, yet no signature of normalization occurring between working memory stores—neither between representations in memory nor between memory representations and visual inputs.
The preparation of elementary school teachers in the middle and late 19th century increasingly included city normal training schools. The city school board of Akron, Ohio, reflected this trend and established its own normal training school in This paper documents the preservice training of teachers within the city training school, the….
Preparation and enhanced daylight-induced photocatalytic activity of C, N,S -tridoped titanium dioxide powders. A simple method for preparing highly daylight-induced photoactive nanocrystalline C, N,S -tridoped TiO2 powders was developed by a solid-phase reaction. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde under daylight irradiation in air.
The results show that daylight-induced photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared TiO2 powders were improved by C, N,S -tridoping. The C, N,S -tridoped TiO2 powders exhibited stronger absorption in the near UV and visible-light region with red shift in the band-gap transition. The high activities of the C, N,S -tridoped TiO2 can be attributed to the results of the synergetic effects of strong absorption in the near UV and visible-light region, red shift in adsorption edge and two phase structures of un-doped TiO2 and C, N,S -tridoped TiO2.
NASA trend analysis procedures. This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action.
Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types.
Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Ferri FF. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; chap Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Regional Kendall test for trend. Trends in environmental variables are often investigated within a study region at more than one site. At each site, a trend analysis determines whether a trend has occurred.
Yet often also of interest is whether a consistent trend is evident throughout the entire region. This paper adapts the Seasonal Kendall trend test to determine whether a consistent regional trend occurs in environmental variables. The N. Savannah program for testing, start-up, and initial operation of all reactor and propulsion components and systems is discussed. Definitions of test phases are given and various stages of the test program are outlined.
A list of tests for the various reactor, propulsion, and other system components is included. Smooth quantile normalization. Between-sample normalization is a critical step in genomic data analysis to remove systematic bias and unwanted technical variation in high-throughput data. Global normalization methods are based on the assumption that observed variability in global properties is due to technical reasons and are unrelated to the biology of interest.
For example, some methods correct for differences in sequencing read counts by scaling features to have similar median values across samples, but these fail to reduce other forms of unwanted technical variation. Methods such as quantile normalization transform the statistical distributions across samples to be the same and assume global differences in the distribution are induced by only technical variation. However, it remains unclear how to proceed with normalization if these assumptions are violated, for example, if there are global differences in the statistical distributions between biological conditions or groups, and external information, such as negative or control features, is not available.
Here, we introduce a generalization of quantile normalization , referred to as smooth quantile normalization qsmooth , which is based on the assumption that the statistical distribution of each sample should be the same or have the same distributional shape within biological groups or conditions, but allowing that they may differ between groups. We illustrate the advantages of our method on several high-throughput datasets with global differences in distributions corresponding to different biological conditions.
We also perform a Monte Carlo simulation study to illustrate the bias-variance tradeoff and root mean squared error of qsmooth compared to other global normalization methods. Trends Shaping Education To make the content accessible, each trend is presented on a double page, containing an introduction, two charts with brief descriptive text and a set of…. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting.
Table 2 shows the example pattern of classifying context pattern feature Table 2 Context. Trends in methodological differences. Inconsistency in data collection has confounded attempts to identify and forecast outdoor recreation trends. Problems are highlighted through an evaluation of the methods employed in national outdoor recreation participation surveys and projections.
Recommendations are advanced for improving data collection, trend measurement, and forecasting within outdoor recreation General Achievement Trends : Alabama. Included herein are: 1 Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement trends in that state at three performance….
Some Current Population Trends. Population trends in the 's and early 's are examined in this speech in terms of overall national trends , the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 's was unevenly distributed within age….
Supervised normalization of microarrays. It is intuitively clear that true biological signal and confounding factors need to be simultaneously considered when performing normalization. However, the most popular normalization approaches do not utilize what is known about the study, both in terms of the biological variables of interest and the known technical factors in the study, such as batch or array processing date.
Results: We show here that failing to include all study-specific biological and technical variables when performing normalization leads to biased downstream analyses. We propose a general normalization framework that fits a study-specific model employing every known variable that is relevant to the expression study. The proposed method is generally applicable to the full range of existing probe designs, as well as to both single-channel and dual-channel arrays.
We show through real and simulated examples that the method has favorable operating characteristics in comparison to some of the most highly used normalization methods. Contact: jstorey princeton. Normalization of satellite imagery. Sets of Thematic Mapper TM imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects.
Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.
Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves. Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge Q and suspended-sediment concentration C , are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form i.
Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: i How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.
Normals to a Parabola. Normal Psychosexual Development. Normal sexual development is reviewed with respect to physical maturation, sexual interests, sex drive", psychosexual competence and maturity, gender role, object choice, children's concepts of sexual differences, sex role preference and standards, and psychosexual stages.
Biologic, psychoanalytic and psychosocial theories are briefly considered. Normal Birth: Two Stories. The author shares two stories: one of a normal birth that took place in a hospital with a nurse-midwife in attendance and another of a home birth unexpectedly shared by many colleagues.
Both are told with the goal to inform, inspire, and educate. The Normal Fetal Pancreas. The aim of the study was to assess the sonographic feasibility of measuring the fetal pancreas and its normal development throughout pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study between 19 and 36 weeks' gestation. The study included singleton pregnancies with normal pregnancy follow-up.
The pancreas circumference was measured. The first 90 cases were tested to assess feasibility. Two hundred ninety-seven fetuses of nondiabetic mothers were recruited during a 3-year period. The overall satisfactory visualization rate was The intraobserver and interobserver variability had high interclass correlation coefficients of of 0. This database can be helpful when investigating fetomaternal disorders that can involve its normal development. Statokinesigram normalization method.
Stabilometry is a technique that aims to study the body sway of human subjects, employing a force platform. The signal obtained from this technique refers to the position of the foot base ground-reaction vector, known as the center of pressure CoP. The parameters calculated from the signal are used to quantify the displacement of the CoP over time; there is a large variability, both between and within subjects, which prevents the definition of normative values.
The intersubject variability is related to differences between subjects in terms of their anthropometry, in conjunction with their muscle activation patterns biomechanics ; and the intrasubject variability can be caused by a learning effect or fatigue. Age and foot placement on the platform are also known to influence variability. Normalization is the main method used to decrease this variability and to bring distributions of adjusted values into alignment.
In , O'Malley proposed three normalization techniques to eliminate the effect of age and anthropometric factors from temporal-distance parameters of gait. These techniques were adopted to normalize the stabilometric signal by some authors. This paper proposes a new method of normalization of stabilometric signals to be applied in balance studies.
The method was applied to a data set collected in a previous study, and the results of normalized and nonnormalized signals were compared. The results showed that the new method, if used in a well-designed experiment, can eliminate undesirable correlations between the analyzed parameters and the subjects' characteristics and show only the experimental conditions' effects. Regional and State Trends. This page outlines how the ROE focuses on national-level indicators and also presents indicators at sub-national e.
Recent Trends in Geography. This article reports on current trends in geography instruction in Australia. It appeals for greater cooperation between "academic geographers" and geography teachers in the secondary schools.
Concludes by voicing concern for improved geography instruction in the coming decade. Healthy food trends -- microgreens. Look near the lettuce for packages of greens The datasets correspond to integrated luminosities of about 31 nb —1 pPb and 5. Development of high efficient visible light-driven N , S -codoped TiO2 nanowires photocatalysts. One-dimensional 1D nanowire material especially nonmetal doped 1D nanowires synthesized by a facile way is of great significance and greatly desired as it has higher charge carrier mobility and lower carrier recombination rate.
N , S -codoped TiO2 nanowires were synthesized using titanium sulfate as a precursor and isopropanol as a protective capping agent by a hydrothermal route. The incorporation of N and S into TiO2 NWs can lead to the expansion of its lattice and remarkably lower its electron-transfer resistance. Ozone Trend Detectability.
The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: 1 the level at which a trend in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and 2 empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone.
Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact trend detectability, are discussed. Evaluation of the ASOS impact on climatic normals and assessment of variable-length time periods in calculation of normals. The next update will take place in year Because of the advent of the Automated Surface Observations Systems ASOS beginning in early s and recognized temperature bias between ASOS and the conventional temperature sensors there is an uncertainty of how the ASOS data should be used to calculate the temperature normal.
This study examined the uncertainty and offered a method to minimize it. It showed that the ASOS bias has a measurable impact on the new year temperature normal. The impact varies among stations and climate regions. Some stations with a cooling trend in ASOS temperature have a cooler normal for their temperature, while others with a warming trend have a warmer normal for temperature.
This study also evaluated temperature normals for different length periods and compared them to the year normal. It showed that the difference between the normals , is smaller in maritime climate than in continental temperate climate. In the former, the six- year normal describes a similar temperature variation as the year normal does.
In the latter, the year normal starts to resemble the temperature variation that the year normal describes. These results provide a theoretical basis for applying different normals in different regions. The study further compared temperature normal for different periods and identified a seasonal shift in climate change in the southwestern U. Teaching Normal Birth Interactively. In this column, the author provides examples of teaching strategies that childbirth educators may utilize to illustrate each of the six care practices supported by Lamaze International to promote normal birth: labor begins on its own, freedom of movement throughout labor, continuous labor support, no routine interventions, non-supine e.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus NPH or, more precisely, chronic adult hydrocephalus, is a complex condition. Even if the basic mechanism is found in an impediment to CSF absorption, the underlying pathology is heterogeneous. In secondary NPH, the disruption of normal CSF pathways, following meningitis or sub-arachnoid haemorrhage, is responsible for ventricular dilatation. However, in about half of the cases, the etiology remains obscure.
NPH is more frequently found in elderly people, probably in relation with the increased incidence of cerebrovascular disease. The diagnosis of NPH is based upon a triad of clinical symptoms. The main symptom is gait disturbances, followed by urinary incontinence and various degree of cognitive changes. The latter two symptoms are not prerequisites for the diagnosis. Radiological ventricular dilatation without cortical sulcal enlargement is a key factor, as well as substantial clinical improvement after CSF withdrawal CSF tap test.
Other CSF dynamic studies and various imaging investigations have been proposed to improve diagnostic accuracy, but no simple test can predict the results of CSF drainage. The current treatment is ventriculo-peritonial shunting, ideally using an adjustable valve. Results are directly dependent upon the accuracy of the preoperative diagnosis.
Exploring cost-effective, high-performance and durable non-precious metal catalysts is of great significance for the acceleration of sluggish oxygen reduction reaction ORR. Here, we report an intriguing heteroatom-doped graphitized carbon encased Fe species composite by introducing N , S and B sequentially.
Ordinal data appear in a wide variety of scientific fields. These data are often analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models that assume proportional odds. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values Peterson and Harrell, We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, where the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points.
We demonstrate algebraically and graphically how this model is related to latent logistic, normal , and exponential distributions. In particular, we find that scale changes in these potential latent distributions are consistent with the trend odds assumption, with the logistic and exponential distributions having odds that increase in a linear or nearly linear fashion.
We show how to fit this model using SAS Proc Nlmixed, and perform simulations under proportional odds and trend odds processes. We find that the added complexity of the trend odds model gives improved power over the proportional odds model when there are moderate to severe departures from proportionality. A hypothetical dataset is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a Swine Influenza example where the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated.
The trend odds model for ordinal data. When this assumption is not met, it may be possible to capture the lack of proportionality using a constrained structural relationship between the odds and the cut-points of the ordinal values. We consider a trend odds version of this constrained model, wherein the odds parameter increases or decreases in a monotonic manner across the cut-points.
A hypothetical data set is used to illustrate the interpretation of the trend odds model, and we apply this model to a swine influenza example wherein the proportional odds assumption appears to be violated. Trends in source gases. Ehhalt, D. Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane.
Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form. Normal Untreated Jurkat Cells. Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues.
Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. The objective of the research was to define a way to differentiate between effects due to microgravity and those due to possible stress from non-optimal spaceflight conditions. These Jurkat cells, a human acute T-cell leukemia was obtained to evaluate three types of potential experimental stressors: a Temperature elevation; b Serum starvation; and c Centrifugal force.
The data from previous spaceflight experiments showed that actin filaments and cell shape are significantly different for the control. These normal cells serve as the baseline for future spaceflight experiments. Predicting normal tissue radiosensitivity. Two methods of predicting normal cell radiosensitivity were investigated in different patient groups.
Residual DNA double strand breaks were measured in normal epidermal fibroblasts following Gy. Pretreatment plasma TGFbeta1 levels were investigated retrospectively in patients with carcinoma of the cervix in relation to tumour control and late morbidity following radiotherapy.
Plasma TGFbeta1 levels increased with increasing disease stage. They also correlated with two other known measures of tumour burden i. Elevated pretreatment plasma TGFbeta1 levels predicted for a poor outcome both in terms of local control and overall survival. Plasma TGF? In conclusion pre-treatment plasma TGFbeta1 levels predict for tumour burden and tumour outcome in patients with carcinoma of the cervix. Changes in plasma TGFbeta1 levels measured prospectively may predict for radiation morbidity and should be investigated.
A prospective study was undertaken in patients with carcinoma of the head and neck region. Changes in plasma TGFbeta1 levels between the start and the end of a course of radical radiotherapy were investigated in relation to the development of acute radiation toxicity. Patients were categorised according to the pattern of response of their TGFbeta1 levels over the course of their treatment.
Those patients whose TGFbeta1 levels decreased, but did not normalise during radiotherapy were assigned to category 2. The positive predictive. Total ozone trends over the USA during from Dobson spectrophotometer observations. Komhyr, Walter D. Results are based on provisional data archived routinely throughout the years at the World Ozone Data Center in Toronto, Canada, with calibration corrections applied to some of the data.
Trends through exhibit values of minus 0. With the addition of data, however, the trends become less negative, indicating that ozone increased in many parts of the world during Stations located within the plus or minus 20 deg N-S latitude band exhibit no ozone trends.
Early data show decreased ozone values at some of the stations. At South Pole, Antarctica, October ozone values have remained low during the past 3 years. Cohort studies can be biased by unmeasured confounding. We propose a hybrid ecologic-epidemiologic design called the trend-in-trend design, which requires a strong time trend in exposure, but is unbiased unless there are unmeasured factors affecting outcome for which there are time trends in prevalence that are correlated with time trends in exposure across strata with different exposure trends.
Thus, the conditions under which the trend-in-trend study is biased are a subset of those under which a cohort study is biased. The trend-in-trend design first divides the study population into strata based on the cumulative probability of exposure given covariates, which effectively stratifies on time trend in exposure, provided there is a trend.
Next, a covariates-free maximum likelihood model estimates the odds ratio OR using data on exposure prevalence and outcome frequency within cumulative probability of exposure strata, across multiple periods. In simulations, the trend-in-trend design produced ORs with negligible bias in the presence of unmeasured confounding. In empiric applications, trend-in-trend reproduced the known positive association between rofecoxib and myocardial infarction observed OR: 1.
The trend-in-trend method may be useful in settings where there is a strong time trend in exposure, such as a newly approved drug or other medical intervention. Trends in Delaware's Forests. Forests protect watersheds, provide opportunities for recreation and settings for aesthetic enjoyment, serve as habitat for wildlife, and produce wood and other forest products.
The forests of Delaware contribute greatly to the quality of life of the residents, making the State a better place in which to live. This brochure highlights significant trends in Delaware? Trend Analysis Using Microcomputers. A trend analysis statistical package and additional programs for the Apple microcomputer are presented.
They illustrate strategies of data analysis suitable to the graphics and processing capabilities of the microcomputer. The programs analyze data sets using examples of: 1 analysis of variance with multiple linear regression; 2 exponential….
Nanotechnology has had a great impact on science, technology, and society since , and its applications in medicine are also progressing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this review, international trends in nanomedicine regulation are introduced, including the definition of nanomedicines and the evaluation of liposomes and iron nanoparticles. Trends in College Degrees. Charts depict trends in bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded by subject between and , with projections to Today's Recruitment Trends.
Five trends in the creation of college student recruitment publications are identified: 1 using market research and marketing principles; 2 targeting specific groups; 3 honesty about campus personality and reputation; 4 cost-effectiveness; and 5 creativity in using effective copy and design.
Iowa Population Trends. The trends in population distribution and the composition of Iowa's population are reported in this document in order to provide the leaders and citizens of Iowa with information to assist them in making decisions relating to growth and development.
Birth and death rates, rural and urban residence, population by race, and age structure are…. Trends in Marketing Services. Trends in service marketing are explored as they relate to strategic vision, operational and organizational changes, and marketing tactics. Discussion includes the need for a market-driven culture, the use of training and incentives, the role of product management, and the significance of "mood.
Five Trends for Schools. The authors look at important demographic trends that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U. Language Trends Secondary. In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages.
Locker Room Design Trends. Examines how today's college and university athletic locker rooms have become sophisticated recruiting tools that rival many professional facilities. Locker room design and location and their level of furniture, finishes, and equipment are discussed as is the trend for more environmentally friendly locker rooms.
Trends in Biomedical Education. An analysis of trends in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Results among others of the survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. Infrared optical manufacturing trends. This paper attempts to inform and educate readers to some of the more recent changes in infrared material pricing and availability along with the impact of optical manufacturing trends and the means by which optical designers, manufacturers and product end-users are using to avoid or eliminate the pitfalls these changes may create.
Evaluation of Project Trend. Trends Reshaping Colleges. Discusses the top three critical issues presented: the needs…. Trends in camping participation. Several years ago the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station began a long-term study of per-capita camping participation. The objectives of the research were to identify campers with increasing or decreasing camping participation and to determine the causes of those trends. Outdoor recreation participation trends.
As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends , the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. Recent demographic trends in Albania are reviewed. The author notes that rapid population growth persists due to continuing fertility, although the fertility rate has begun to decline during the past 20 years.
Controls placed on internal migration have succeeded in restricting the growth of the urban population and have contributed to the sustained growth of the population in rural areas. Technological trends in automobiles. Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines.
Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts. Marketing for Camp Trends. To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability.
Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…. Travel and tourism trends. Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations.
Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities. The Top Ten Trends. Trends shaping the workplace are increased skill requirements; more educated, diverse work force; continued corporate restructuring; change in size and composition of training departments; instructional technology advances; new training delivery methods; focus on performance improvement; integrated high-performance work systems; companies becoming….
Children's Books: Current Trends. A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the s.
Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…. Population Trends and Prospects. Future trends in population are described as they relate to developed and developing nations.
It is suggested that for the next 20 years there will be a decrease in population growth rates for all areas of the world except Africa. This paper will attempt to provide a pollution prevention legislative overview of where we have been, where we are, and some thoughts on pollution prevention legislative trends for the future.
Ten Top Tech Trends. In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech trends are listed and discussed. These include: 1 data mining; 2 cyberbullying; 3 21st century skills; 4 digital content; 5 learning at leisure; 6 personal responders; 7 mobile tools; 8 bandwidth; 9 open-source…. Trends in Educational Expenditure. This study provides an overview of expenditures for education and training by educational institutions in Australia, The study used newly available data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS and administrative data from the main sectors' reports on the size and trends in public and private education expenditures.
It analyzed…. Hardwood chip market--was a " normal " year? In the context of other recent years, turned out to be a relatively " normal " year for the U. Gulf Coast hurricanes and rising energy prices drove hardwood chip and pulpwood markets in Evaluation of the N-S manufactured by Sutron—Results of bench, temperature, and field deployment testing.
The evaluation procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report for bench, temperature chamber, and outdoor deployment testing. During outdoor deployment testing, 6. Transmission errors were also observed during temperature chamber testing with serial number , at an error rate of 3.
Overall, the has good logging capabilities, but the transmission errors are a concern for users who require reliable telemetered data. However, the estimation of trends from NDVI time series differs substantially depending on analyzed satellite dataset, the corresponding spatiotemporal resolution, and the applied statistical method.
Here we compare the performance of a wide range of trend estimation methods and demonstrate that performance decreases with increasing inter-annual variability in the NDVI time series. Trend slope estimates based on annual aggregated time series or based on a seasonal- trend model show better performances than methods that remove the seasonal cycle of the time series. A breakpoint detection analysis reveals that an overestimation of breakpoints in NDVI trends can result in wrong or even opposite trend estimates.
Based on our results, we give practical recommendations for the application of trend methods on long-term NDVI time series. Particularly, we apply and compare different methods on NDVI time series in Alaska, where both greening and browning trends have been previously observed. Robosquid's Reynolds number Re based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between and for the conditions tested.
This result demonstrates a case where propulsion using essential elements of a biological locomotion system can outperform the traditional mechanical system equivalent in terms of efficiency. A simple model is presented to explain the results in terms of the contribution of over-pressure at the nozzle exit plane associated with the formation of vortex rings with each jet pulse.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory: Annual Report If you stepped outdoors on the final evening of and looked up into the night sky, many celestial events were taking place. A hundred million miles away from Earth, a dust storm swirled across the terracotta peaks and gullies of Mars, as two six-wheeled robots bore down on the planet. They were soon to join two orbital sentries already stationed there. A few hops across the inner solar system, another spacecraft was closing in on a ball of ice and rock spewing forth a hailstorm of dust grains, heated as it swung in toward the Sun.
Closer in, two newly lofted space telescopes scanned the skies, their mirrors gathering photons that had crossed the empty vastness of space for billions of years, recording ancient events in unimaginably distant galaxies. And streaking overhead every few minutes directly above our home planet, a handful of satellites was recording the unfolding events of a tropical cyclone off the east coast of Africa and a blizzard that carpeted the northwestern United States.
As drew to a close, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was on the cusp of an extraordinarily busy period, a time when JPL will execute more fly-bys, landings, sample returns and other milestones than at any other time in its history. The exploration we undertake is important for its own sake.
And it serves other purposes, none more important than inspiring the next generation of explorers. If the United States wishes to retain its status as a world leader, it must maintain the technological edge of its workforce. What we do here is the stuff of dreams that will inspire a new generation to continue the American legacy of exploration.
While the world at large was celebrating the International Year of Astronomy, we were sending more telescopes into space than in any other year, ever. As these missions unfold, the astronomers are sure to change the way we see the universe.
One of the newly lofted observatories is on a quest to find planets like our own Earth orbiting other stars. Another is a telescope that gathers infrared light to help discover objects ranging from near-Earth asteroids to galaxies in the deepest universe. We also contributed critical enabling technologies to yet two other telescopes sent into space by our partners in Europe. And astronauts returned to Earth with a JPL-built camera that had captured the Hubble Space Telescope's most memorable pictures over many years.
And while it was an epic time for these missions, we were no less busy in our other research specialties. Earth's moon drew much attention from our scientists and engineers, with two JPL instruments riding on lunar orbiters; previously unseen views of shadowed craters were provided by radar imaging conducted with the giant dish antennas of the Deep Space Network, our worldwide communication portal to spacecraft around the solar system. At Mars, our rovers and orbiters were highly productive, as were missions targeting Saturn, comets and the asteroid belt.
Here at our home planet, satellites and instruments continued to serve up important information on global climate change. But our main business is, of course, exploring. Many initiatives will keep us busy for years. In , NASA gave approval to start planning a major flagship mission to Jupiter's moon Europa in search of conditions that could host life, working with our partners in Europe. In addition to our prospective Earth science projects, we have full slates of missions in Mars exploration, planetary exploration and space-based astronomy.
This year's annual report continues our recent. The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of a biomorphic pulsed- jet underwater vehicle. The effect of Reynolds number on the propulsive efficiency of pulsed- jet propulsion was studied experimentally on a self-propelled, pulsed- jet underwater vehicle, dubbed Robosquid due to the similarity of its propulsion system with squid.
Digital particle image velocimetry was used for measuring the impulse and energy of jet pulses from the velocity and vorticity fields of the jet flow to calculate the pulsed- jet propulsive efficiency, and compare it with an equivalent steady jet system. Robosquid's Reynolds number Re based on average vehicle velocity and vehicle diameter ranged between 37 and The current results for propulsive efficiency were compared to the previously published results in water where Re ranged between and Once or twice in an age, a year comes along that the historians proclaim as an Annus Mirabilis - a year of wonders.
For the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was just that sort of time. From beginning to end, it was a nonstop experience of wondrous events in space. Imagine that two robot rovers embark on cross-country rambles across Mars, scrutinizing rocks for signs of past water on the now-arid world. A flagship spacecraft brakes into orbit at Saturn to begin longterm surveillance of the ringed world, preparing to drop a sophisticated probe to the surface of its haze-shrouded largest moon.
Another craft makes the closest-ever pass by the nucleus of a comet, collecting sample particles as it goes. Two new space telescopes peer into the depths of the universe far beyond our solar system, viewing stars, nebulas and galaxies in invisible light beyond the spectrum our eyes can see. A pair of instruments is lofted on a NASA Earth-orbiting satellite to monitor air quality and the protective layer of ozone blanketing our home planet.
A small probe brings samples of the solar wind to Earth for in-depth study. The Vision for Space Exploration announced in January foresees a program of robotic and astronaut missions leading to a human return to the Moon by , and eventual crewed expeditions to Mars.
The vision also calls for more robotic missions to the moons of the outer planets; spaceborne observatories that will search for Earth-like planets around other stars and explore the formation and evolution of the universe; and continued study of our home planet. In order to accomplish all of this, NASA must perfect many as-yet-uninvented technologies and space transportation capabilities.
JPL has a great deal to bring to this vision. Robotic exploration of Mars will lead the way for missions that will carry women and men to the red. Drag force and jet propulsion investigation of a swimming squid. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available In this study, CAD model of a squid was obtained by taking computer tomography images of a real squid. The model later placed into a computational domain to calculate drag force and performance of jet propulsion.
The drag coefficient referenced to total wetted surface area of squid is 0. Geometrical scaling of jet fragmentation photons. Hattori, Koichi, E-mail: koichi. We discuss jet fragmentation photons in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. We argue that, if the jet distribution satisfies geometrical scaling and an anisotropic spectrum, these properties are transferred to photons during the jet fragmentation.
Fiber optic gyro development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A low-level, but continuing, fiber-gyro development activity has been carried on at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory since The activity was originated because of a recognition of the potential for low-cost high-performance gyros suitable for interplanetary spacecraft.
An early decision was made to concentrate available resources on supporting the development of electrooptically active channel waveguide components which could be fabricated by mask diffusion processes. Titanium-indiffused lithium niobate waveguide components used at 0. Components fabricated for use at 1. A gyro configuration concept based upon 1.
Recently an abundance of bioinspired underwater vehicles have emerged to leverage eons of evolution. Our group has developed a propulsion technique inspired by jellyfish and squid. Propulsive jets are generated by ingesting and expelling water from a flexible internal cavity.
We have demonstrated thruster capabilities for maneuvering on AUV platforms, where the internal thruster geometry minimized forward drag; however, such a setup cannot characterize propulsive efficiency. Therefore, we created a new streamlined vehicle platform that produces unsteady jets for forward propulsion rather than maneuvering.
The streamlined jetting body is placed in a water tunnel and held stationary while jetting frequency and background flow velocity are varied. Using the zero jetting frequency as a baseline for each background velocity, the passive body drag is related to the velocity distribution.
For cases with active jetting the drag and jetting forces are estimated from the velocity field and compared to the passive case. For this streamlined body, the entrainment of surrounding flow into the propulsive jet can reduce drag forces in addition to the momentum transfer of the jet itself.
Office of Naval Research. Full Text Available The operation of water- jet propulsion can generate nonuniform inflow that may be detrimental to the performance of the water- jets. To reduce disadvantages of the nonuniform inflow, a rim-driven water- jet propulsion was designed depending on the technology of passive magnetic levitation. Insufficient understanding of large performance deviations between the normal water- jets shaft and permanent maglev water- jets shaftless is a major problem in this paper.
CFD was directly adopted in the feasibility and superiority of permanent maglev water- jets. Comparison and discussion of the hydraulic performance were carried out. The shaftless duct firstly has a drop in hydraulic losses K1, since it effectively avoids the formation and evolution of the instability secondary vortex by the normalized helicity analysis.
Then, the shaftless intake duct improves the inflow field of the water- jet pump, with consequencing the drop in the backflow and blocking on the blade shroud. So that the shaftless water- jet pump delivers higher flow rate and head to the propulsion than the shaft.
Eventually, not only can the shaftless model increase the thrust and efficiency, but it has the ability to extend the working range and broaden the high efficiency region as well. The jet energy scale uncertainty is derived from measurements in situ of the calorimeter single response to hadrons together with systematic variations in the Monte Carlo simulation.
The transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events with two high transverse momenta jets is used to set the jet energy uncertainty in the forward region. The obtained uncertainty is confirmed by in-situ measurements. Jets in the TeV energy range have been tested using a system of well calibrated jets at low transverse momenta against high transverse momenta jets.
The jet energy scale uncertainty is derived from in-situ single hadron response measurement along with systematic variations in the Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the transverse momentum balance between a central and a forward jet in events with only two jets at high transverse momentum is used to set the jet energy uncertainty in the forward region.
The obtained uncertainty is confirmed by in-situ measurements exploiting the transverse momentum balance between a jet and a well measured reference object like the photon transverse momentum in photon- jet events. Jets in the TeV-energy regime were tested using a system of well calibrated jets at low transverse momenta against a high-pt jet.
Preliminary results from the Ink , New York, Ley, Rockets. Viking Press. New York. Zim, Rockets and jets. Harcourt Brace, New York, Jet propulsion Hausenblas, Design nomograms for turbine stages. Motortechnische Zeit. Koutz et al. Edelman, The pulsating engine-its evolution and future prospects.
SAE Quart. McLarren, Project Squid probes pulsejet. A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot actuated by an iris mechanism. A jellyfish-inspired jet propulsion robot Jet PRo is designed, fabricated, and characterized with the objective of creating a fast-swimming uncrewed undersea vehicle.
Jet PRo measures 7. In order to achieve the uniform-bell contraction used by S. When triggered, this mechanism induces a volumetric change of a deformable silicone cavity to expel a jet of fluid and produces positive thrust. We validate this finding empirically and quantify the swimming performance of the robot using video tracking and time resolved digital particle image velocimetry.
Jet PRo was able to produce discrete vortex rings shed before pinch off and swim upwards with a maximum steady-state velocity of Scaling behavior of jet production at CDF. Behrends, S. The outlook for application of powerful nuclear thermionic reactor -powered space electric jet propulsion engines.
Problems the paper deals with are the following: information satellites delivery and their on-orbit power supply during years, removal of especially hazardous nuclear wastes, mining of asteroid resources and others. EJPU parameters are compatible with Russian existent or being under development launch vehicle.
Factorial correlators: angular scaling within QCD jets. Factorial correlators measure the amount of dynamical correlation in the multiplicity between two separated phase-space windows. We present the analytical derivation of factorial correlators for a QCD jet described at the double logarithmic DL accuracy. We obtain a new angular scaling property for properly normalized correlators between two solid-angle cells or two rings around the jet axis.
Normalized QCD factorial correlators scale with the angular distance and are independent of the window size. Scaling violations are expected beyond the DL approximation, in particular from the subject structure. Experimental tests are feasible, and thus would be welcome.
Reynolds number limits for jet propulsion : a numerical study of simplified jellyfish. In nature the effective limit of jet propulsion is still in the range where inertial forces are significant. It appears that almost all animals that use jet propulsion swim at Reynolds numbers Re of about 5 or more.
Juvenile squid and octopods hatch from the egg already swimming in this inertial regime. Juvenile jellyfish, or ephyrae, break off from polyps swimming at Re greater than 5. Many other organisms, such as scallops, rarely swim at Re less than The limitations of jet propulsion at intermediate Re is explored here using the immersed boundary method to solve the 2D Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the motion of a simplified jellyfish.
The contraction and expansion kinematics are prescribed, but the forward and backward swimming motions of the idealized jellyfish are emergent properties determined by the resulting fluid dynamics. Simulations are performed for both an oblate bell shape using a paddling mode of swimming and a prolate bell shape using jet propulsion. Average forward velocities and work put into the system are calculated for Re between 1 and The results show that forward velocities rapidly decay with decreasing Re for all bell shapes when Re OPAL jet chamber full- scale prototype.
The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL was tested with a full scale prototype. The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration, and readout are described. Operating experience was gathered since summer The chamber performance in terms of spatial resolution and particle identification capability is given. OPAL jet chamber full scale prototype. The concept of a jet chamber for the central detector of OPAL has been tested with a full scale prototype.
The design of this prototype, its mechanical and electrical structure and its support system for high voltage, gas, laser calibration and readout are described. Operating experience has been gathered since summer The operating experience gathered since the summer of and the chamber performance as measured by its spatial resolution and ability to identify particles are also given. Future missions to Mars, including sample-return and human-exploration missions, may require alternative entry, descent, and landing technologies in order to perform pinpoint landing of heavy vehicles.
PD can slow the vehicle during Mars atmospheric descent by directing thrusters into the incoming freestream. RCS can provide vehicle control and steering by inducing moments using thrusters on the hack of the entry capsule. The use of these PD and RCS jets , however, involves complex flow interactions that are still not well understood.
The effects of central and peripheral PD configurations using both sonic and supersonic jets at various thrust conditions are examined in this dissertation. The RCS jet is directed either parallel or transverse to the freestream flow at different thrust conditions in order to examine the effects of the thruster orientation with respect to the center of gravity of the aeroshell.
The physical accuracy of the computational method is also assessed by comparing the numerical results with available experimental data. The central PD configuration decreases the drag force acting on the entry capsule due to a shielding effect that prevents mass and momentum in the hypersonic freestream from reaching the aeroshell. The peripheral PD configuration also decreases the drag force by obstructing the flow around the aeroshell and creating low surface pressure regions downstream of the PD nozzles.
The Mach number of the PD jets , however, does not have a significant effect on the induced fluid interactions. The reaction control system also alters the flowfield, surface, and aerodynamic properties of the aeroshell, while the jet orientation can have a significant effect on the control effectiveness.
A scale invariant covariance structure on jet space. This paper considers scale invariance of statistical image models. We study statistical scale invariance of the covariance structure of jet space under scale space blurring and derive the necessary structure and conditions of the jet covariance matrix in order for it to be scale invariant.
As par In the course of the unmanned exploration of the solar system, which the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has managed for NASA, major advances in computerized image processing, materials research, and miniature electronics design have been accomplished. This presentation shows some of the imaging results from space exploration missions, as well as biomedical research tasks based in these technologies. Among other topics, the use of polymeric microspheres in cancer therapy is discussed.
Also included are ceramic applications to prosthesis development, laser applications in the treatment of coronary artery disease, multispectral imaging as used in the diagnosis of thermal burn injury, and some examples of telemetry systems as they can be involved in biological systems. Monitoring space shuttle air quality using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory electronic nose. A miniature electronic nose ENose has been designed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory JPL , Pasadena, CA, and was designed to detect, identify, and quantify ten common contaminants and relative humidity changes.
The sensing array includes 32 sensing films made from polymer carbon-black composites. Event identification and quantification were done using the Levenberg-Marquart nonlinear least squares method. After successful ground training, this ENose was used in a demonstration experiment aboard STS October-November, , in which the ENose was operated continuously for six days and recorded the sensors' response to the air in the mid-deck.
Air samples were collected daily and analyzed independently after the flight. Changes in shuttle-cabin humidity were detected and quantified by the JPL ENose; neither the ENose nor the air samples detected any of the contaminants on the target list.
The device is microgravity insensitive. Full Text Available This paper entails the study of the pulsed- jet propulsion inspired by cephalopods in the frame of underwater bioinspired robotics. This propulsion routine involves a sequence of consecutive cycles of inflation and collapse of an elastic bladder, which, in the robotics artefact developed by the authors, is enabled by a cable-driven actuation of a deformable shell composed of rubber-like materials.
In the present work an all-comprehensive formulation is derived by resorting to a coupled approach that comprises of a model of the structural dynamics of the cephalopod-like elastic bladder and a model of the pulsed- jet thrust production. The bladder, or mantle, is modelled by means of geometrically exact, axisymmetric, nonlinear shell theory, which yields an accurate estimation of the forces involved in driving the deformation of the structure in water.
By coupling these results with those from a standard thrust model, the behaviour of the vehicle propelling itself in water is derived. The constitutive laws of the shell are also exploited as control laws with the scope of replicating the muscle activation routine observed in cephalopods. The model is employed to test various shapes, material properties and actuation routines of the mantle. The results are compared in terms of speed performance in order to identify suitable design guidelines.
Altogether, the model is tested in more than 50 configurations, eventually providing useful insight for the development of more advanced vehicles and bringing evidence of its reliability in studying the dynamics of both man-made cephalopod-inspired robots and live specimens. Power spectral laws in dual stream jets are studied by considering such flows a superposition of appropriate single-stream coaxial jets.
Noise generation in each mixing region is modeled using spectral power laws developed earlier for single stream jets as a function of jet temperature and observer angle. Frequency filter are designed to highlight spectral contribution from each jet.
Predictions are provided at an area ratio of 2. These models suggest that the low frequency noise in unheated jets is dominated by the fully mixed region at all velocity ratios, while the high frequency noise is dominated by the secondary when the velocity ratio is larger than 0. Transition and fully mixed jets equally dominate the low frequency noise in heated jets.
At velocity ratios less than 0. We consider the polarization properties of optically thin synchrotron radiation emitted by relativistically moving electron-positron jets carrying large- scale helical magnetic fields. We draw attention to the strong influence that the bulk relativistic motion of the emitting relativistic particles has on the observed polarization. Our computations predict and explain the following behavior.
This change is more likely to occur in jets with flatter spectra. In force-free jets with a smooth distribution of emissivities, the emission should be generated in a limited range of radii not too close to the jet core. A series of experiments was conducted on polyoxymethylene POM, trade name Delrin registered propellants in air at atmospheric pressure. Ablation at a constant fluence and a range of spot areas was achieved by varying combinations of the laser energy and spot size.
Relevant empirical scaling laws governing laser propulsion parameters such as the momentum coupling coefficient C m and specific impulse I sp for spot areas within a range of about 0. Experimental measurements of imparted impulse, C m , I sp , and ablated mass per pulse were made using dynamic piezoelectric force sensors and a scientific balance. Aeronautics In Engineer ,67 and Critical review of gas turbine progress in Engineer , Gas turbines in Engineer ASME 75, A critical review of gas turbine progress, Aeronautics in Engineer , 24, 55 and Physical fundamentals of jet propulsion.
Gebiete Ingenieurw. B19, Forschungaheft , p 5. Santangelo, Metodo di calcolo delle. The rapid development of rocketry in the U. The history of RNII commenced in , resulting from the merger of two rocket research organizations. Previous research was continued in areas of solid-propellant rockets, jet -assisted take-off of aircraft, liquid propellant engines generally with nitric acid as the oxidizer , liquid-propellant rockets generally with oxgen as the oxidizer , ram jet engines, rockets with and without wings, and rocket planes.
RNII research is described and summarized for the years We have analyzed the linear polarization characteristics of the compact core features and regions downstream, and their changes along and across the parsec- scale active galactic nuclei AGN jets. We detected a significant increase of fractional polarization with distance from the radio core along the jet as well as towards the jet edges.
Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have a higher degree of polarization and exhibit more stable electric vector position angles EVPAs in their core features and a better alignment of the EVPAs with the local jet direction. The latter is accompanied by a higher degree of linear polarization, suggesting that compact bright jet features might be strong transverse shocks, which enhance magnetic field regularity by compression.
Parsec- scale jets and tori in seyfert galaxies. Roy, A. Falcke, T. Krichbaum, C. Mundell, J. Ulvestad, A. Wilson, J. Wrobel Active galaxies tend to be powerful or weak radio sources, and we still do not understand the underlying cause. Perhaps the engine is the same in both systems and the jet gets disrupted by dense interstellar medium in radio-quiet objects, or else the difference is intrinsic with jet power scaling with black hole spin. To distinguish, one can look for signs of interaction between the jet and the narrow-line region, and to measure the jet speed close to the jet base, before environmental effects become important.
The most common approaches to identifying the most effective mission design to maximize science return from a potential set of competing alternative design approaches are often inefficient and inaccurate. Recently, Team-X at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory undertook an effort to improve both the speed and quality of science - measurement - mission design trade studies.
Our results indicate that facilitated subject matter expert peers are the keys to speed and quality improvements in the effectiveness of science - measurement - mission design trade studies. Computing and information services at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory - A management approach to a diversity of needs.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a research and development organization with about 5, employees, presents a complicated set of requirements for an institutional system of computing and informational services. The approach taken by JPL in meeting this challenge is one of controlled flexibility. A central communications network is provided, together with selected computing facilities for common use.
At the same time, staff members are given considerable discretion in choosing the mini- and microcomputers that they believe will best serve their needs. Consultation services, computer education, and other support functions are also provided. Jan 27, Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the Results from a large- scale MHD propulsion experiment.
This paper reports on magnetohydrodynamic MHD thrusters which have long been recognized as potentially attractive candidates for ship propulsion because such systems eliminate the conventional rotating drive components. An electrical current is passed directly through the seawater and interacts with an applied magnetic field; the interaction of the magnetic field and the electrode current in the seawater results in a Lorentz force acting on the water, and the reaction to this force propels the vessel forward.
The concept of EM propulsion has been examined periodically during the past 35 years as an alternative method of propulsion for surface ships and submersibles. The conclusions reached in early studies were that MHD thrusters restricted to fields of 2T the state-of-the-art at that time were impractical and very inefficient.
Radial scaling in inclusive jet production at hadron colliders. In an earlier study a phenomenology, called radial scaling , was developed for the single-particle inclusive cross sections that attempted to capture the essential underlying physics of pointlike parton scattering and the fragmentation of partons into hadrons suppressed by the kinematic boundary.
The phenomenology was successful in emphasizing the underlying systematics of the inclusive particle productions. Striking common features of the data are discussed. Fellowships are awarded to engineering and science faculty for work on collaborative research projects of mutual interest to the fellow and his or her JPL host colleague.
The Campus handles all fiscal matters. The duration of the program is ten continuous weeks. Fellows are required to conduct their research on-site. To be eligible to participate in the program, fellows must be a U. Over the past several years, we have made attempts to increase the diversity of the participants in the NFFP Program.
A great deal of attention has been given to candidates from minority-serving institutions. There were approximately applicants for the 34 positions in JPL was the first-choice location for more than half of them. Faculty from 16 minority-serving institutions participated as well as four women. The summer began with an orientation meeting that included introduction of key program personnel, and introduction of the fellows to each other. During this welcome, the fellows were briefed on their obligations to the program and to their JPL colleagues.
All fellows received a package, which included information on administrative procedures, roster of fellows, seminar program, housing questionnaire, directions to JPL, maps of. Generalized z- scaling for charged hadrons and jets. Generalization of z- scaling observed in the inclusive high-p T charged hadron and jet production is proposed.
Anomalous fractal dimensions and parameters characterizing associated medium for both classes of events are established. The obtained results are of interest to use z- scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production at high transverse momentum and in high-multiplicity region at the U70, Tevatron, RHIC and LHC. The basic features of the scaling established in minimum bias events are shown to be preserved up to the highest multiplicity densities measured in the experiments UA1, E, CDF and STAR.
The obtained results are of interest in the use of z- scaling as a tool for searching for new physics phenomena of particle production at high transverse momentum and in high-multiplicity region at the U70, Tevatron, RHIC and LHC.
Determination of the jet energy scale at the Collider Detector at Fermilab. Bhatti, A. E-mail: canelli fnal. A precise determination of the energy scale of jets at the Collider Detector at Fermilab at the Tevatron pp-bar collider is described. Jets are used in many analyses to estimate the energies of partons resulting from the underlying physics process. Several correction factors are developed to estimate the original parton energy from the observed jet energy in the calorimeter.
The jet energy response is compared between data and Monte Carlo simulation for various physics processes, and systematic uncertainties on the jet energy scale are determined. Relativistic jets without large- scale magnetic fields. The canonical model of relativistic jets from black holes requires a large- scale ordered magnetic field to provide a significant magnetic flux through the ergosphere--in the Blandford-Znajek process, the jet power scales with the square of the magnetic flux.
In many jet systems the presence of the required flux in the environment of the central engine is questionable. I will describe an alternative scenario, in which jets are produced by the continuous sequential accretion of small magnetic loops. The magnetic energy stored in these coronal flux systems is amplified by the differential rotation of the accretion disc and by the rotating spacetime of the black hole, leading to runaway field line inflation, magnetic reconnection in thin current layers, and the ejection of discrete bubbles of Poynting-flux-dominated plasma.
For illustration I will show the results of general-relativistic force-free electrodynamic simulations of rotating black hole coronae, performed using a new resistivity model. The dissipation of magnetic energy by coronal reconnection events, as demonstrated in these simulations, is a potential source of the observed high-energy emission from accreting compact objects. Department of Energy DOE , the overall Program objective was to decrease this nation's dependence on foreign petroleum sources by developing the technologies and incentives necessary to bring electric and hybrid vehicles successfully into the marketplace.
In that capacity, the specific historical areas of responsibility have been: 1 Vehicle system developments 2 System integration and test 3 Supporting subsystem development 4 System assessments 5 Simulation tool development. Various methods are used to coordinate the clocks among the three tracking complexes.
Calculations are made to obtain frequency offsets and Allan variances. Areas of discussion are: 1 a brief history of the GPS timing receivers in the DSN, 2 a description of the data and information flow, 3 data on the performance of the DSN master clocks and GPS measurement system, and 4 a description of hydrogen maser frequency steering using these data. Faraday rotation measures in 20 AGN jets at parsec scale. Full Text Available We present multi wavelength parsec- scale Faraday rotation measure properties of twenty active galactic nuclei, observed with the Very Long Baseline Array simultaneously at 1.
For the observed sources we construct Faraday rotation measure and Faraday-corrected linear polarization maps. Direction of electrical field in the optically thick core regions confirms bimodal distribution. No significant changes of a Faraday rotation measure transverse to the jet direction are found in any of the observed sources.
We propose a new magnetic field spatial geometry reconstruction method based on core shift measurements. Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature from four different loading conditions, together with hind cast data of wind and sea properties; and noon report data has been used to train an Artificial Neural Network for prediction Non-equilibrium turbulence scalings in turbulent planar jets.
A revised version of the Townsend George theory, as proposed by Dairay et al. Requiring the self-similarity of only few quantities along with the non-equilibrium dissipation scaling law Vassilicos , it implies new mean flow and jet width scalings. The importance of this result is twofold: firstly it further strengthens the scalings obtained in the works of Dairay et al.
ERC Advanced Grant Studer, E. A future economy based on reduction of carbon-based fuels for power generation and transportation may consider hydrogen as possible energy carrier Extensive and widespread use of hydrogen might require a pipeline network. The alternatives might be the use of the existing natural gas network or to design a dedicated network. Whatever the solution, mixing hydrogen with natural gas will modify the consequences of accidents, substantially The French National Research Agency ANR funded project called HYDROMEL focuses on these critical questions Within this project large- scale jet fires have been studied experimentally and numerically The main characteristics of these flames including visible length, radiation fluxes and blowout have been assessed.
Possible signatures of the hadronisation scale in parton jets. Models for hardon production in hard collisions differ widely in the energy scale characteristic of the transition from the primary partonic to the secondary hadronic phase of jet evolution. We investigate possible experimental signatures for the existence of both phases. The possibility of a dual correspondence between hadronic and partonic states is discussed.
PIV particle image velocimetry is a measurement technique with growing application to the study of complex flows with relevance to industry. This work is focused on the assessment of some significant PIV measurement errors. In particular, procedures are proposed for estimating, and sometimes correcting, errors coming from the sensor geometry and performance, namely peak-locking and contemporary CCD camera read-out errors. Although the procedures are of general application to PIV, they are applied to a particular real case, giving an example of the methodology steps and the improvement in results that can be obtained.
This real case corresponds to an ensemble of hot high-speed coaxial jets , representative of the civil transport aircraft propulsion system using turbofan engines. These results allow the uncertainty interval associated with the measurement to be provided and, under some circumstances, the correction of some of the bias components of the errors.
The detection of conditions where the peak-locking error has a period of 2 pixels instead of the classical 1 pixel has been made possible using these procedures. In addition to the increased worth of the measurement, the uncertainty assessment is of interest for the validation of CFD codes. To complement these systems a new Raman lidar has been developed at TMF with particular attention given to optimizing water vapor profile measurements up to the tropopause and lower stratosphere.
The general lidar instrumental setup and the details of the alignment control system, data acquisition, and GUI alignment software are described. Preliminary validation results using radiosonde and lidar intercomparisons are briefly presented. On global H-mode scaling laws for JET. Kardaun, O. Due to the scarce availability of computerised, extensive and validated H-mode datasets, systematic statistical analysis of H-mode scaling behaviour has hitherto been limited.
A common approach is to fit the available H-mode data by an L-mode scaling law e. In this contribution we will consider the alternative approach of fitting all free parameters of various simple scaling models to two recently compiled datasets consisting of about ELM-free and 40 ELMy H-mode discharges, measured at JET in the period Numerical investigation of the effect of the configuration of ExoMars landing platform propulsion system on the interaction of supersonic jets with the surface of Mars.
This paper presents the results of numerical investigations of the interaction with the Mars surface of four supersonic jets of ExoMars landing platform propulsion system. The cases of impingement of supersonic jets on a curved surface are considered depending on the values of propulsion system thrust.
According to the results of numerical studies are obtained the values of normal stresses on the surface of Mars at altitudes of 1. To define the occurring shear stresses Mohr-Coulomb theory was used. The maximum values of shear stresses were defined for the following types of soil of Mars: drift material, crusty to cloddy material, blocky material, sand and Mojave Mars simulant.
The conducted evaluations showed, regardless of the propulsion system configuration, that when the final stage of the controlled landing of the ExoMars landing platform, the erosion of the Mars regolith would be insignificant. The estimates are consistent with the available data from previous Mars missions. Chemistry and propulsion ; Chimie et propulsions. During the colloquium on chemistry and propulsion , held in march , ten papers have been presented.
The proceedings are brought in this document: ramjet, scram- jet and Pulse Detonation Engine; researches and applications on energetic materials and propulsion ; advances in poly-nitrogen chemistry; evolution of space propulsion ; environmental and technological stakes of aeronautic propulsion ; ramjet engines and pulse detonation engines, automobiles thermal engines for , high temperature fuel cells for the propulsion domain, the hydrogen and the fuel cells in the future transports.
Magnetized and collimated millimeter scale plasma jets with astrophysical relevance. Magnetized collimated plasma jets are created in the laboratory to extend our understanding of plasma jet acceleration and collimation mechanisms with particular connection to astrophysical jets.
In this study, plasma collimated jets are formed from supersonic unmagnetized flows, mimicking a stellar wind, subject to currents and magnetohydrodynamic forces. It is found that an external poloidal magnetic field, like the ones found anchored to accretion disks, is essential to stabilize the jets against current-driven instabilities.
The maximum jet length before instabilities develop is proportional to the field strength and the length threshold agrees well with Kruskal-Shafranov theory. The plasma evolution is modeled qualitatively using MHD theory of current-carrying flux tubes showing that jet acceleration and collimation arise as a result of electromagnetic forces. Small- scale particle Observations and experiments were conducted at the Liquid Jungle Lab, off the pacific First, time-varying body volume was calculated by digitizing salp outlines from in situ video.
Scaled laboratory experiments explain the kink behaviour of the Crab Nebula jet. The remarkable discovery by the Chandra X-ray observatory that the Crab nebula's jet periodically changes direction provides a challenge to our understanding of astrophysical jet dynamics. It has been suggested that this phenomenon may be the consequence of magnetic fields and magnetohydrodynamic instabilities, but experimental demonstration in a controlled laboratory environment has remained elusive.
Here we report experiments that use high-power lasers to create a plasma jet that can be directly compared with the Crab jet through well-defined physical scaling laws. The jet generates its own embedded toroidal magnetic fields; as it moves, plasma instabilities result in multiple deflections of the propagation direction, mimicking the kink behaviour of the Crab jet.
The experiment is modelled with three-dimensional numerical simulations that show exactly how the instability develops and results in changes of direction of the jet. Hydrodynamics of Peristaltic Propulsion. A curious class of animals called salps live in marine environments and self-propel by ejecting vortex rings much like jellyfish and squid. However, unlike other jetting creatures that siphon and eject water from one side of their body, salps produce vortex rings by pumping water through siphons on opposite ends of their hollow cylindrical bodies.
In the simplest cases, it seems like some species of salp can successfully move by contracting just two siphons connected by an elastic body. When thought of as a chain of timed contractions, salp propulsion is reminiscent of peristaltic pumping applied to marine locomotion. Inspired by salps, we investigate the hydrodynamics of peristaltic propulsion , focusing on the scaling relationships that determine flow rate, thrust production, and energy usage in a model system.
We discuss possible actuation methods for a model peristaltic vehicle, considering both the material and geometrical requirements for such a system. Jet energy scale determination in the D0 experiment. And, the shipping industry is required to develop and improve the energy saving ship operation technologies to meet the above IMO guideline. The weather routing is one of the energy saving navigation technologies and widely adopted by oceangoing merchant ships.
The propulsion performance in the actual sea is usually predicted using the Self Propulsion Factors obtained by model tests. It is necessary to understand the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea conditions for the improvement of propulsion performance prediction. From the above points of view, the authors performed full- scale experiments using a training ship in order to investigate the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea.
This paper describes the analysis results on the characteristics of Power Curves and Self Propulsion Factors under various weather and sea conditions. Hovatta, Talvikki; Lister, Matthew L. Multifrequency Very Long Baseline Array observations were carried out over 12 epochs in at four frequencies between 8 and 15 GHz. We detect parsec- scale Faraday rotation measures in sources and find the quasars to have larger rotation measures on average than BL Lac objects.
The median core rotation measures are significantly higher than in the jet components. This is especially true for quasars where we detect a significant negative correlation between the magnitude of the rotation measure and the de-projected distance from the core. We perform detailed simulations of the observational errors of total intensity, polarization, and Faraday rotation, and concentrate on the errors of transverse Faraday rotation measure gradients in unresolved jets.
Our simulations show that the finite image restoring beam size has a significant effect on the observed rotation measure gradients, and spurious gradients can occur due to noise in the data if the jet is less than two beams wide in polarization. In this source we also detect variations in the jet rotation measure over a timescale of three months, which are difficult to explain with external Faraday screens and suggest internal Faraday rotation.
R Aqr is a symbiotic system comprised a compact white dwarf and Mira giant star. The interaction of these stars is responsible for the presence of a two-sided jet structure that is seen across the electromagnetic spectrum. X-ray emission from the jet was first discovered in with an observation by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since then follow-up observations have traced the evolution of the X-ray emission from the jet and a central compact source.
In X-rays, the NE jet is brighter than the SW jet , but the full extent of the SW jet was larger - before it began fading below the detection threshold. However, we have uncovered evidence for large- scale emission associated with the NE jet that matches the extent of the SW jet.
The emission has escaped previous identification because it is near the detection threshold, but it has been present since the first observation and clearly evolves in subsequent observations. We present our study of the emission from this component of the NE jet , its relationship to multiwavelength observations, and how it impacts our interpretation of the jet -phenomenon in R Aqr. It is now possible to compare global three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic GRMHD jet formation simulations directly to multi-wavelength polarized VLBI observations of the pc- scale structure of active galactic nucleus AGN jets.
Unlike the jet emission, which requires post hoc modeling of the nonthermal electrons, the Faraday rotation measures RMs depend primarily upon simulated quantities and thus provide a direct way to confront simulations with observations. With typical parameters, we find that it is possible to reproduce the observed magnitudes and many of the structures found in AGN jet RMs, including the presence of transverse RM gradients.
In our simulations, the RMs are generated in the circum- jet material, hydrodynamically a smooth extension of the jet itself, containing ordered toroidally dominated magnetic fields. This results in a particular bilateral morphology that is unlikely to arise due to Faraday rotation in distant foreground clouds. However, critical to efforts to probe the Faraday screen will be resolving the transverse jet structure.
Therefore, the RMs of radio cores may not be reliable indicators of the properties of the rotating medium. George St. Jet noise is directly predicted using large- scale equations. The computational domain is extended in order to directly capture the radiated field.
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