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Sexual conflict can interfere with biparental care reducing the quality of offspring Royle et al. The cost of investment in some biparental regimes both parents rearing the young can cause a sexual conflict by one parent reducing the amount of care given to the offspring in order to preserve energy for another partner.
This theory was tested with zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata. Biparental regimes male and female were formed to rear four young and uniparental regimes female alone were formed to rear two young. After fledging of the brood, the females from the uniparental regimes were re-introduced to male partners to form biparental regimes and the females from biparental regimes became single mothers to lay another clutch of eggs.
Male chicks from both parental regimes were tested as adults for sexual attractiveness to experienced females. In biparental regimes, it was found that males gave equal or more parental investment than their female partners, suggesting that females preserved energy for another partner. This would be in accordance with the finding that the mass of the second clutch of eggs laid was lower for the post-uniparental females than the females from the post-biparental regimes.
It seems that more effort for quality in rearing young is giving by a single-parent, whereas both parents give more effort for quantity. The effect of quality could also explain why males reared in uniparental regimes were sexually more attractive as adults than their male siblings reared in biparental regimes. These findings suggest that sexual conflict in pre-zygotic mating and post-zygotic parental investment may be a force that shapes the sexual selection.
Paternal effort and mating success in the European ground squirrel Huber et al. Some males were observed digging in litter burrows later occupied by females and their offspring. All three assumptions were met. Males worked on the litter burrow of their copulatory partners. Burrowing costs included decreased foraging time and body mass loss.
Offspring benefits were evident in increased mass at natal emergence. The researchers also compared mating effort, mating success and paternal effort. Evolutionary theory and the human family. Quarterly Review of Biology, 72 , — Del Giudice, M. The development of life history strategies: Toward a multi-stage theory. Hawley Eds. Ellis, B. Timing of pubertal maturation in girls: An integrated life history approach. Psychological Bulletin, , — Fundamental dimensions of environmental risk.
Human Nature, 20 , — Fisher, R. The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford: Clarendon. Freeman, S. Evolutionary analysis. Gaulin, S. Trivers-Willard effect in contemporary North American society. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 85 1 , 61— Geary, D. Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment. Psychological Bulletin, , 55— Gorrell, J. Adopting kin enhances inclusive fitness in asocial red squirrels.
Nature Communications, 1 22 , 1—4. Gwynne, D. Testing parental investment and the control of sexual selection: The operational sex ratio. The American Naturalist, , — Haig, D. Genetic conflicts in human pregnancy. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 68 , — Hamilton, W. The genetical evolution of social behaviour. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7 , 1— Extraordinary sex ratios. Discriminating nepotism: Expectable, common and overlooked. Michener Eds.
New York: Wiley. Hopcroft, R. Parental status and differential investment in sons and daughters: Trivers-Willard revisited. Social Forces, 83, — Hrdy, S. Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books. Keller, M. Evolution and Human Behavior, 22 , — Kokko, H. Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21 , — MacArthur, R. The theory of island biogeography Monographs in population biology, Vol.
Princeton: Princeton University Press. Nowak, M. The evolution of eusociality.
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