This future may be a night out or holiday in the coming months or year, or even many years away in the case of a young person saving for retirement. Saving can even be for after death, such as when people save in order to bequeath or leave money for their children. This contrasts with the taking out of debt, which is bringing consumption forward by buying now and paying later.
You should also note the relationship between assets held in the form of savings and investments and income. The receipt of income immediately adds to assets, for instance, when income is paid into a bank account. In turn, assets like savings usually produce an income in the form of interest on a savings account, for example. This interrelationship is summarised in the diagram above.
One other important point to note is that households often have debts and savings simultaneously — they are not mutually exclusive. For example, many households have a mortgage and a savings account. They can also be saving for example, contributing to a pension fund and taking out more debt for instance, adding more to a credit card bill. Saving and investing defers consumption from the present to a time in the future.
This involves building up funds to provide for unexpected events and bills. If you have no savings and an unexpected event with financial consequences occurs such as a car being damaged or someone becoming too ill to work and losing their income , then there are only three alternatives:. Having funds set aside in investments is an important means of preparing for unexpected life events — the savings act as a buffer to protect a household against these other possibilities.
A second reason for investing is to do so for a specific purpose. You can put a certain amount aside each month or week , based on a calculation of how much you need for a particular goal. You can also invest money temporarily — normally in savings accounts — for events that occur in the relatively near future, like a holiday or Christmas, or for buying a car.
A third reason for investing could be to accumulate wealth for which, as yet, there is no defined purpose. The savings may later be spent on a variety of things, for example a second home, a series of holidays after retirement or leaving an inheritance to children. These three reasons all underline an important overall aim of having investments — to give a sense of independence and autonomy to do things.
Having sufficient funds in your investments could enable you to leave a job, to take a break for a few months. It could also enable you to do or buy things that you want, or to take advantage of opportunities that arise such as being able to pay for education or start a business. Watch the video below to hear Anthony Nutt, an investment fund manager, talk about the importance of personal investments to the economy and the impact of economic policy on savings behaviour.
As well as being important for an individual or household, investments are important for the broader economy. There is interdependence between the household sector and other sectors of the economy, such as the corporate sector. For example, in the act of saving, households are not buying the goods and services that firms sell.
However, by saving, households are placing money in financial institutions and this provides a potential source of funds for firms to expand and to invest themselves. Governments also have an interest in household savings. To cover such a shortfall, governments have to borrow, including directly from the public. Governments have encouraged people to put money into government savings schemes and, effectively, loan the government money , such as National Savings and Investments Certificates and Premium Bonds.
Households are motivated to save at different stages of the life course, such as those depicted in Figure 4, weddings, holidays and motoring. Households are often targeted by the marketing departments of financial institutions according to their stage in the life course and the type of household.
These are significant factors in the selling of different types of saving and investment products. Think about the following questions then post your answers in the course forum and discuss with other learners. When posting in the forum you should head your post with the title of the activity so other learners can join in. Remember, by referring to savings we mean the stock of such savings that UK households have.
The Office for National Statistics ONS says significant caution needs to be exercised when drawing firm conclusions from data on savings such as that presented above. The responses provided to surveys where people have to provide personal information — particularly information about their finances — need to be treated with care.
The reason for the caution is linked to how data on savings is collected. Much official government data is based on surveys where households are asked to complete a questionnaire. An estimated one in four households simply does not know the value of its investments, while others may deliberately understate the value of any assets they have. Disclosing financial data can be seen as sensitive, and so collecting such data accurately can be problematic.
The table below provides a breakdown of the types of savings, investments and accounts that households have in the UK. As you can see, over nine out of ten households have a current account, and over half have other savings accounts, with bank or building society savings accounts and ISAs dominating. Lower proportions of households have stocks and shares, and over one-fifth of households have investments in premium bonds.
In , two per cent of households had no kind of bank account, let alone any investments. We shall be looking at some of these products in more detail in Week 2. These figures are interesting, but do not tell us very much about exactly why some households have savings and other financial assets and others do not. The Family Resources Survey DWP, ; DWP, breaks down investments by some of the social and economic variables such as income, household composition, age and ethnicity of households, and these can help explain the differences in household investment behaviour.
As might be expected, low-income households tend to have a lower value of investments and higher-income households have a higher value of investments. Households where the named head, or spouse of a household head, is unemployed or disabled are much more likely to have no investments at all.
Pensioner couples, single male pensioner households, and couples without children tend to have higher investments, while single adults with children households have the lowest levels of investments. Asian and Black ethnic groups are slightly more likely to have no investments than White households. Some of the above points remind us that investing will not be easy for everyone.
It is easier to build up investments as household income increases. For those on lower incomes, investments have to be built up through careful budgeting. Another type of data to look at, apart from that of savings, is data about saving. This is usually done by examining what is called the household savings ratio the percentage of annual household disposable income that is saved rather than spent.
Figure 6 shows the household savings ratio for the UK has ranged from less than zero in other words, borrowing rather than saving in the late s and early s to a peak of The savings ratio then dipped to a low of 3. This shows how the household savings ratio tends to be quite cyclical. How can we explain these changes? One factor has been the state of the UK economy. When the economy has been growing quickly and so, personal incomes have been rising , the household savings ratio has been lower.
This can be explained by the fact that when things are going well, confidence is high and people tend to spend more. This was the picture in the late s and in the early s. When the economy has experienced very low growth or even recession, such as in the early s, — and again following the financial crisis, and incomes have not risen as fast or have been falling, the household savings ratio was higher. This is because when people are more concerned about their future, they tend to cut back on spending and save more.
Other factors also help to explain the changes in the UK household savings ratio. When inflation was high in the mid and late s, for example, households needed to save more to stop the real value of their savings falling — consequently the household savings ratio increased. The household savings ratio averaged 8.
When examining investment behaviour, data suggests the state of the housing market may also be important. Figure 7 shows changes in the household savings ratio and changes in house prices in the UK between and There appears to be an inverse relationship between house prices and the household savings ratio.
That is, when house price increases were higher for example, in the late s and most of the s , the household savings ratio was lower, and when house prices were lower for instance, in the early s and , the household savings ratio was higher. This may be because people often feel that they do not have to save as much when their wealth is increasing due to the increased value of their house.
Conversely, in there was an increase in saving as house prices fell and households repaid some of their borrowings. The slight dip in the savings ratio since may be linked to the pickup in house prices after The UK has a relatively low household savings ratio compared with other countries, as shown in Table 1. The data shows the household savings ratio varying significantly between countries. The data is cross-sectional — a snapshot of a moment in time. As a result, we cannot draw too many conclusions — for example, Portugal had a negative savings ratio in , but in had a savings ratio of The reasons for these differentials are various.
Cultural reasons are a key factor with some societies having a stronger tradition of saving and investing — sometimes due to the greater incidence of natural catastrophies. The financial strength of economies is also vital since households with growing affluence are better placed to have surplus income to save for the future. The video explores some features of, and shortcomings in, savings and investment behaviour including pension planning. We have now completed our review of savings and investment activity, with an emphasis on the UK.
Clearly there is evidence of poor personal investment planning. To avoid these pitfalls when it comes to our finances we now need to start thinking about how we should go about the business of effective investment management. Investment planning means looking ahead — often a great many years ahead.
Whether it is for a future major purchase or for retirement, the process of building up investments may take several years or even decades. This long-term time horizon requires us to assess a number of things. First, it requires a forecast to be made of how inflation will affect the future cost of the item to be acquired or the level of income needed for retirement. Second, the time horizon is vital in determining the structure of investments.
If the horizon is the near future, there is little sense in investing in products that may fall in nominal value. Recalibration is also vital. Checking regularly at the very least annually that your investments are on track to achieve your goals is vital. Alternatively, the structure of the investment portfolio may need to be revised to improve expected performance over the chosen time horizon.
Even if you invest passively and let others i. We can summarise this planning process through the four stage financial management model — a model that can be deployed for making all personal financial decisions including those relating to personal investments Figure You can apply this financial planning model to your own decisions as you work through the course to help you build your investment strategy and compile your portfolio.
The scale of the funds that need to be accumulated for a comfortable retirement dwarfs those needed for other investment goals like saving to buy a house or car, or to pay school fees. The time span between commencing retirement planning and cashing in the investments to provide income in retirement can — and should — span decades rather than years. Growing longevity also means that despite the choice of many to work well into their 60s, the time period spent in retirement is, on average, growing, with the related implications for the resources needed to provide an adequate pension income.
To consider how an individual or household can plan ahead for their retirement years, a robust financial planning model needs to be adopted and applied. This, or similar planning models, would be used by a financial adviser as the foundation for advice about retirement planning and provides an approach that you can also use for yourself. Central to the situation is the goal of a comfortable retirement. The need is to have enough income throughout retirement to finance a certain standard of living.
The amount required will be determined largely by expectations of spending in retirement. This raises a question: whose spending needs? Should the financial plan look at the individual or the household? The danger of basing the plan on the household is that many households change over time as, for example, couples split up, family members and friends decide to share a home or leave, or people die.
Traditionally, married couples have adopted the household approach, and the resulting financial plans have often proved inadequate in the face of death or divorce. This is a key reason why women account for such a high proportion of the poorest pensioners today. The advantage of a retirement plan based on the individual is that each member of the household has their own pension arrangements, which they retain even if the make-up of their household changes.
Yet there are some good reasons to think that spending in retirement may be different from spending while working, and that spending needs in early retirement may differ from those later on. Note that Week 5 of this course is entirely devoted to the key personal investment matter of pension planning.
The returns that are received from investing fall into two categories — income and capital growth. Income can come in the form of interest on savings accounts and bonds, or dividends on shares. Capital growth can come in the form of the increase in the value of the assets — higher share prices, increases in indices for investments contractually linked to a market index like a stock exchange index and higher bond prices for those bonds that are marketable.
For savings accounts, though, there is normally no potential for a growth, or risk of a decline, in capital value. The money placed into an account does not change in nominal value and the only returns received are the interest paid on the account. Three particular factors need to be borne in mind when measuring and forecasting investment returns:. A crucial element to factor into investment planning is the tax treatment of the returns.
Elsewhere, even where investment returns are subject to taxation, annual tax-free allowances can be used to protect at least part of the returns from tax deductions. At this stage, the key point to note is that for your preferred form of investment you should make sure that you take advantage of any tax exemptions on their return.
Earlier you started to look at the income and capital returns from investing. You will look more closely at these now, starting with the key issue of what determines the level of interest rates on savings and investment products. The video, which features Mark Carney, Governor of the Bank of England at the time of writing this course, sets the scene by looking at the factors taken into consideration when setting official interest rates.
Arrangements changed in May when the incoming Labour government passed responsibility for monetary policy and the setting of interest rates to the Bank of England to make the bank independent of political influence. Bank Rate is therefore hugely influential in the determination of the rate that will be paid on savings and interest-bearing investment products.
However, in and the policy on the setting of official rates was modified to take greater account of the level of unemployment in the economy. The video explores this change of emphasis to the setting of official interest rates in the UK. Official rates of interest tend to be cyclical, rising to peaks and then falling to troughs.
Since , the trend in the UK has been for nominal interest rates to peak at successively lower levels. Nominal rates fell to 3. In they hit a record low of 0. This was because the Bank of England was attempting to stimulate economic activity following the period of recession at the end of the s.
In November Bank Rate was raised for the first time in 10 years — from 0. You explored earlier why it is important to take inflation into account when managing your investments. Unless there is no price inflation, the nominal return from an investment — the amount of cash paid to you — is different to its real return, in effect the value to you in terms of the goods it can buy.
Real interest rates are interest rates that have been adjusted to take inflation into account. Real interest rates are at zero when the rate of inflation and the nominal interest rates are the same, and they are positive when the nominal interest rate exceeds inflation. Subsequently they fell further. By early the fall in the nominal official interest rate to a historical low of 0. So, if you earn a nominal rate of interest of 1.
Such a situation where real interest rates are negative is clearly adverse for savers. However it is good news for borrowers if the cost of borrowing is negative in real terms. Unsurprisingly, the low interest rates offered on savings in recent years have encouraged some households to reduce their debts — particularly credit card debts which have relatively high interest rates — by reducing their savings balances. The calculation of interest on savings accounts is straightforward. Interest accrues at a rate based on the savings rate and the balance of money in a savings account.
In many cases, with movements into and out of savings accounts taking place, the interest charged will be based on the average balance of the principal sum during the year. What happens if the lender does not withdraw the interest received and adds it to the balance of the account?
This is known as compounding, and can quickly enlarge savings during periods of high interest rates. You can test this out for yourself, using our interest calculator. The precise practice for computing the interest earnings varies among different borrowers — and interest can be calculated at different time intervals. One of the pieces of financial small print it is always vital to read is the basis on which interest is paid — that is, how often and by reference to what terms.
A major development that affected millions of investors in the UK after came with a fall in interest rates paid on savings accounts. The audio and the supporting graphics set out the decline which resulted in investors earning less than the prevailing rate of price inflation with the consequence that the real value of their savings ended up being reduced. The causes of this development are explained in the audio.
The episode is both a classic case of macro-economic policy having both winners and losers and of the realities of inflation risk on investments. Faced with such meagre returns many investors turned to alternative investments to boost their income — but in so doing took on a variety of alternative investment risks.
You have seen the factors that can dictate the prevailing level of interest rates in the economy and by inference the returns on interest-bearing investments. So what drives the levels of share prices? While you will look at share price determination in detail in Week 2, it is important to get a grasp on the key determinants here at the start of the course.
The first important point is to distinguish between the factors that will generally affect the levels of share prices — typically measured by referring to stock market indices like the FTSE the index comprising the largest companies listed on the London Stock Exchange — and those factors that specifically affect a particular, individual, share price.
These factors impact, to greater or lesser extents, on the financial performance and expected future performance of the companies whose shares comprise the equity indices that investments in shares are linked to. A slowdown in economic activity, perhaps reflected in a weakening in price inflation, can be expected to reduce sales and profits.
Under these circumstances, companies may be forced to reduce the dividends paid to shareholders or even pay no dividend at all. The attraction of holding shares, relative to other assets, is then reduced exposing the risk of a fall in share prices. The reverse generally holds as well — growing economic activity and a pickup provided it is not excessive in inflation are correlated to higher share prices as companies experience growing sales and profits.
The relationship between inflation and the performance of stock markets is, though, complex and hotly debated by analysts. Modest inflation may be favourable to share prices but higher inflation rates raise the prospect that action will be taken to stem inflationary pressures by raising interest rates and depressing economic activity — a scenario which would not be good for share prices.
The other factors listed above also have a role in driving share markets. Higher interest rates are bad news for equities as they presage a decline in economic activity — as do higher commodity prices. If exchange rates move adversely — particularly if the domestic currency strengthens against foreign currencies — the equities can be hit since export sales may be reduced. The collapse in oil prices in the second half of — with the price of crude oil halving between July and January — had a mixed impact on financial markets.
By helping to reduce the overall rate of price inflation, the fall in the price of oil virtually eliminated the risk of a near-term rise in interest rates. However, the fall in oil prices was seen by some commentators as indicating a slowdown in economic activity globally — a factor that is not good news for equity markets and certainly not good news for the share prices of oil companies.
While the factors mentioned in the previous section provide the general drivers of share prices, the price of an individual share will also be driven by specific factors applying to the company in question. Commonly, this means that the performance of an individual share outperforms or underperforms the average for the market as a whole.
Sometimes this divergence can be so stark that the share price rises when the market as a whole is falling and vice versa. A classic recent episode in September came with the performance of the share price of the supermarket, Tesco. Even the renowned investor Warren Buffet took a huge hit, given his 3. Tesco was a classic case of the crystallisation of specific risk relating to the investment in a specific company as opposed to the market as a whole. There is no equation that formally links the factors set out in the previous section with the performance of share prices — at best, there are strong correlations at work.
Yet all the major swings in equity prices seen in recent decades can be explained by the economic contexts defined by these factors. Have a look at the graph above. Clearly this was a period of share price volatility with the index falling sharply in June only to stage a very strong recovery into July. This period saw unremarkable activity in the economy with inflation and interest rates low and with economic growth steady.
So what caused the volatility and what led to investor sentiment first turning negative and then, very quickly, becoming positive? That depends on how much you need to be saving for retirement and how good your plan is. Some plans offer extremely low-cost funds and charge minimal administrative fees. Typical lower-cost plans have fund fees between 0. Higher- cost funds can range between 0.
Generally speaking, this only makes sense when there is no employer match AND when the costs in your plan are excessively high. It can also make sense to forgo participation in a k if there is no employer match and you do not pay income taxes. In this case you would not benefit from the tax deferral benefit of the k plan. But this does not mean you should not save for retirement. An IRA is a special tax-favored account where you can invest just like you would in a regular investment account, whether it be in stocks, mutual funds, or exchange traded funds.
The benefit of the IRA comes from either receiving an upfront tax deduction if you qualify, or the potential for tax-free withdrawals by using a Roth IRA. Saving and investing for your future is one of the most important things you can do. I have found that most people will greatly benefit from speaking with a knowledgeable professional to learn more about other saving and investment strategies. Sign Up for Our Newsletter.
Retirement , Personal Finance. Do You Have Access to a k? Are You Taking Advantage of It?
The vast majority of American workers are no longer covered by a company pension program but rather a k plan to which they must make contributions and decide how these funds should be invested. In order to fund a k , your company must set up and offer the plan to its employees, unlike an IRA Individual Retirement Account , where any worker can open his or her own account. While most larger employers offer a k plan, many smaller employers do not.
That depends on how much you need to be saving for retirement and how good your plan is. Some plans offer extremely low-cost funds and charge minimal administrative fees. Typical lower-cost plans have fund fees between 0. Higher- cost funds can range between 0. Generally speaking, this only makes sense when there is no employer match AND when the costs in your plan are excessively high.
It can also make sense to forgo participation in a k if there is no employer match and you do not pay income taxes. In this case you would not benefit from the tax deferral benefit of the k plan. But this does not mean you should not save for retirement. An IRA is a special tax-favored account where you can invest just like you would in a regular investment account, whether it be in stocks, mutual funds, or exchange traded funds.
The benefit of the IRA comes from either receiving an upfront tax deduction if you qualify, or the potential for tax-free withdrawals by using a Roth IRA. Saving and investing for your future is one of the most important things you can do. I have found that most people will greatly benefit from speaking with a knowledgeable professional to learn more about other saving and investment strategies. Sign Up for Our Newsletter. Employer matches are essentially free money, boosting your total nest egg and giving you an even bigger incentive to put your money to work toward your retirement needs.
Health savings accounts are designed to set money aside for your future health needs. HSAs offer the best of all worlds from a tax perspective, letting you contribute money on a pre-tax basis and deduct your contributions, while letting you withdraw money later on a tax-free basis as long as you use the money for healthcare expenses. HSAs are currently available only in conjunction with a high-deductible health plan, which puts the onus on you to cover a fairly hefty up-front deductible.
However, the Trump administration has discussed broadening the use of HSAs, and so it's possible that they'll become more widely available in the future. Having money squirreled away in an HSA offers valuable tax benefits as well as the financial security that its assets provide. If you have kids, then one of the biggest gifts you can give them is savings toward their eventual college expenses.
In addition, many states offer additional incentives for making plan contributions. A handful of states, including Pennsylvania and Arizona, give state tax deductions for contributions to any plan, either within or outside their respective state. Many others limit deductions to contribution to that particular state's plan. Regardless, it's worth looking closely at your plan options to see whether a makes sense for you. Finally, there's benefit to having money available for whatever purpose you want.
Withdrawals from the specialized accounts above can bring penalties and other drawbacks, but a regular brokerage account gives you the flexibility you need to spend when you need your money. The longer you can invest, however, the bigger the benefit of investing in a taxable account. When you invest in stocks that rise in value, you don't owe any capital gains tax on the appreciation in the shares until you actually sell a stock. That can give you the same benefits of tax deferral as a retirement account while still letting you access your money freely when necessary.
Investing for the future is never easy, but the rewards are worth the effort. By taking advantage of these five smart ways to invest, you'll be better able to give yourself and your loved ones the financial security you deserve. Investing Best Accounts.
Stock Market Basics. Stock Market. Industries to Invest In. Getting Started. Planning for Retirement. Retired: What Now?
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