Hunting of Marine Mammals. Development of Modern Fisheries. Fisheries Science. Perspectives for the Future. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction Described here are the origin and general trends in the development of fishing from the earliest times up to the present in various parts of the world.
The techniques applied and the economic and social problems involved are covered. Fishing methods have not changed much since the Stone Age, but continuous technical improvements like the construction of sea-worthy ships, more efficient gear, and finally mechanization of fishing have led to enormous development and a high fish production, of now million tons per year. Extensive utilization has caused heavy overexploitation of the resources and consequently growing concern.
The book concludes with an evaluation of perspectives for the future utilization of living resources. In the newly merged entity required a bailout by the Russian Central Bank. In Irish economist Cillian Doyle revealed that prior to MDM's merger and subsequent collapse, the bank had used a series of offshore vehicles located in the Irish Financial Services Center IFSC and Malta, as part of a scheme to create fictitious assets on its balance sheet in addition to hiding losses.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. MDM Bank Type. December 3, Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved RIA Novosti. MDM Bank. May 8, Banks portal.
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It was leased to private shipbuilders between and for construction of smaller ships, and in it became a specialist in the construction of tugs. During the s and s it built 63 oceangoing tugs of the "Goliat" class known in the West as the Okhtenskiy class and harbour tugs of the "Peredovik" Sidehole and "Prometey" Saka classes.
After the yard was rebuilt in the late s it has manufactured sophisticated shipbuilding production line equipment. Early projects include mechanization of the assembly and welding production lines at the Vyborg Shipbuilding Plant and the construction of a unit for assembly and welding of large hull sections at the Zhdanov Shipbuilding Plant in Leningrad. Shelest, General Director M. Pavlov, Deputy Director Victor N. EMPLOYED: Metal cut computer control equipment, casting factory, cutting workshop, thermal- processing, galvanic protection products, assembly welding workshop, shell assembly.
Egorenkov, Director VladmirF. Vasilyev, Chief Engineer; Vyacheslav A. Alexander E. CIVTL PRODUCT LINES: Loud speakers, studio monitors, public address systems, studio mixing consoles, sound processors, digital audio workstations, broadcasting systems, fixed, portable, radio and car-radio tape recorders, CD players, audio amplifiers, wireless microphones, sound reinforcement systems, reverberators, sound effect processors, information security systems, test and measuring equipment and marketing studies for audio systems.
Production facilities total an additional 2, sq. A new 37, sq. Pozitron produces a variety of military equipment, including electronic components and tensile condensers for missiles. It is composed of several enterprises, a research institute, and a design bureau. Blokhin, General Manager Alexander V. For more information, see individual facility descriptions below. Pozitron manufactured 90, televisions in , exporting half to Western Europe.
Plans in called for expanding television production to 2 million sets per year. Petersburg Pozitron has also been emphasizing consumer goods since In March , Pozitron's Vidikond Plant opened video assembly and packing plant as part of joint venture with Korea Daewoo Corporation. It is part of the Russian Space Corpn.
Energiya, Russia's premier developer of space technology. Primorsk specializes in rocket propulsion technology developed by Energiya. Petrov, Director Yury V. This small U. Petersburg device is designed to clean pollutants such as waste water, industrial emissions, and toxic wastes.
Fixed and truck-mounted versions of the Vulcan cleaner are planned. Sokolv, First Deputy Director OWNERSHIP: State-controlled other alloys, including vacuum-arc and electroslag capabilities; process for rolling beryllium between two sheets of steel; argon gas-flow meter for welding; argon-filled chamber to work on titanium submarine hulls; composites; coatings; plastics; corrosion research-galvanic protection using an external current and special paint; porous amorphous materials able to withstand high temperature used as flexible radar absorption material.
CIVIL PRODUCT LINES Titanium alloys; aluminum-magnesium alloy with "memory" properties; large volume pressure containers made of wound polymer or carbon fibers; catalytic converters containing titanium fuel; double-layer steel with corrosion protection for cold weather environments ice breaker sterns ; corrosion resistant pipes for long distance heating systems; welding electrodes; titanium hydrofoils; technology for joining steel and aluminum and steel and titanium; testing systems to detect intercrystalline corosion used in nuclear industries , and anode protection for ships.
Commercial applications for amorphous metal alloys with fine grains include use in magnetic and electromagnetic components. Prometey also has underground facilities: a main one beneath Aleksandr Nevskiy Monastery Museum and another in the area between Sinopskaya Naberezhnaya and Ulitsa Krasnovo Tekstil'shchika, possibly contiguous with Nevskiy complex. It was formerly part of the Elektroavtomatika Scientific Production Association.
It is a part of the Scientific and Production Association Ravenstvo. Petersburg, Vasilaevsky Island, 5 Liniya, 70 U. Uih iooo Norwegian company for the manufacture of consumer goods. The company is interested in modernizing its equipment in an effort to focus on the manufacture of radio and electronic consumer goods. Petersburg, Ulitsa Promyshlennaya, 19 Tel: , Gen. It is now expanding its production to commercial products in the oil and gas, mining and electronics industries.
Petersburg Yury V. Abramov, General Director, Yakov Y. Lebedev, Design Bur. Design bureau officials are trying to compensate with work on civilian projects. Civil work has reportedly increased from 10 percent in to 35 percent, mainly for the domestic oil. In Spasskiy, General Director Sergey A. Komorov, Deputy Gen. It has affiliates in Luga, Krasnyy Bor, and Voyevoko. Petersburg, Russia; Tel: ; telex: ; Telefax: ; its projects include export of diesel submarines. Zolotov, Director Vladimir F.
The shipyard is part of the Severnaya Verf Production Association, which includes an electrodes factory with a capacity of 20, tons annually and a furniture factory. It is capable of building merchant ships up to 13, deadweight U. The enterprise has a "project" department that functions as a marketing department.
Ninety percent of production is delivered to state-owned factories and 10 percent to privately-owned firms. The company has four sites, including a central design office and three factories. SIC Code: , ,,, , July , The others remain state-owned, although they are taking steps towards privatization. Petersburg International Business Center. Advanced Output Devices for control systems, computers, data processing and transmission systems.
Advanced Miniprinters and similar devices. Specialized criminalistic laboratories with advanced communications and artificial vision devices. Cryptographic confidential information protection systems 6. Ecological equipment for purification and regeneration of electroplating. Radio and Telephone mobile system for transportation on route between St. Dental chairs and others. Precision mechanics, PCB manufacturing, various assembly lines.
Russia St. Petersburg, Shkiperskiy protok, 1 9 Telephone: , Director , technical Mgr. Petersburg, is an important builder of mine warfare ships for the Russian navy. The yard probably dates back to , when the St. Petersburg Metals Plant, then a builder of marine turbines, established a shipyard at Ust-Izhora to build destroyers.
Between the world wars the Ust-Izhora yard was limited to the construction of river barges. It was expanded into a major builder of minesweepers and other small combatants after World War II and built ships of the steel-hulled T, T, Turka, and Natya classes in the s and s.
It has also built a few large tugs and small tankers for service as naval auxiliaries. Around 1 it began to experiment with glass-reinforced plastic and subsequently built a few Zhenya-class minehunters and many Yevgenya- and Lida-class inshore minesweepers. It also built hydrofoils of the Matka and Turya classes and the Tarantul- class missile corvettes. Today it is offering several types of ships on the civil market similar to its minesweeper classes, including ships of upto tons with glass-reinforced plastic hulls, steel-hulled ships of up to tons, and similar ships built with low- magnetic steel.
Petersburg ,,, Yegorov, Technical Manger, Vsevolod D. Semenov, Commercial Dir. It also has produced fighter jet engines and rocket engines. Petersburg, Russia Prospekt Engelsa, 27 Tel: , Svetlana also produces a wide variety of other products including medical, transportation, communications, agriculture, and recreation equipment and household appliances.
The Svetlana Joint-Stock Company consists of approximately five separate plants, five experimental design bureaus, and two addresses, 27 Prospekt Engelsa and 2 Prospekt Svetlanskiy, for the main Svetlana facility in St. CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: The Svetlana Association produces a variety of electronic and microelectronic instruments, including transmitting and modulator tubes for all frequency ranges; X-band broadband passive TR limiter; klystron amplifiers; X-ray and radio tubes; portable X-ray units for medicine and industry; high-frequency fast response thyristors; transistors; integrated microcircuits; microwave components, microcomputer; microcontrollers; microcalculators; ultrasonic delay lines; receiving tubes; process equipment for the manufacture of electronic engineering items, the Svetlana Company also produces consumer goods such as articles made from electro-vacuum glass, dewar flasks, lamp- brackets, photographic and cinema accessories, agriculture selection equipment, coffee makers, ski bindings, strings for musical instruments, glass and crystal utensils and articles, thermos flasks, automobile mirrors, tachometers, chess computers, and toys.
Svetlana is still seeking to enter into additional joint ventures for manufacturing electronic engineering equipment; cooperate in the marketing and sales of products, with the sales rights allotted to its partners; exchange electronic engineering equipment for process equipment; purchase special equipment for the manufacturing of electronics; and advertise its products on the international market.
Petersburg July U. It predicts a 12 percent growth in production in Svetlana will also modify any of its products to meet the specific needs of its customers; develop new items for its customers within a period of six to twelve months; and extend licenses for manufacturing electronic engineering equipment.
Setlana became a joint stock company in Pochtamtskaya 3. National Institute of Standards and Technology, sets the standards for all optics institutes, plants, and enterprises in the former Soviet Union. Roughly 60 percent of Vavilov's research and design efforts were dedicated to military and space projects. CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Television equipment; multipath interferometers; beacons; marine navigation signals; lighthouses; flash lamps; zoom and other variable-focus cameras; automobile headlights; airport landing lights; opthalomological lenses; zinc selenide for lasers; special-effect holograms; iridium mirrors.
Space and lasers optics, including large lenses and mirrors; beryllium and composite mirrors; adaptive optics. General optical instruments, including image transmission fiber bundle for medical endoscopes; reflective, selective, and anti-reflective coatings, computer-aided lens design; computer-aided production and J.
Petersburg Ju! Civil products exhibited in include the world's largest color hologram and laser equipment for engraving crystal tableware. The plant has a co-located Experimental Design Bureau. Fedoronko, Director Boris V. Gin, Deputy Dir. Enterprise name: D. Petersburg, pos. It developed the TOKOMAK controlled thermonuclear fusion installation, and has participated in the building of all large accelerator, laser and thermonuclear fusion installations in the former Soviet Union.
It was formerly a part of NPO Elektrofizka. Petersburg, Russia Ultisa Babushkina, Tel: , ; marketing dept. Radchenko, General Director, Vladimir F. Also diesel-electric generating sets from to kw and heavy duty pumping units. Eighteen shops with the latest machining centers. Petersburg, Russia P. It also engages in the removal of sunken vessels from ocean floors. Startsev, Gen.
Director Yelena N. Hydraulic scissor jack made by the German co. Lindemann with a force capacity of tons; a ton floating crane; two gantry cranes 32 tons and 16 tons ; slipway; two morages; railway routes; two locomotives; etc. Participation in Free Economic Zone Development. The JV's territory, with an area of six hectares, creates favorable prerequisites for setting up a free trade zone. The Interferrum enterprise has contacts with representatives of the Russian Ministry of Defense and military plants for the salvaging of arms and military equipment.
It is currently setting up plants for the liquidation of arms military plants make their territories available for this JV Interferrum performs an important ecological function, in Russia's Northwest in the Baltic Sea basin, involving the removal of sunken objects from water regions.
Petersburg, Ultitsa Zaitseva, 41 Phone: 01 12 1 12 Director , Chief Engineer Fax: Teletype: Poisk Overview: The company is primarily involved in economic research, consulting and economic analysis of former shipbuilding ministry's enterprises. Date: February Employment: The company has 36 employees December and was established in Alexander A. Lotsenko Ownership: The company is privatized with the state owning 22 percent. Employees 23 percent and investors owning 55 percent.
The company receives no government subsidies. Marx" for the production of equipment for the production of chemical fibers Address: St Petersburg, Bol'shoy Sampsonievskiy Prospekt, 66 Phone: Fax: Products: Missile- and space-related equipment; knitting machinery. Petersburg Phone: Fax: Electronic equipment, condensors. Petersburg, , Russia Alexandr P. Matlakh, Ph. Petersburg Fax: E-mail: matl polestar. Mashinostroiteley, 12 Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk region , Russia U.
The company specializes in the production of trailers, both light- and heavy- duty types, for passenger cars and truck tractors. The company produces heavy-duty semitrailers including construction equipment hauling, and customized types. Petersburg transporters. Under conversion the company has expanded production of radios for civil use, including models formerly used by the military.
It is currently expanding its applications to the automotive, shipbuilding and metallurgical fields. Romashin, General Director Vladimir V. Its main product has been radio altimeters, but it also has produced ship and flight control computers and radio navigation aids. Its conversion projects are primarily in the area of electronic equipment. Paramonov, General Director Viktor A.
Ushkalov, Deputy Gen. Director Vladimir K. Frolov, Deputy Gen. Director Vladimir V. Key facility: Kazan Electrotechnical Plant. The association also produces a wide variety of other machinery products, including robots and machine tools, for industrial use.
Agadzhanov, General Director A. The company also produces pod- mounted gun systems for fixed-wing military aircraft, and helicopters. Marketing representative U. CIVTL PRODUCT LINES: Electric power generating systems, electric winches, aircraft braking equipment, electric de-icing systems, digital control systems for aircraft electrotechnical equipment, wind-driven electric power generating equipment, welding equipment, automatic test and diagnostic equipment for the service industry, electric hand tools for household use, and cable cars telphers.
It performs scientific research and experimental design work on radars for both the strategic air defense forces and for the ground forces. It has devoted much attention to metric-band VHF radars, which have inherent counter- stealth capabilities and are relatively unaffected by meteorological obscuration. It conducts system research and development of spacecraft and rocket programs. It is also involved in theoretical and experimental research in the areas of aerogasdynamics, heat transfer, thermal protection, static and dynamic strength of boosters and spacecraft.
TsNIImash also provides mission control for interplanetary probes, manned space stations and spacecraft. A 8, cubic meter space simulation facility provides ample room for testing large objects. Currently, it produces the fourth generation RD turbofan jet engine for the MiG, and the TV 17C turboprop engine for the commercial airliner. CIVTL PRODUCT LINES: TV 17C turboprop engines, aircraft starter parts, parts and assemblies for equipment used in aviation technology for thermal treating and coating, riveting presses, lapping equipment for rolled ferrous metal, equipment for airport ground servicing, specialized metal- cutting machine tools, automotive winches, shoe repair equipment and other machines for the leather and fur industry, parts for motor-scooter engines, camping stoves, therapeutic equipment for mineral baths, and other medical equipment.
Pulsar has developed a wide variety of diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits, as well as photolithographic and other types of semiconductor production equipment. Dokuchaev, General Director Gennadiy A. Petersburg indicator systems, and other electronic and semiconductor devices. Designer , Dpty.
It also develops gas turbine engines for non-aircraft applications, portable power generating units, and other types of industrial machines. Nusberg, General Designer Vladimir N. Strashelyuk, Program Mgr. Petersburg and Tumanskiy also known as Soyuz in Moscow. General Director V. CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Aluminum, niobium, and tantalum capacitors, resistors, transformers, coils, fuses, and plastic articles for power distribution apparatus; Consumer goods including scales, hair curlers, batteries, electric soldering irons, accessory articles for automobiles, household radioelectronic apparatus, and toys.
The bureau also designs electrohydraulic systems for diesel engines, and control systems for industrial power installations. CIVIL PRODUCT LINES: Electronic, hydromechanical, and optical components of gas turbine engine control systems including gear, vane and centrifugal pumps, electropneumatic transducers, meters, actuators, sensors, governors, valves, distributors, pressure relays, airborne indicators; food-related washing, cleaning, and sorting machines and other equipment for canning and preserving food; components for motor vehicle refuelling stations.
Two models of maritime radars, the Nayada-5 and the Yenisey, went into production in in a joint venture with a British firm and have been produced for domestic use and export. Gorizont plans to convert some of its space to the production of medical equipment and household electronics. Russia U. The association also produces other electrical measuring instruments and products, and consumer goods including mechanical juicers, toys, and souvenirs. Both countries recognized that Russian defense conversion was key to building a more economically prosperous world and assuring world peace.
Among other things, they agreed to facilitate the exchange of information on conversion enterprises and to disseminate that information to potential business partners. The Russian Defense Business Directory was designed as a first step towards meeting that commitment. Definition "Defense conversion," in the view of the U. However, according to the Law on Defense Conversion of the Russian Federation, the Russia has a much broader definition, which includes the possibility of a plant maintaining its defense production while expanding its non-defense production for other purposes, including the generation of hard currency exports.
See section C. Overview of Defense Industry The former Soviet Union developed an immense defense industrial base with enterprises scattered throughout the various republics. About 70 percent are located in the Russian Federation.
Russia contains more than major defense plants; thousands of subsystem, component, and materials producers; and more than 1 , military research, development, and test facilities. At its peak in the late s, Russian defense industry employed some five to seven million workers, out of a total industrial labor force of 25 million.
In addition to producing weapons, the defense industry has long been a large producer of civilian goods, producing all of the former Soviet Union's radios, televisions, VCRs, most of the refrigerators and washing machines, as well as a large share of the country's production equipment.
Defense enterprises in the former Soviet Union differ from their Western counterparts in several ways. They tend to be larger than plants in the West which produce similar items. The plants typically include on-site facilities for much of the component fabrication, which in the West would be subcontracted to other companies. Former Soviet defense enterprises also have traditionally had infrastructure responsibilities not found in the West, including schools, housing, and other social and cultural services.
In addition, because central government organizations historically assured Uiat defense enterprises received U. Petersburg priority access to available supplies, investment, engineers and distribution of production, enterprise managers never learned to fend for themselves.
Current Situation in Defense Industry Thus far, progress in defense industry conversion has been slow. Many defense enterprises are barely surviving due to cuts in weapons orders and insufficient funding to shift to civil production. Defense enterprises continue to be stymied, as they have been for the past several years, by a vast range of problems with respect to conversion.
Most plant managers are faced with implementing massive structural changes in the management and operation of their plants and relationships with suppliers. The majority are having limited success, given their lack of expertise with the new products, the chaos in the economy, their lack of skill in dealing with a quasi-market environment, the difficulty of establishing new supply chains, and the lack of Western investment or domestic financial support for costly re-tooling.
Meanwhile, defense plants have built up huge bank debts, as well as debts to other enterprises, while attempting to meet their payrolls and continue operations. Russian leaders have recognized the high cost of conversion,but they are unable to provide the magnitude of investment resources necessary to assist defense enterprises undergoing conversion. Although their expectations have dropped considerably, Russian leaders continue to count on Western investment and foreign assistance to increase civilian production in defense enterprises.
In the meantime, however, the Russian Federation is pursuing arms sales as a means to earn hard currency-partially to finance defense conversion. Many Russian defense enterprises now are in the process of privatization. The Russian Federation will retain possession of those weapons production facilities it deems critical to future weapons production, but the government has adopted a decree permitting 80 percent of all defense enterprises to privatize.
The government retains the right to retain ownership of a significant portion of the shares in privatized defense enterprises. A number of large defense enterprises have begun the privatization process. An important side-effect of the privatization process in the defense sector has been the creation of numerous small and medium-size private companies from the bodies of large defense enterprises. See Chapter 6 for a summary of the privatization program. Therefore, the following discussion only highlights some of the more significant generic barriers to doing business in Russia.
The discussion is designed to alert the individual to some of the factors that he or she should address when developing a proposal. Good business practices require careful evaluation of all the elements; detailed knowledge of whom one is doing business with, and a clear understanding of the risks. This is especially true in the constantly evolving Russian commercial environment. Senate on August 1 1 , but still awaiting ratification by the Russian parliament, is U.
Petersburg intended to alleviate many of these generic obstacles. See Chapter 6 for details on the BIT. The Department strongly encourages interested parties to contact this office as a first step, and to see Chapter 7 for other possible sources of assistance. In addition, the U. A complete listing of all Working Groups and points of contact are also contained in Chapter 7. Infrastructure Authorities commonly cite infrastructure problems in die areas of telecommunications and transportation as major obstacles to doing business in Russia.
Although Western firms have announced plans to assist in the development of a modern telecommunications system in Russia and the other Newly Independent States NIS , communications limitations will continue to hamper business activity for some time.
Transportation systems in Russia are inadequate, both for the distribution of goods and services, as well as the movement of people. Laws and Regulations Among the most serious obstacles inhibiting Western investment is the fluid situation in government regulations affecting business. Although the Russian legal system has abandoned many of the rules and procedures of the Soviet system, it continues to develop the laws and institutions necessary for a market economy to function, such as guarantees and definitions of property rights.
Today, there are bodies of conflicting, overlapping, and rapidly changing laws, decrees, and regulations affecting both domestic and international commerce. As a result, these laws are inadequately communicated, understood, and enforced.
Therefore, U. One of the most pressing concerns for Western investors is property ownership. Existing Russian laws on ownership regarding ownership by Western investors of land or buildings are unclear. Without definitive ownership rights, some Western firms have declined or even refused to do business.
Regional governments sometimes complicate business operations by imposing laws and regulations mat contradict federal ones. Moreover, local legal and regulatory regimes vary widely regarding foreign trade and investment ties, although more and more are striving to improve their regions' business climate. Russian import taxes also may impede Western exports.
Moscow raised import tariffs to average rates of percent, with sharply higher rates on mam consumer and U. Petersburg manufactured goods. In addition, many luxury goods are subject to an excise tax that in some cases is set at nearly percent. Thirdly, most Russian imports are liable to the 23 percent VAT, which is levied on the value of the product plus any import tariff and excise tax.
Russia, however, provides a number of exemptions to import taxes. For example, imports of food and other necessities are not subject to the VAT. Moreover, Russian officials may soon offer additional import tax breaks to foreign firms that boost their direct investments in Russia.
Financial Considerations Russia's nascent banking and financial infrastructure, and high inflation often create difficulties for some businesses operation in Russia. The situation is improving steadily, however, and few firms are unable to find ways around these difficulties—although at times it requires a great deal of persistence and creativity.
These issues have also complicated the ability of Western firms to repatriate profits. It is advisable to determine payment options and profit repatriation strategies prior to investment. The Finance and Counter trade Division in the U. Department of Commerce [Room H-l , phone: , Fax: ] offers advice on methods and techniques that can be used, given that Russian enterprises frequently lack hard currency. Materials and Supplies Maintaining adequate sources of materials and supplies will be difficult in light of Russia's current political and economic climate, particularly in view of the breakdown of the distribution system throughout Russia and the NIS.
Although supply problems did exist under the command system, defense facilities could seek help from their ministries and other bureaucratic oversight organizations when problems arose. Now that the command system has been dismantled, supply disruptions have increased and managers are generally on their own to devise solutions. Office Facilities and Visa Problems U.
The bureaucracy and delay involved in obtaining visas are a particular concern for smaller firms which cannot afford the high cost of establishing a resident office. For those firms with enough resources, office space often is not readily available. The leadership of both countries recognizes these problems and are working to resolve them. Embassy in Brussels. The ABCs offer a variety of services to visiting business persons for a small fee.
Culture Other obstacles faced by many Western companies engaging in trade and investment in Russia include the lack of a business culture and misunderstandings on the part of Russians U. Petersburg regarding Western companies. Many Russians still lack even a basic knowledge of how markets operate, from the role of profits to proper business ethics.
Russians often view Western firms as having very deep pockets. As a result, U. In addition, this kind of business environment engenders illegal activity of every sort, including fraud. United States Antidumping Laws While more aptly characterized as a benchmark for, than as an "obstacle" to, increased trade, U.
For example, U. Manufacturers who believe that foreign competitors are "dumping" merchandise in the United States or are being subsidized by foreign governments may file for relief with the U. These sales must cause or threaten material injury to a competing U. They may occur in many forms, including direct cash benefits, credits against taxes, and loans with artificially low interest rates. Some of the problems are caused by contusion over who is authorized to make decisions over enterprises and sometimes lack of interest on the part of some local enterprise managers.
Misunderstandings between Western firms and Russian enterprise directors have fueled the spread of rumors and convoluted excuses to explain apparent failure. The problems discussed below are representative of those affecting all potential Western investors in Russian defense enterprises. Authority U.
Petersburg The ultimate authority to approve or disapprove a deal with a Russian defense enterprise depends on the situation of a given enterprise. The central government previously had responsibility for all such actions because, through the former Russian Ministry of Industry, it owned nearly every defense enterprise in Russia.
Today, however, the lines of ownership are not so clear. Privatized enterprises have the right to make their own decisions and other defense enterprises now are at least nominally the property of the Russian State Property Committee. The successor to the Ministry of Industry, the State Committee for the Defense Sectors of Industry now the Ministry of Defense Industry, also continues to have influence over some plants. People experienced in doing business in Russia have frequently suggested that the lines of authority with any potential partner be thoroughly investigated and that the Russian partner in a business transaction be responsible for obtaining the necessary Russian government approvals.
Lacking guidance from the central government, defense industrialists as well as local and regional officials are increasingly asserting their own autonomy and independently seeking foreign aid and investment. Regional and city governments and defense industrial managers and apparatchiks have created defense conversion support groups and have increased their role as players in the conversion process. Clearly, U. These layers of authority have presented formidable obstacles.
Management Practices Successful commercial development and conversion will ultimately depend on the ability of enterprise managers to break with past practices. Defense enterprise managers will find that most of the management practices developed under the planned economy of the former Soviet Union will be of little use in a market economy. Under the Soviet system, Managers were primarily concerned with meeting a production target assigned by central planning authorities who judged performance by indicators such as percentage of plan fulfilled or actual output level.
Such criteria caused distortions and inefficiencies as managers sought to maintain output at the expense of quality, investment in new technology, and labor efficiency. Enterprise managers had little knowledge of or concern for the actual costs of making their products. The state routinely confiscated profits above state-set levels while making up shortfalls in profits leading the enterprise manager to virtually disregard the costs of production.
Petersburg Because of the high priority given to national defense, defease industries received the highest quality raw materials and had preferential access to the transportation and distribution networks for delivering materials. At the same time, defease enterprise managers were lauded by the central authorities for their management abilities, a factor that makes these managers less willing to change their practices to meet market economy needs.
The central authorities told enterprises who would provide their supplies and to whom they were to deliver their product. Central authorities rather than market forces determined the prices for products delivered from the plant. Consequently, managers had little knowledge or concern on how to price their products.
Managers treated labor as an inexhaustible commodity, and there were no incentives to develop an efficient work force or to economize on labor. Thus, managers tolerated indifferent labor discipline, poor attendance, high rates of alcoholism, and theft from the shop floor. Soviet managers typically did not replace equipment until it became obsolete, and on occasion, they sequestered and stockpiled replacement equipment without putting it into use.
They resisted installing new equipment because of the resulting downtime, and central planners frequently discouraged such modernization by failing to lower the plant's production target for the period involved. Inter-enterprise Debt Many defense plants have remained afloat by relying on Central Bank credits and by running up debts with other enterprises. Financially strapped enterprises could not pay their suppliers which created a chain reaction of unpaid debts that reverberated throughout the entire industrial sector.
Resistance to Change Some defense industry managers and workers are still resistant to the idea of conversion. The Russian Federation is determined to continue some military production, albeit at a greaUy reduced level, and some enterprise managers hope to gain those contracts and continue to produce military hardware, thus avoiding conversion. Others are not convinced that conversion is necessary, believing that Russia eventually will abandon defense conversion and economic reform and that they again will be required to produce weapons.
In addition, some defease industry employees oppose conversion because defense production was traditionally viewed as the more prestigious sector of the economy. Nevertheless, their resistance has weakened over the past few years as die special privileges associated with defense work— higher wages, special bonuses, and awards— have disappeared.
Recently, in fact, wages at defense plants have become lower than those at U. Petersburg other industrial enterprises. Another aspect that could cause problems in the conversion process is the possibility of unemployment and displacement of persons caused by the downsizing of defense industry. Since the Russian Federation previously adhered to a policy of near full employment, it has little experience with the demands associated with the large scale retraining and job placement of defense industry employees.
Besides providing employment, defense facilities also have been responsible for supplying numerous other social infrastructure benefits including: housing, schools, day care, medical, and other community support functions.
Many enterprises have been kept in operation through subsidies because of the social necessity of these services. Currently, some regions are in the process of transferring responsibility for such services to the local government, although plant managers often feel responsible for their workers and have been reluctant to give up responsibility for these services-particularly since local authorities are struggling to find a way to finance them.
The Privatization decree instructs Russian enterprises not to include social and cultural infrastructure items when placing a value on the enterprise's assets. Conversion projects may continue to provide employment for a number of these people; however, many are at risk of losing not only their jobs, but also their basic needs i. Due to the housing shortage, as well as the lack of a private housing market, many Russians have no means of finding alternative housing.
Again, defense facilities will be particularly hard hit because of the number of employees that they currently sustain. Thus, U. A second physical infrastructure barrier to defense conversion is the conversion process in and of itself. The experience of defense industry enterprises around the world indicates that attempts to re-tool military production lines to produce civilian goods are frequently unsuccessful.
In the United States when defense orders fall, defense firms usually become smaller, sell out to or merge with another firm, or go out of business. Commercial markets are significantly different from the defense customers that managers have learned how to satisfy in such areas as cost and quality requirements, maintenance and service, marketing and supplier networks, the length of production runs, and the demands for. People, physical equipment, buildings, and land are flexible and adaptable; institutions, management, and organizations are rigid.
The general assessment of several experts on Russian defense conversion is that it will be difficult to convert an entire existing facility to civilian production at one time. Potential joint venture partners and other investors may be more successful in targeting a specific portion of the production line or "corner" of the plant for a project. Some have even U. Petersburg suggested that successful conversion could involve establishing a new organization or building a new facility near the existing one and staffing it selectively from the existing enterprise.
Decisions on how to structure a specific transaction, how to finance it e. A third infrastructure factor would be the current and looming environmental and occupational safety hazards associated with many defense facilities. Defense plants have a disproportionate share of heavy industrial waste problems, and many sites are already severely contaminated. Western firms may not want to become responsible for the extremely high cost of cleaning up these sites. In addition, they may not want to expose their workers to the potentially harmful side effects of these polluted environments.
Divergent Expectations In recent years, a host of Western investors have come to Russia to explore possibilities for investment or cooperation with local defense enterprises. However, relatively few deals have actually been concluded.
Problems between Western investors and Russian defense enterprise directors stem from a number of factors, some related to the expectations of Western investors and others related to the expectations—or lack thereof- of Russian managers.
Sharply conflicting expectations surface when Western investors run across enterprise directors who have no interest in conversion projects or foreign cooperation in general. According to articles in the Russian press, some enterprise directors are not interested in conversion projects at all because they expect a return to the "old days" and want to be prepared again to produce arms. Western firms interested in these facilities will have to wait for new management.
Russian officials, both from the government and from defense industry, take great pride in the capability and advanced technology of Soviet-designed weapons. Russians typically regard their defense industry as the most technologically advanced sector of the economy and as capable of matching or exceeding the West. As a result. Russian defense industry managers generally seek Western investment to help them produce a high-tech product-most likely closely related to their previous military production— for export.
Western business persons, on the other hand, are frequendy interested in a project to produce civilian goods for the sizeable Russian market and frequendy regard Russian technology as considerably out-of-date. Another source of conflicting expectations surfaces when Western firms appear, in Russian eyes, to be going after the "crown jewels" of a particular enterprise. Several Russian enterprise directors and academics believe that Western business persons are interested only in stealing their advanced technology and state secrets radier than engaging in real cooperation.
In a typical scenario, a Western firm will propose a joint venture with a profitable division of an otherwise-unprofitable enterprise. Some enterprise directors balk at Uiis approach because it would mean during U. Petersburg managerial control of this division with the new joint venture. According to a representative of the State Committee of the Defense Sectors of Industry, some managers are refusing to relinquish control over their best divisions because they would be left managing a struggling complex of little real value.
The enterprise director prefers to talk about deals with his less-attractive divisions in hopes of boosting their value. The Western investors, not surprisingly, are less interested in such proposals. Despite these obstacles, deals can and are being made, but successful negotiations require imagination, persistence, and demonstrations of confidence and genuine interest in mutual benefits. On the other hand, Western business persons complain that the Russian "projects" they are asked to invest in are merely thoughts or concepts at best.
This Directory can help U. Before traveling to Russia, however, the U. See Chapter 7 for points of contact, etc. Once business plans have been prepared, Russian enterprises can more reasonably anticipate serious business discussions, particularly with the Western firms that will have previously noted their interest. Quantitative and Qualitative Factors Several positive factors regarding the Russian economy enhance the potential benefits from investments in Russia.
First, the sheer size and scope of the Russian market provides opportunities for a wide variety of products. The total Russian population is approximately million. It is well known that Russian consumers were deprived of many basic consumer goods and are now eager to acquire Western products. Although defense conversion may not provide immediate availability for some of these products, the channeling of industrial productivity to non-defense related items will provide a myriad of opportunities for a variety of U.
Second, by Western standards, the Russian labor force is generally considered to be well- educated and the defense industries have extremely well qualified, technical personnel. In addition, labor costs are relatively inexpensive for the level of education associated with work performed in high-tech defense sectors. Third, Russian defense enterprises have an overabundance of plant capacity.
Excess plant U. Petersburg capacity resulting from severe cutbacks in defease orders has left many plants underutilized, providing a commercially attractive aspect to an otherwise negative infrastructure outlook. Defense plants also tend to have some of the most sophisticated manufacturing equipment available in Russia. The technologies were measured in scientific mathematical or physical terms, or in business terms cheaper to manufacture, less labor-intensive, etc.
To emphasize that there are wide-ranging opportunities for those who persist in working through the obstacles discussed above, listed below are the technologies identified in the ITAG report, Soviet Commercial Technolog ies. Interagency Technology Assessment Group. This document is available through the National Technical Information Service, Analyzing, and Controlling Instruments: Photographic. Encouraging Perspectives Eugene K. Lawson, President, U.
Eximbank, offered the following perspective as encouragement to U. Largest untapped market in world resources - Russia represents the world's largest untapped market for natural resources e. Natural trading partners - Russia and the U. We like each other - There is a mutual and enduring respect and admiration between the people of both countries. Cold, not hot, war - Remember, our two countries have never fought against each other; it was a cold, not hot, war they engaged in for much of the previous 45 years.
Pent-up consumer demand - The needs and preferences of individuals and families in Russia have only recendy begun to acquire greater emphasis and priority. This is similar to, but far greater in scope than, die consumer-driven actions and priorities in the U. Room for growth in international trade - The number ol "joint ventures between U.
Petersburg g. See charts on following pages. No reason why U. Get outside of Moscow - Look at the spontaneous growth of capitalism and privatization at the regional and local level throughout Russia. Direct Investment Activity in Russia Estimates of the amount of foreign investment in Russia vary widely.
According to Goskomstat, Russia accumulated foreign investment of about USD 4 billion by the end of , representing 16, firms with foreign participation. Goskomstat puts a foreign direct investment in at USD 1 billion. Portfolio investments estimated at USD million. About 50 percent of foreign investment was in the country's fuel industry. Government System: Federal with 88 republics, provinces, and regions with varying degrees of autonomy.
Languages: Russian official , over other languages and dialects. Work Week: 40 hours per week. Exports to Russia 7 2. Imports from Russia 7 3. Petersburg Domestic Economy Figures in U. Embassy or officials estimates. In addition, 1. Excluding CIS countries. Foreign Investment Statistics According to Goskomstat, estimates of foreign investment in Russia vary widely. Russia accumulated foreign investment of USD 4 billion by the end of 19Q4.
Goskomstat puts foreign direct investment in at USD 1 billion. With the dissolution of that state, the United States is now liberalizing its controls toward Russia and the other emerging democracies among the countries of the former Soviet Union. The United States has a multi-agency export control organization devoted to the task. Dual-Use Export Controls The Department of Commerce administers export controls for items that can be used both for military and civilian dual-use purposes.
Recent changes in the Department of Commerce export control regulations have significantly increased the potential for high technology trade with Russia. The Commerce Department's Section The CCL greatly reduced the number of items controlled for reasons of national security, provided more specific descriptions of the items controlled, aligned control parameters with current industry standards, decontrolled items which are readily available "off-the- shelf in everyday commerce, and improved harmonization with the tariff system implemented by the U.
Customs Service. In addition, U. The United States and its partners in the now-defunct COCOM agree that the maintenance of some export controls on Russia remain strategically necessary. The more sophisticated the technology, the more likely it will require an export license.
The visit, conversations, or training representing the export may be in the United States or Russia. Petersburg A. Assistance All goods and technology on the CCL require an export license. To determine how a particular commodity or technical data is classified, follow the procedure listed below to obtain a commodity classification.
How to Obtain a Commodity Classification: 1. From the Manufacturer : The manufacturer should be able to provide the proper commodity classification Export Control Commodity Number[s]. Company Engineer : A company engineer who has technical expertise and knows the product well can review Section Follow the procedures below. Submit the following information: i. Product brochures with detailed technical specifications, iii. List specific commodities of concern 5 or less per request , iv.
Include model numbers if applicable. Include the following information in your cover letter. A recommended classification for the commodities. The reasons for the recommendations, including a technical analysis of the commodities in terms of the technical parameters specified in the regulations, and iii.
The reasons for providing a classification, if one does not U. Once Operations Support Branch OSB has classified the commodity, the individual will receive in reply an official letter containing the classification. BXA provides commodity classifications only in writing.
Box Washington, D. To check on the status of a license application or commodity classification call or fax your request to the Exporter Counselling Division at: Phone: Fax: STELA automated answering system 24 hour phone: 2. Defense Export Controls The United States controls the export of all defense items and the Department of State is responsible for these export controls.
Although it is the policy of the United States to deny exports of defense articles to proscribed destinations, including Russia, the Department of State anticipates that l S U. Petersburg industry will receive requests for defense equipment or services.
Prior to engaging in any consultations or transactions involving the export of defense articles, including technical data and technical assistance, companies should consult with the Department of State, Center for Defense Trade, Office of Defense Trade Controls or Office of Defense Trade Policy.
Department of State Washington, D. Background The June Charter for American-Russian Partnership and Friendship announced that "the United States and Russia agree that the process of normalization of technology trade is based on Russian determination to adhere strictly to world standards of export controls in the area of the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction and related technologies, missiles and missile technology, destabilizing conventional armaments, and dual-use goods and technologies.
In a state of the nation address in February, for example, Russian President Yeltsin proclaimed, "We are coming out unequivocally in favor of strengthening the regime of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and the latest military technologies. Petersburg 2.
Russian Export Controls According to Russian export control officials, the Russian Federation export control system has the following objectives: 1 protection of Russian state economic interests; 2 control of the export of raw materials that are used in developing missiles and weapons of mass destruction; and 3 control of items which are used in developing weapons of mass destruction, thereby preventing their proliferation, and meeting Russian international obligations.
President Yeltsin has issued a series of decrees since that provide the legal basis for developing export controls in Russia. The decrees established an interagency Russian Export Control Commission ECC that ensures a unified policy on the export of special weapons and related technologies.
The ECC makes decisions on controversial applications for most types of sensitive exports, including nuclear dual-use items and missile, chemical, and biological weapons-related items. Besides creating the Export Control Commission, President Yeltsin also established in the Interagency Commission on Military-Technical Cooperation to review applications for conventional weapons exports. Government decrees also establish lists of items subject to control.
Other lists cover nuclear-, missile-, chemical-, and biological-related materials and are typically based on international lists such as those of the Missile technology Control regime and the Nuclear Suppliers Group. The Russians indicate they followed the recommendations of the Australia Group for its lists of both chemical- and biological-related items, although there are some discrepancies The Russian Government requires exporters seeking to ship controlled commodities to submit applications for an export license to the Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations MFER.
If the Commission approves the export, then the Ministry' issues the license. For Don-industrial, non-dual use commodities, e. Petersburg- overseeing the industry sector that produces the commodity e. MFER bases a positive decision on the availability of the item and the importer's agreement not to use the item, directly or indirectly, for purposes banned by the international regimes.
The Russian government also prohibits the foreign importer from reexporting the item without written authorization of the Russian exporter. The recipient country is required to document these safeguards. The Russians also consider whether the importing country is a member of multilateral organizations in the area of nonproliferation; whether the importing country was ever denied the transfer of regulated technologies; whether the importing country ever used legal imports for purposes inconsistent with the obligations the Russians follow, etc.
The Russians are improving their criminal penalties. The legislature, early in , added a law which provides for three to eight years imprisonment for the illegal export of items from the controlled lists. Additionally, the Ministry of Justice has been directed to prepare proposals to institutionalize legal and administrative liability for unlawful exports.
Notwithstanding some evident progress, Russia has more work to do—particularly in the enforcement area—to have an effective export control system. Although Russian customs officials routinely intercept contraband shipments of strategic metals and petroleum, regulated materials, including small arms and radioactive materials, are making their way out without proper licensing.
Firms on the front lines of defense conversion will be prime candidates for the earliest efforts of industry outreach for export controls. In the meantime, inadequate funding has constrained hiring of border guards and limited the training programs that would better qualify them to identify sensitive materials and administer export controls.
Resource problems also limit Russia's ability to educate Russian industries on new export control regulations, although Russia has advertised new export control regulations in the press. Corruption has also complicated efforts to control weapons and technology transfers.
Ryzhikh The national medical research center of coloproctology. Almazov The national medical research center. Petersburg state chemical and pharmaceutical university. Serbian Russian Ministry of Health National medical research center of psychiatry and narcology.
Petersburg state pediatric medical university. Granov The Russian scientific center of radiology and surgical technologies. Petersburg university of the Public fire service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Petersburg telecom. Petersburg cable television TKT. Petersburg institute of nuclear physics of B. Petersburg data-processing center. Petersburg - Channel Five, shopping Mall. Chernomyrdin Surgut CSP. A telecom earlier - Clouds Technologies Yandex.
Petersburg regional branch Rosselkhozbank.
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