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Shen sapkota investments ipa release application and investment report

Shen sapkota investments

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FIDELITY WORLDWIDE INVESTMENTS IRELAND

To begin with, these countries have a comparative advantage in polluting industries, but as they raise their environmental standards, foreign investments decrease. This brings a corresponding decrease in the significance of trade openness in determining the emissions of these countries. The foreign investments that middle-income countries receive in the short-run are mainly due to their more relaxed environmental laws.

But, in the long-run, they increase their environmental standards, and efficiency becomes more important for attract more FDI inflows and reducing emissions. Finally, what if suddenly and unexpectedly, countries, irrespective of their income level, were all confronted by a symmetrical crisis? Generally, during an economic crisis, automatic stabilizers are triggered without additional efforts by governments to diminish its impacts, in an attempt to harmony the government budget balance. But this does not act in a symmetric crisis.

International trade suffers, and globalization reduces substantially, as reflected in areas such as tourism and the flows of FDI. A major question concern is whether the current pandemic will have a lasting impact on globalization; something that cannot be answered yet. An optimistic post-crisis scenario would anticipate the speedy return of international trade to pre-crisis levels, presenting a V-shaped recovery, but this may not happen. The same is true for FDI flows.

This crisis, although symmetrical amongst countries, has greater consequences for less-developed countries. For some countries, FDI is one of the major sources of income, productivity, and development. The consumption and the exportations highly reduced, the production stalled, and consequently, a sharp downward trajectory for these countries.

This symmetrical crisis exposes the fragilities of the dominant strategy of exploiting the comparative advantages of countries, particularly in production. Besides the peak effect of pollution in countries with a comparative advantage in polluting industries, this exploitation also exposes the debilities, external exposure, and dependency of the countries. At a time of economic uncertainty, multinational enterprises rethink their priorities, and limit capital expenditure related to foreign investments, delaying the flow of FDI flows, or even cancelling it.

More developed countries are major sources of outbound FDI, which means that profits in their foreign subsidiaries will be substantially reduced. Although less frequent, industry transferrals will probably still continue, source countries will probably switch their investment to closer countries. This will lead to changes in those countries most commonly targeted as recipients of FDI, which are generally less developed, and extremely dependant on FDI inflows.

This can reduce the costs of both the firms, and the public health response. FDI is crucial to help middle-income countries soften the impact of the pandemic crisis. Furthermore, source countries of FDI should make a greater effort to transfer improved technologies and techniques to these countries. This bidirectional benefit could lead to: cheaper labour, reduced costs, and improved environmental quality worldwide.

This is obviously a major issue needing urgent and extensive investigation in further research. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact that FDI has on pollution. In this study, countries were divided by income levels, because polluting industries are mainly transferred between countries with different levels of development and income.

The ARDL model provided a useful disaggregation of the impacts, making it possible to better understand the impacts extended over time. This paper contributes by expanding the literature on the FDI-environment nexus with empirical evidence of a linkage between variables whose may vary over time.

Another, innovative aspect of this paper is its consideration of factors such as the levels of regulation, innovation, and efficiency in the countries under scrutiny. Furthermore, the discussion about overall emissions and those from the industrial sector provides robust support for the PHH in middle-income countries, whereas high-income countries benefit from FDI phenomena.

The capacity of middle-income countries to absorb technology plays a critical role in analysing the impacts of FDI, although the positive effect of FDI on overall emissions takes time to develop. The countries in this study face a trade-off between FDI and meeting pollution reduction targets. The findings of this paper can provide policymakers with useful guidance to help understand how they can increase the income of a country through an inflow of FDI while, at the same time, preserving the environment.

With this in mind, is it crucial to establish a stable legal structure, as regulation plays an important role in this theme. Given the unexpected findings on the impact of regulation in high-income countries, these countries must combine different policy tools to obtain the goal of decreased emissions. For instance, it is available to not only regulate in the form of fees and taxes, but also to provide subsidies.

These subsidies must reward the investment that companies are obliged to carry out. The creation of direct subsidies for researchers and the foundation of research centres is strongly recommended. Increasing the level of human capital in countries will increase their environmental awareness.

An increase in the use of RES is also required. However, given that renewable energy involves higher costs than fossil fuels, policymakers should introduce policies to increase the competitiveness of RES, by decreasing investment costs. The environmental laws of the middle-income countries under analysis must be tightened. If the quality of their human capital increases, this will be reflected in greater innovation and efficiency.

Furthermore, these countries must improve their evaluation criteria for FDI quality, and make them more attractive for the entry of new multinational enterprises, enterprises that could bring with them advanced and eco-friendly technologies, and efficient management skills. Recipient countries must absorb these technologies to change their industrial structure. Co-operation between countries is also essential to guarantee the transfer of knowledge and efficiency, and it is important to remember that corruption is a serious concern and is difficult to control.

Policymakers from high-income countries must impose stricter controls on outflow FDI, applicable to the foreign subsidiaries of their parent companies, and ensure that these companies are investing in innovation and transferring their knowledge, and not just avoiding environmental compliance costs or relocating their emissions. With this co-operation and the mutual combination of different policy tools, high-income countries would be discouraged from transferring their polluting industries, and middle-income countries would not have to accept them.

Supplementary material associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi Correlation matrices and VIF statistics middle-income - industry sector. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. All rights reserved. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.

Associated Data Supplementary Materials mmc1. Abstract Besides bringing countries closer, the effects of globalization can help increase the production of goods and services, and foster economic growth. Introduction Environmental awareness varies between countries, something which is reflected in their economic priorities. Literature review The industrial structure of countries has been continually evolving since the industrial revolution.

Table 1 Variables description. Open in a separate window. Preliminary tests Preliminary tests were carried out to assess the presence of multicollinearity, collinearity, and the cross-sectional dependence of variables. Diagnostic tests To avoid biased results, the Robust Hausman test was carried out see, e. Table 2 Diagnostic tests. High-income Middle-income Robust Hausman test Results and discussion This section consists of three subsections. Table 3 Estimation results. Table 4 Estimation Results with CO 2 from the industry sector.

Comparison between models The findings of this paper shed light on the impact of FDI on the environment and addresses two aspects of this relationship: overall CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions from the industry sector. Conclusions This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact that FDI has on pollution.

Table A2 Descriptive statistics. High-income Middle-income Obs Mean Std. Dev Min. Obs Mean Std. LCO 2 2. Table A5 Panel unit root tests. Table A6 Zivot and Andrews unit roots test. Table A7 Test of overall significance. Table A10 Diagnostic tests industry sector. Appendix B. Supplementary materials Click here to view. References Adom P. Energy Econ. Factors affecting CO2 emission in the Middle East: a panel data analysis. Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: evidence from a panel error correction model.

A panel cointegration analysis of CO2 emissions, nuclear energy and income in major nuclear generating countries. Energy Policy. Carbon Footpr. Life Cycle. An approach to the pollution haven and pollution halo hypotheses in MINT countries. The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia.

Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev. Patents as proxy for measuring innovations: a case of changing patent filing behavior in Indian public funded research organizations. Total Environ. Determining the trade-environment composition effect: the role of capital, labor and environmental regulations. Growth, foreign direct investment, and the environment: evidence from chinese cities. Testing for cross-sectional dependence in panel-data models. Stata J. The effect of FDI on environmental emissions: evidence from a meta-analysis.

Emission reduction target, complexity and industrial performance. How does the industry mobility affect pollution industry transfer in China: empirical test on Pollution Haven Hypothesis and Porter Hypothesis. Does the worldwide shift of FDI from manufacturing to services accelerate economic growth? A GMM estimation study. Money Finance. Globalization and the environmental impact of sectoral FDI. Consistent covariance matrix estimation with spatially dependent panel data.

Linking international trade and foreign direct investment to CO2 emissions: any differences between developed and developing countries. Plant vintage, technology, and environmental regulation. Dynamic relationship among environmental regulation, innovation, CO2 emissions, population, and economic growth in OECD countries: a panel investigation. Foreign direct investment and air pollution in China: evidence from Chinese cities. Region et Developpement.

The econometric consequences of an energy consumption variable in a model of CO2 emissions. Renewable energy policies and technological innovation: evidence based on patent counts. Environmental regulations and innovation activity in UK manufacturing industries. Linking induced technological change, and environmental regulation: evidence from patenting in the U. Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties.

Does foreign direct investment harm the host country's environment? Evidence from China. A Comparative study of unit root tests with panel data and a new simple test. Energy efficiency and sustainable growth in industrial sectors in European Union countries: a nonlinear ARDL approach. Foreign direct investment and decoupling between energy and gross domestic product in developing countries. Is energy consumption in the transport sector hampering both economic growth and the reduction of CO2 emissions?

A disaggregated energy consumption analysis. Causal interactions between CO2 emissions, FDI, and economic growth: evidence from dynamic simultaneous-equation models. What is energy efficiency? Concepts, indicators and methodological issues. Impact Assess Rev. Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. University of Cambridge, Faculty of Economics; Cambridge Working Papers in Economics No.

A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence. International trade, FDI foreign direct investment and embodied CO2 emissions: a case study of chinas industrial sectors. China Econ. Can foreign direct investment harness energy consumption in China? A time series investigation. Foreign direct investment, income, and environmental pollution in developing countries: panel data analysis of Latin America.

A contribution of foreign direct investment, clean energy, trade openness, carbon emissions and economic growth to energy demand in UAE. Does foreign direct investment impede environmental quality in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Environmental degradation in France: the effects of FDI, financial development, and energy innovations. Foreign direct investment—CO 2 emissions nexus in Middle East and North African countries: importance of biomass energy consumption.

The effect of environmental policy tools on regional green innovation: evidence from China. Can China contribute more to the fight against global warming. Policy Model. Energy consumption and income in G-7 countries. Does innovation respond to climate change? Empirical evidence from patents and greenhouse gas emissions. Investigation of pollution haven hypothesis for China: an ARDL approach with breakpoint unit root tests.

Special issue 8. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. World Investment Report Investment Policy Monitor. Special issue Xing Y. Do lax environmental regulations attract foreign investment. Total-factor carbon emission performance of fossil fuel power plants in China: a metafrontier non-radial Malmquist index analysis.

Does foreign direct investment lead to lower CO2 emissions? Evidence from a regional analysis in China. Further evidence on the great crash, the oil-price shock, and the unit-root hypothesis. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Energy efficiency index — Calculated using Eq. Environmentally related tax revenue as a share of Gross Domestic Product. Jointly considering the results of the ZA test, an analysis of each country's socio-economic context, and an analysis of the residuals, the milestones were identified and evaluated.

These improvements are allied to the first commitment period of the Kyoto protocol. Bulgaria increased its energy consumption in and was considered the economy with the highest level of energy intensity in , according to the European Commission. From , emissions in Bulgaria started to rise, and in reached levels of pollution.

Spain dealt with an economic crisis in , which could explain the slowdown in its emissions. If an increase in energy consumption leads to an upsurge in pollution, this rekindles the argument about energy sources, suggesting that these countries are not using enough renewable energy sources RES , which can help in reduce emissions e. Once again these are related to the question of energy sources.

Energy-efficiency contributes to reducing emissions in high-income countries, but it is only effective in reducing pollution in the long-run in middle-income countries. As a proxy of environmental regulation, environmentally-related tax revenue produced an unanticipated result, as it was expected to reduce CO 2 emissions.

On the contrary, it appeared to increase pollution in the short-run in high-income countries. This outcome could mean that these environmental taxes are not a good instrument for reducing emissions. For middle-income countries, environmental regulations seemed to decrease emissions as they were supposed to do.

This effect does not necessarily mean that environmental regulation is more effective in middle-income countries. Even though regulation decreases pollution in the long-run, the implementation of new environmental laws does not have much effect in the short-run. For instance, countries develop new technologies and register their intellectual property with the specific aim of decreasing pollution.

This does not mean that these countries have become less environmentally aware, but rather that they develop new technologies to decrease emissions to a certain level, and then suspend further research in new technologies. In contrast, middle-income countries seem to develop new patents in direct proportion to their economic growth, with the aim of growing as quickly and inexpensively as possible.

High-income countries were found to benefit from FDI, as it reduced CO 2 emissions, both in the short- and long-run, thereby supporting the Pollution Halo Hypothesis. This effect has a strong linkage with the level of a country's environmental protection and efficiency, policies that tend to preclude the admission of dirty FDI. One can observe that, in middle-income countries, FDI caused an increase in pollution in the short-run, while decreasing it in the long-run.

The short-run effect supports the PHH. However, in the long-run, FDI decreased emissions. Initially, the effect of FDI on the environment depends on a country's environmental awareness, economic development, and above all, its capacity to absorb technology. In brief, middle-income countries could be receiving both dirty and clean FDI. In the short-run, clean FDI does not improve the environment due to the lower capacity of middle-income countries to absorb technology.

However, in the long-run, these countries seem to incorporate the new technologies and techniques, applying imported knowledge in their domestic firms, and, consequently, decreasing pollution. Furthermore, as previously stated, the main objective of this paper is the analysis of the transfer of polluting industries between countries through FDI, as this transfer does not embody environmental improvements, only a reallocation of emissions sources.

The socio-economic context was also considered, paying particular attention to the industrial sector. A more detailed analysis of the idiosyncrasies of certain countries showed that in , for example, the price of oil caused a favourable shock in demand in Norway, which increased oil investment and fiscal receipts.

In , Bulgaria faced a difficult year. In addition to the global economic crisis, gas supplies were cut during the Russia-Ukraine gas dispute. Moreover, the production of industrial minerals, such as cement, for example, registered a significant decrease, accompanied by a significant reduction in refined lead exports according to International Business Publications.

The Hungarian Central Statistical Office 5 stated that, in , a substantial increase in the external trade of transport equipment arose. In this year, the gross fixed capital formation rose by 1. Energy efficiency enhances environmental quality and defines the environmental performance of the industrial. Neither patents nor environmental regulations were shown to be statistically significant in explaining emissions from industry in either high- and middle-income countries.

This absence of statistical significance could mean that governments are not paying enough attention to increasing innovation in the industry sector or considering the pollution emitted by this sector. One observes that FDI presents different degrees of statistical significances in the short- and long-run.

Thus, FDI causes a decrease in CO 2 emissions from the industry in high-income countries, and it increases them in middle-income countries. These results also support the PHH for middle-income countries. The findings of this paper shed light on the impact of FDI on the environment and addresses two aspects of this relationship: overall CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions from the industry sector. Overall, the results were high consistent, not only in relation to the literature but also between each other.

They suggest that gross fixed capital formation and trade openness should be treated as the main drivers of pollution, probably due to them causing an increase in energy consumption. These countries affected should improve their RES capacity.

Given that energy-efficiency helps in reducing emissions, these countries should rethink their environmental regulations related to energy production sources to move away from fossil fuels. Where it is more cost-effective, some firms prefer to pay extra taxes to keep pollute, rather than invest in innovation, as it is more countervailing, which explains why pollution may increase despite regulation in high-income countries.

One observes that FDI can be seen to improve environmental quality in high-income countries, but harms in middle-income countries in the short-run. However, in the long-run, FDI could also help middle-income countries reduce their emissions. Regarding the contrasting effects on high-income and middle-income countries, there is no doubt about the effect of transferring of polluting industries in the short-term; however, the positive effect in the long-run could provoke some doubts.

Broadly speaking, if middle-income countries receive new technology, it must be absorbed and applied in their industries to increase the influence of the technique effect. The results suggest that this absorption is happening, but only very slowly.

However, regarding the industry, the FDI only impacts their emissions in the short-run, which means that they are not applying or absorbing enough green technology to benefit from the phenomenon as much as high-income countries. In summary, the Pollution Halo Hypothesis is supported for high-income countries, and the PHH is sustained for middle-income countries. Although high-income countries increase their external dependency by importing finished goods, they are still more profitable, because they circumvent stricter environmental regulation.

Nonetheless, this only happens because middle-income countries have lower levels of environmental regulation. Without sufficient capability to absorb technology, firms cannot apply imported knowledge quickly, and its benefits will be delayed. Policymakers must pay more attention to the industrial sector to encourage the development of green patents linked to industries, to increase their efficiency.

Furthermore, policymakers should also tighten their environmental laws, especially concerning the admission of new industries, to avoid dirty FDI. It is extremely important to establish a logical linkage between outcomes. Trade openness was once considered a main driver of pollution in middle-income countries, but does not appear to be statistical significance in the long-run. Middle-income countries may not have enough trade openness to have an impact on pollution in the long-run, but a more probable explanation has emerged.

In the short-run, in an attempt to increase income, these countries increase their trade openness without major environmental concerns. This is reflected in the statistical non-significance of regulation in the short-run. Then, both FDI and trade openness increase pollution, reflecting the arrival of new polluting industries and the production of energy-intensive goods. However, perhaps due to the pressure of international agreements, in the long-run, these countries improve their environmental awareness and regulations to control polluting emissions.

To begin with, these countries have a comparative advantage in polluting industries, but as they raise their environmental standards, foreign investments decrease. This brings a corresponding decrease in the significance of trade openness in determining the emissions of these countries.

The foreign investments that middle-income countries receive in the short-run are mainly due to their more relaxed environmental laws. But, in the long-run, they increase their environmental standards, and efficiency becomes more important for attract more FDI inflows and reducing emissions.

Finally, what if suddenly and unexpectedly, countries, irrespective of their income level, were all confronted by a symmetrical crisis? Generally, during an economic crisis, automatic stabilizers are triggered without additional efforts by governments to diminish its impacts, in an attempt to harmony the government budget balance. But this does not act in a symmetric crisis. International trade suffers, and globalization reduces substantially, as reflected in areas such as tourism and the flows of FDI.

A major question concern is whether the current pandemic will have a lasting impact on globalization; something that cannot be answered yet. An optimistic post-crisis scenario would anticipate the speedy return of international trade to pre-crisis levels, presenting a V-shaped recovery, but this may not happen.

The same is true for FDI flows. This crisis, although symmetrical amongst countries, has greater consequences for less-developed countries. For some countries, FDI is one of the major sources of income, productivity, and development. The consumption and the exportations highly reduced, the production stalled, and consequently, a sharp downward trajectory for these countries. This symmetrical crisis exposes the fragilities of the dominant strategy of exploiting the comparative advantages of countries, particularly in production.

Besides the peak effect of pollution in countries with a comparative advantage in polluting industries, this exploitation also exposes the debilities, external exposure, and dependency of the countries. At a time of economic uncertainty, multinational enterprises rethink their priorities, and limit capital expenditure related to foreign investments, delaying the flow of FDI flows, or even cancelling it. More developed countries are major sources of outbound FDI, which means that profits in their foreign subsidiaries will be substantially reduced.

Although less frequent, industry transferrals will probably still continue, source countries will probably switch their investment to closer countries. This will lead to changes in those countries most commonly targeted as recipients of FDI, which are generally less developed, and extremely dependant on FDI inflows. This can reduce the costs of both the firms, and the public health response. FDI is crucial to help middle-income countries soften the impact of the pandemic crisis.

Furthermore, source countries of FDI should make a greater effort to transfer improved technologies and techniques to these countries. This bidirectional benefit could lead to: cheaper labour, reduced costs, and improved environmental quality worldwide. This is obviously a major issue needing urgent and extensive investigation in further research. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact that FDI has on pollution.

In this study, countries were divided by income levels, because polluting industries are mainly transferred between countries with different levels of development and income. The ARDL model provided a useful disaggregation of the impacts, making it possible to better understand the impacts extended over time. This paper contributes by expanding the literature on the FDI-environment nexus with empirical evidence of a linkage between variables whose may vary over time.

Another, innovative aspect of this paper is its consideration of factors such as the levels of regulation, innovation, and efficiency in the countries under scrutiny. Furthermore, the discussion about overall emissions and those from the industrial sector provides robust support for the PHH in middle-income countries, whereas high-income countries benefit from FDI phenomena. The capacity of middle-income countries to absorb technology plays a critical role in analysing the impacts of FDI, although the positive effect of FDI on overall emissions takes time to develop.

The countries in this study face a trade-off between FDI and meeting pollution reduction targets. The findings of this paper can provide policymakers with useful guidance to help understand how they can increase the income of a country through an inflow of FDI while, at the same time, preserving the environment.

With this in mind, is it crucial to establish a stable legal structure, as regulation plays an important role in this theme. Given the unexpected findings on the impact of regulation in high-income countries, these countries must combine different policy tools to obtain the goal of decreased emissions. For instance, it is available to not only regulate in the form of fees and taxes, but also to provide subsidies. These subsidies must reward the investment that companies are obliged to carry out.

The creation of direct subsidies for researchers and the foundation of research centres is strongly recommended. Increasing the level of human capital in countries will increase their environmental awareness.

An increase in the use of RES is also required. However, given that renewable energy involves higher costs than fossil fuels, policymakers should introduce policies to increase the competitiveness of RES, by decreasing investment costs. The environmental laws of the middle-income countries under analysis must be tightened. If the quality of their human capital increases, this will be reflected in greater innovation and efficiency. Furthermore, these countries must improve their evaluation criteria for FDI quality, and make them more attractive for the entry of new multinational enterprises, enterprises that could bring with them advanced and eco-friendly technologies, and efficient management skills.

Recipient countries must absorb these technologies to change their industrial structure. Co-operation between countries is also essential to guarantee the transfer of knowledge and efficiency, and it is important to remember that corruption is a serious concern and is difficult to control. Policymakers from high-income countries must impose stricter controls on outflow FDI, applicable to the foreign subsidiaries of their parent companies, and ensure that these companies are investing in innovation and transferring their knowledge, and not just avoiding environmental compliance costs or relocating their emissions.

With this co-operation and the mutual combination of different policy tools, high-income countries would be discouraged from transferring their polluting industries, and middle-income countries would not have to accept them. Supplementary material associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at doi This data has been text mined from the article, or deposited into data resources.

Coronavirus: Find the latest articles and preprints. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity. Recent history Saved searches. Marques A 1 ,. Caetano R 2. Affiliations 1 author 1. Share this article Share with email Share with twitter Share with linkedin Share with facebook. Free full text. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics.

Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. All rights reserved. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVIDrelated research that is available on the COVID resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source.

Go to:. Table 1 Variables description. Open in a separate window. Preliminary tests Preliminary tests were carried out to assess the presence of multicollinearity, collinearity, and the cross-sectional dependence of variables. Diagnostic tests To avoid biased results, the Robust Hausman test was carried out see, e.

Table 2 Diagnostic tests. High-income Middle-income Robust Hausman test Table 3 Estimation results. Table 4 Estimation Results with CO 2 from the industry sector. Comparison between models The findings of this paper shed light on the impact of FDI on the environment and addresses two aspects of this relationship: overall CO 2 emissions and CO 2 emissions from the industry sector.

Table A2 Descriptive statistics. High-income Middle-income Obs Mean Std. Dev Min. Obs Mean Std. LCO 2 2. Table A5 Panel unit root tests. Table A6 Zivot and Andrews unit roots test. Table A7 Test of overall significance. Table A10 Diagnostic tests industry sector. Click here to view. Adom P. Energy Econ. Factors affecting CO2 emission in the Middle East: a panel data analysis.

Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption-growth nexus: evidence from a panel error correction model. A panel cointegration analysis of CO2 emissions, nuclear energy and income in major nuclear generating countries. Energy Policy. Carbon Footpr. Life Cycle. An approach to the pollution haven and pollution halo hypotheses in MINT countries. The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.

Patents as proxy for measuring innovations: a case of changing patent filing behavior in Indian public funded research organizations. Total Environ. Determining the trade-environment composition effect: the role of capital, labor and environmental regulations. Growth, foreign direct investment, and the environment: evidence from chinese cities.

Testing for cross-sectional dependence in panel-data models. Stata J. The effect of FDI on environmental emissions: evidence from a meta-analysis. Emission reduction target, complexity and industrial performance. How does the industry mobility affect pollution industry transfer in China: empirical test on Pollution Haven Hypothesis and Porter Hypothesis.

Does the worldwide shift of FDI from manufacturing to services accelerate economic growth?

Правда было? ahmed zouari placemark investments еще варианты?

The province, which increased its annual offshore duty-free shopping quota from 30, yuan to , yuan per person starting from July, also saw its daily average sales of duty-free shops exceed million yuan this year, he said. Going forward, Shen pledged to expand opening up in the area of data, saying that businesses that are registered and have their service facilities located in the free trade port will be green-lighted to conduct services including online data processing and transaction processing.

Protecting lives and livelihood during the pandemic. China's Hainan Island aims to double foreign investment inflow. Indonesia 1h ago Indonesia to promote investments at special World Economic Forum meet. Article type: metered. Did you find this article insightful? Related News. Next In Aseanplus News. China to boost financial cooperation with Singapore: officials. World economy risks buckling into despite vaccine hope. Health Ministry: Over a third of all Covid clusters are linked to workplaces.

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