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During the Open Innovation Week selected startups and senior executives date to discuss partnerships, investments, contracts and other ways to implement their innovative solutions together Ranking Open Startups. The results from these encounters generate the annual Open Startups Ranking heavily appraised by investors and covered by media.

Sponsors Does your company want to be a part of this movement? Get to know the global challenges proposed by leading corporations open to engaging with startups. Choose the challenge that your startup fits better and be a protagonist of the solution. Check the opportunities from the corporations opened to co-create with startups solutions to their challenges.

Attractiveness is measured through objective criteria, specifically related to business relations established by startups and large companies. Saras Sarasvathy. This symbiotic exchange of ideas and knowledge helps companies gain from knowledge on new technologies and products, cultural refresh, exposure to new talent and innovative opportunities to collaborate. Ninad Gadgil, 3M India Enterprise connect is a big challenge for startups and Open Startups is providing an excellent platform to solve this.

It was great being part of the Bangalore event. We got instant access to a lot of relevant businesses and are looking forward to work closely with Open Startups initiative. Rohit Agarwal, Ikarus Technology openstartups are actually helping the emerging start-ups in various geographies to understand what big companies are indeed interested. This is indeed an excellent platform for both big companies as well as small entrepreneurs who aspires to see a big vision.

Access new resources connecting with large corporations and be part of the Open Startups Ranking. Meet, monitor and contribute with startups of your expertise and interest. Connect with startups communities worldwide and collaborate with the most attractive and promising solutions. Name cut:true' Consultate sempre il vostro medico o altri operatori sanitari qualificati, ponendo domande riguardo la vostra situazione.

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Termini d'uso Tutela della privacy Tutela della sicurezza www. This accreditation demonstrates to the marketplace and to regulators that the laboratories have met the IAS accreditation requirements and are periodically monitored for compliance. IAS offers prompt, personal service, including rapid scheduling of assessments to meet the needs of laboratories.

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In order to protect and conserve biological diversity, the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers adopted national criteria to measure sustainable forest management. This report describes the Montane Cordillera landscape conditions, pre-industrial ecological influences, current ecological influences, and the impact of invasive alien insects and diseases on the diversity of tree species. Pine forests in the Montane Cordillera ecozone are threatened by the mountain pine beetle.

Fire suppression has also resulted in ecological changes to forests in the Montane Cordillera , including an increase in Douglas-firs, gradual replacement of Lodgepole pine forests, and reduced health of Ponderosa pine ecosystems. Alien insects are being monitored by provincial forestry agencies through annual surveys. They are also being controlled through localized treatment programs. The impact of land use practices such as forest harvesting on forest structure and composition was also addressed.

It was noted that the unrestricted movement of wood and forestry products also increases the threat of invasive alien diseases and insects. The trees in this ecozone have not been damaged by air pollution. Geochronology of Quaternary glaciations from the tropical Cordillera Huayhuash, Peru.

Hall, Sarah R. The Cordillera Huayhuash in the central Peruvian Andes Geomorphology and geochronology in the nearby Cordillera Blanca and Junin Plain reveal that the Peruvian Andes preserve a detailed record of tropical glaciation. We have used in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in quartz bearing erratics on moraine crests and ice-polished bedrock surfaces to develop an exposure age chronology for Pleistocene glaciation within the range.

We have also collected sediment cores from moraine-dammed lakes and bogs to provide limiting 14C ages for glacial deposits. The range displays a pronounced east-west variation in maximum down-valley distance from the headwall of moraine crests with considerably longer paleoglaciers in the eastern drainages. We suggest that valley morphology, specifically valley slope, strongly influences down-valley distance to the maximum glacier extent and potential for moraine preservation.

Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics.

Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline here renamed as Patagonian Arc , and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility AMS from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego Argentina.

AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field.

A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc i. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled.

Superposition of tectonic structures leading elongated intramontane basin: the Alhabia basin Internal Zones, Betic Cordillera. The relief of the Betic Cordillera was formed since the late Serravallian inducing the development of intramontane basins. The geometry of the basin has been constrained by new gravity data. Plate convergence in the region rotated counter-clockwise in Tortonian times favouring the formation of E-W dextral faults.

The Alhabia basin shows a cross-shaped depocentre in the zone of synform and fault intersection. This field example serves to constrain recent counter-clockwise stress rotation during the latest stages of Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution in the Betic Cordillera Internal Zones and underlines the importance of studying the basins' deep structure and its relation with the tectonic structures interactions.

Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota Peru. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range Cordillera Blanca , other regions have received little attention to date. In , a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru.

In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately km2 in Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year. This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers.

In , a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at m asl. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier.

Surface-exposure dating with in-situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes has provided the basis for a growing framework of glacial chronologies in the tropical Andes. These seemingly contradictory findings raise several questions: Was the LLGM a relatively minor event in the Peruvian Andes, far exceeded by bigger, older advances? Which combination of geographic and geomorphic factors increases the likelihood that evidence of older advances will be preserved? With these questions in mind, we sought a site with both high peaks and a high-altitude plateau.

The Conococha Plain ca. Large lateral moraines extend onto the Conococha Plain from the west-facing valleys and multiple moraine loops lie upvalley, closer to active ice margins. Surface-exposure dating 10Be indicates that the largest lateral moraines from Jeullesh Valley are compound features deposited during the LLGM ca. Fluvial outwash deposits beyond the termini of the moraines on the Conococha Plain are underlain by lodgement till that is up to 20 m thick and extends ca.

Nokleberg, Warren J. The oblique convergences and rotations resulted in the fragmentation, displacement, and duplication of formerly more continuous arcs, subduction zones, passive continental margins, and contained metallogenic belts. These fragments were subsequently accreted along the margins of the expanding continental margins. In this region, the multiple arc accretions were accompanied and followed by crustal thickening, anatexis, metamorphism, formation of collision-related metallogenic belts, and uplift; this resulted in the substantial growth of the North Asian and North American continents.

Oblique convergence between the Pacific Plate and Alaska also resulted in major dextral-slip faulting in interior and southern Alaska and along the western part of the Aleutian- Wrangell arc. Associated with dextral-slip faulting was crustal extrusion of terranes from western Alaska into the Bering Sea.

Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia. Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America the Tahami Terrane are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous.

Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during Ma.

Continental arc magmatism during Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin.

Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1 km.

Epub June Se parece a poblaciones del complejo de Atelopus ignescens de los Andes del norte de Ecuador y del sur de Colombia. Here we describe a new species of the genus Bolitoglossa, named Bolitoglossa guaneae sp. The highest number of species of this genus is found in the cloud forests located in the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental.

Richard; Crighton, Devin;. Flux densities span 14 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei AGN and 24 dusty star- forming galaxies DSFGs.

When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to GHz, with the trend continuing to GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A sub , of 3. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

Denudation rates and tectonic geomorphology of the Spanish Betic Cordillera. The tectonic control on landscape morphology and long-term denudation is largely documented for settings with high uplift rates. Relatively little is known about the rates of geomorphic response in areas of low tectonic uplift.

Here, we evaluate spatial variations in denudation of the Spanish Betic Cordillera based on cosmogenic 10Be-derived denudation rates. Denudation rates are compared to published data on rock uplift and exhumation of the Betic Cordillera to evaluate steady-state topography. Catchment-wide denudation is linearly proportional to the mean hillslope gradient and local relief.

Despite large spatial variation in denudation, the magnitude and spatial pattern of denudation rates are generally consistent with longer-term local uplift rates derived from elevated marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. This might be indicative of a steady-state topography where rock uplift is balanced by denudation.

Het Westelijk gedeelte van de Republiek Columbia Zuid Amerika wordt ingenomen door de Cordilleras de los Andes, welke in genoemde republiek uit drie hoofdketens bestaat, t. Een studie werd gemaakt van een centraal gelegen Strook. Intraterrane variations in the cooling and exhumation histories in the Salado terrane suggest that nonterrane-bounding faults played a significant role during its Pliocene-Recent evolution.

The Salado terrane preserves an older history that reveals elevated cooling rates during and Ma. Vertical reactivation of the Llanganates fault, which separates the Salado and Loja terranes, during the Pliocene-Recent coincides with the main stages of formation of the juxtaposed Interandean Depression, which provides further constraints on the growth phases of the depression and the Cordillera. Downscaling reanalysis data to high-resolution variables above a glacier surface Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. The approach is particular in the context of ESD for two reasons. First, the observational time series for model calibration are short only about two years. Second, unlike most ESD studies in climate research, we focus on variables at a high temporal resolution i. Our target variables are two important drivers in the surface energy balance of tropical glaciers; air temperature and specific humidity.

The selection of predictor fields from the reanalysis data is based on regression analyses and climatologic considerations. The ESD modelling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses. Principal component screening is based on cross-validation using the Akaike Information Criterion as model selection criterion. Double cross-validation is applied for model evaluation.

Potential autocorrelation in the time series is considered by defining the block length in the resampling procedure. Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modelling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice by using both single- and mixed-field predictors of the variables air temperature hPa , specific humidity hPa , and zonal wind speed hPa.

The chosen downscaling domain ranges from 80 to 50 degrees west and from 0 to 20 degrees south. Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cuzco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes. The Cuzco basin forms a wide, relatively flat valley within the High Andes of southern Peru.

This larger basin includes the regional capital of Cuzco and the Urubamba Valley, or "Sacred Valley of the Incas" favored by the Incas for its mild climate and broader expanses of less rugged and arable land. The valley is bounded on its northern edge by a km-long and km-wide zone of down-to-the-south systems of normal faults that separate the lower area of the down-dropped plateau of central Peru and the more elevated area of the Eastern Cordillera foldbelt that overthrusts the Amazon lowlands to the east.

Previous workers have shown that the normal faults are dipslip with up to m of measured displacements, reflect north-south extension, and have Holocene displacments with some linked to destructive, historical earthquakes. We have constructed topographic and structural cross sections across the entire area to demonstrate the normal fault on a the plateau peneplain.

The footwall of the Eastern Cordillera , capped by snowcapped peaks in excess of 6 km, tilts a peneplain surface northward while the hanging wall of the Cuzco basin is radially arched. Erosion is accelerated along the trend of the normal fault zone. As the normal fault zone changes its strike from east-west to more more northwest-southeast, normal displacement decreases and is replaced by a left-lateral strike-slip component. Hall, S. Cross-cutting relationships, geomorphology, and correlation with surface exposure dated moraines in the nearby Cordillera Blanca suggest the region preserves a rich record of tropical glaciation.

In order to determine the glacial chronology we mapped and dated glacial features of the Jahuacocha valley which drains the western side of the range and two eastern drainages, the Mitococha valley, and the Carhuacocha valley. We sampled quartz-bearing erratics on moraine crests as well as ice-polished bedrock surfaces for exposure age dating using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al. Our preliminary results suggest that all three valleys experienced a very similar glacial history with minor differences likely due to the variations in valley morphology.

Comparing the chronology of glaciation in the Cordillaera Huayhuash with that in regions to the. The use of calcite twinning to infer compression directions and strain axes patterns has been applied widely in both fold and thrust belts, and continental interiors. Calcite twinning is noted to be one of the most precise methods for determining the internal strain of deformed rocks.

Until now, such data from the deformed plate boundary of the Central Andes were lacking. This study has examined twinning orientations along the deformed Andean foreland southern Bolivia and northern Argentina from to latitude. In the Central Andes, we find an abundance of calcite twins in intervals of the Cretaceous age Yacorite limestone. Twin samples were collected, measured for orientation and type I and II can be best used for strain analysis , and processed using the Groshong method, to give resultant strain tensors.

The orientations of the twin short axes trend mostly NE-SW, which is close to the plate convergence direction. However, in a limited number of samples from the north, adjacent to the southern culmination of the active Subandean fold thrust belt, they trend NW-SE. This difference may be related to the more active, or more recent, shortening of the southern portion of the Eastern Cordillera , south of the culmination of the Subandean belt.

This implies that twin short axes vary consistently with respect to geographic location and local tectonic regime. NW-SE trends in the northern region match well with fault kinematic studies in rocks pre-dating the San Juan del Oro unconformity Ma. In the Eastern Cordillera , where there is present day tectonic activity, the plunges of the twin short axes are found to be almost horizontal. This suggests that the twins were formed after folding occurred. As tropical glaciers continue to rapidly retreat in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, dry-season water resources are becoming more dependent on groundwater baseflow.

Therefore, understanding the flux and storage of proglacial groundwater is necessary to forecast how groundwater storage can offset decreasing water resources. Recent studies of the Rio Santa Watershed, which drains the western slopes of the Cordillera Blanca, have identified that groundwater is the largest contributor to outflow from many watersheds during the dry season and that the flux of groundwater is temporarily available clay to silt sized glaciolacustrine material at each drill site.

Additionally numerous discontinuous sand lenses and localized glaciofluvial gravel deposits were observed within the clay layer. The glaciolacustrine deposits behave as confining units that were capable of generating localized artesian conditions in the coarse grain units. The occurrence of the clay units adjacent to the main stream channels suggests that the flatness of the valley floors is not the result of river meander.

The coarse grained units have the potential to act as important aquifers with significant groundwater storage and flow. Our preliminary findings indicate that the course grained units are important hydrogeological conduits with the ability to buffer low flow conditions in proglacial streams during the dry season. We present a new schematic model of how groundwater moves through these important proglacial environments, providing temporal storage of glacial meltwater and precipitation.

The Northern Cordillera , which encompasses western Canada and eastern Alaska, is a complex tectonic puzzle. Past terrane accretions, the present collision of the Yakutat block, large-scale plate motions, and past and present glacier change have created a tectonic landscape that includes a major transform system, most of the highest peaks in North America, and far-flung ongoing distributed deformation. We present an updated GPS velocity field as well as a new integrated tectonic block model for the region.

The style of deformation varies through the region. Surrounding the Yakutat collision, the model includes a number of small blocks that indicate rotations to the east, north, and west as material moves away from the collisional front. These small blocks also show evidence of internal deformation. Farther from the collisional front, blocks are larger and appear to behave more rigidly. In the south, northwestward motion resulting in a prominent band of coastal shear extends from Vancouver Island to Glacier Bay.

In the Arctic, small southeastward motions in Alaska transition to easterly motion in Canada that extends to the Mackenize Mountains near the Cordillera -craton boundary. A number of faults and fault systems accommodate relative Pacific-North America plate motion in the region, although the significant majority is along the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform system and the St.

Elias fold-and-thrust belt. Along the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte system, the motion is dominantly dextral with increasing oblique transpression to the south corresponding to a change in margin trend. At the northern end of the transform system, motion is distributed onto multiple faults.

The eastern Denali fault presently plays a minor role in accommodating. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known. Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador.

During the Pacific Coastal stage, northward displacement of the coastal forearc block along the Calacali-Pallatanga fault zone has driven crustal collapse in the Inter-Andean region. Coeval topographic rise of the Cordillera Occidental is indicated by the onset of clastic input from the west.

Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes northwestern Argentina and northern Chile. The geodynamic evolution of the Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana in the region of the southern Central Andes is characterized by the westward progression of orogenic basin formation through time.

The contemporaneous magmatic arc of an east-dipping subduction zone was presumably located in northern Chile. In the back-arc basin, a ca. Increased subsidence in the late Arenigian allowed for the accomodation of large volumes of volcaniclastic turbidites during the Middle Ordovician. Subsidence and sedimentation were caused by the onset of collision between the para-autochthonous Arequipa Massif Terrane AMT and the South American margin at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. This led to eastward thrusting of the arc complex over its back-arc basin and, consequently, to its transformation into a marine foreland basin.

As a result of thrusting in the west, a flexural bulge formed in the east, leading to uplift and emergence of the Cordillera Oriental shelf during the Guandacol Event at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. The folded strata were intruded post-tectonically by the presumably Silurian granitoids of the "Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental.

The corresponding deep marine turbidite basin was located in the region of the Cordillera de la Costa. Deposition continued until the basin fill was folded in the early Late Carboniferous Toco Orogeny. The basin. Analysis on the geological features and ore- forming conditions at the southern margin of Erdos basin. At the southern margin of Erdos basin, the paleo-interlayer-oxidation was developed in the medium-coarse-grained sandstone of Middle Jurassic System.

High content uranium was enriched which are favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposit. There had been found multiple sandstone-type uranium deposits ore occurrences in this area. Uranium mineralization occurs in the sand body of braided fluvial facies in the lower member of Zhiluo Formation of Middle Jurassic System.

It was controlled by the paleo-interlayer-oxidation. Uranium mineralization was closely related with the permeability of sandstone and occurs generally in the sandstones where is loose cementation and water permeability better. The stratum of Middle Jurassic System was extensively developed in the work area. Therefore it has great prospecting potential for the sandstone-type uranium deposit. Empirical-statistical downscaling of reanalysis data to high-resolution air temperature and specific humidity above a glacier surface Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca Peru provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term, atmospheric data. The ESD modeling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses and a double cross-validation scheme for model evaluation.

Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modeling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice using both single-field and mixed-field predictors. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day. The forecast skill largely depends on month and time of day, ranging from 0 to 0. The mixed-field predictors perform better than the single-field predictors.

The ESD model shows added value, at all time scales, against simpler reference models e. Gil, Antonio J. This WSW-wards dipping fault, formed by several segments of up to 7 km maximum length, favored the uplift of the Sierra Nevada footwall away from the Padul graben hanging wall. A non-permanent GPS network installed in constrains an average horizontal extensional rate of 0.

The fault length suggests that a maximum 6 magnitude earthquake may be expected, but the absence of instrumental or historical seismic events would indicate that fault activity occurs at least partially by creep. Striae on fault surfaces evidence normal-sinistral kinematics, suggesting that the Padul Fault may have been a main transfer fault of the westernmost end of the Sierra Nevada antiform. Nevertheless, GPS results evidence: 1 shortening in the Sierra Nevada antiform is in its latest stages, and 2 the present-day fault shows normal with minor oblique dextral displacements.

This region illustrates the importance of heterogeneous brittle extensional tectonics in the latest uplift stages of compressional orogens, as well as the interaction of folding during the development of faults at shallow crustal levels. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera , northern Philippines, Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide.

In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from to led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May were obtained from official sources and verified on site.

Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years median: 16 years. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases.

Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles. Role of erosion and isostasy in the Cordillera Blanca uplift: Insights from landscape evolution modeling northern Peru, Andes. The processes driving uplift and exhumation of the highest Peruvian peaks the Cordillera Blanca are not well understood.

Uplift and exhumation seem closely linked to the formation and movement on the Cordillera Blanca normal fault CBNF that delimits and shapes the western flank of the Cordillera Blanca. Several models have been proposed to explain the presence of this major normal fault in a compressional setting, but the CBNF and the Cordillera Blanca recent rapid uplift remain enigmatic. Whereas the Cordillera Blanca morphology demonstrates important erosion and thus a significant mass of rocks removal, the impact of erosion and isostasy on the evolution of the Cordillera Blanca uplift rates has never been explored.

We address the role of erosion and associated flexural rebound in the uplift and exhumation of the Cordillera Blanca with numerical modeling of landscape evolution. We perform inversions of the broad features of the present-day topography, total exhumation and thermochronological data using a landscape evolution model FastScape to provide constraints on the erosion efficiency factor, the uplift rate and the temperature gradient. Our results evidence the not negligible contribution of erosion and associated flexural rebound to the uplift of the Cordillera Blanca and allow us to question the models previously proposed for the formation of the CBNF.

The widespread silicic sheets are debated in the literature because they bear similarities between lavas and high grade ignimbrites. Here we provide new observations and interpretations for flow units with large, dark, and vesicle-poor lens-shaped blobs surrounded by a light-colored matrix. Maximum timescales of crystallization associated with the juvenile blobs and estimated from CSD slopes are on the order of millennia for phenocryst populations and on the order of decades for microphenocryst populations.

Its lithologic sequences are made up of a group of migmatites, gneisses and schists and an upper formation of marbles white dolomitic and the bottom and blue calcareous towards the top, linked with a transitional contact.

The structure of Sierra Blanca is comprised of folds, generally isoclinal, with reversed limbs and with important tectonic transpositions, the direction of which is approximately E-W in the eastern area and N-S and E-W in the West. In both areas the folds present opposing vergences, consistently towards the interior of the sierra.

The origin of these structures is explained with a model of westerly movements of the Blanca unit, in relation to the Los Reales unit, with the formation of frontal and lateral folds. In its advancement, the western part of Sierra Blanca underwent an important anti-clockwise rotation responsible for the co-existence of folds in N-S and E-W directions. These structures occurred under ductile conditions, owing to the presence of important overthrusting peridotitic masses of the Los Reales unit.

This model of westerly displacement is inserted in the process undergone by the Betic-Rif Internal Zones with Blanca and Los Reales units included which occurred at the end of the Oligocene-Early Miocene when the Gibraltar arch began to be formed. Results of a geochronology program for ore deposits in this metallogenic province, in addition to existing geochronological control of the ore deposits host rocks mainly intrusive allowed to define four different Metallogenic Epochs which could be extended to other zones in the Coastal Cordillera au.

The Campo de Dalias is an area with relevant seismicity associated to the active tectonic deformations of the southern boundary of the Betic Cordillera. A non-permanent GPS network was installed to monitor, for the first time, the fault- and fold-related activity. In addition, two high precision levelling profiles were measured twice over a one-year period across the Balanegra Fault, one of the most active faults recognized in the area.

The absence of significant movement of the main fault surface suggests seismogenic behaviour. The possible recurrence interval may be between and y. The repetitive GPS and high precision levelling monitoring of the fault surface during a long time period may help us to determine future fault behaviour with regard to the existence or not of a creep component, the accumulation of elastic deformation before faulting, and implications of the fold-fault relationship.

We present crustal velocities for 29 continuously recording GPS stations from the southern central Andes across the Puna, Eastern Cordillera , and Santa Barbara system for the period between the 27 February Maule and 1 April Iquique earthquakes in a South American frame. Velocity residuals calculated for each model demonstrate that locking on the NZ-SA interface is insufficient to reproduce the observed velocities. Ethno—botanical survey of edible wild fruits in Benguet, Cordillera administrative region, the Philippines.

Conclusions: Benguet province in the Cordillera region provides a diversity of edible wild fruits. The data gathered from the study signifies that collection, processing and utilization of edible wild fruits are still part of the daily activities of the people in Benguet.

Petrografic description of some igneous rocks from the Cordillera of South Mendoza, in the Argentine. Comparatively little is yet known of the intricate igneous history of the Cordillera of South Mendoza. Almost all the knowledge we have is due to the field- and stratigraphical work of Dr.

Gerth of Leiden bibl. Backlund bibl. Breaching of strike-slip faults and flooding of pull-apart basins to form the southern Gulf of California seaway from 8 to 6 Ma. Studies from multiple disciplines delineate the development of the oblique-divergent Pacific - North America plate boundary in the southern Gulf of California. Integration of onshore data from the Loreto - Santa Rosalia margin with offshore data from the Pescadero, Farallon, and Guaymas basins provides a detailed geologic history.

Our GIS-based paleotectonic maps of the plate boundary from 9 to 6 Ma show that evolution of pull-apart basins led to the episodic northwestward encroachment of the Gulf of California seaway. Because adjacent pull-apart basins commonly have highlands between them, juxtaposition of adjacent basin lows during translation and pull apart lengthening played a critical role in seaway flooding.

Microfossils and volcanic units date the earliest marine deposits at 9? By ca. East of Loreto basin, a short topographic barrier between the Pescadero and Farallon pull-apart basins suggests that the Farallon basin was either a terrestrial basin, or if breaching occurred, it may contain 8 Ma salt or marine deposits. This early southern seaway formed along a series of pull-apart basins within a narrow belt of transtension structurally similar to the modern Walker Lane in NV and CA. At ca.

Repeated breaching events and the isolation of the Guaymas basin in a subtropical setting formed a 2 km-thick salt deposit imaged in offshore seismic data, and thin evaporite deposits in the onshore Santa Rosalia basin. Impacts of anthropic pressures on soil phosphorus availability, concentration, and phosphorus forms in sediments in a Southern Brazilian watershed.

National de la Recherche Agronomique, Versailles France. Purpose: The transfer of soil sediments and phosphorus from terrestrial to aquatic systems is a common process in agricultural lands. The aims of this paper are to quantify the soil phosphorus availability and to characterize phosphorus forms in soil sediments as contaminant agents of waters as a function of anthropic pressures.

Materials and methods On three subwatersheds with different anthropic pressure, water and sediment samples were collected automatically in upstream and downstream discharge points in six rainfall events during the tobacco growing season. Phosphorus desorption capacity from soil sediments was estimated by successive extractions with anion exchange resins.

First-order kinetic models were adjusted to desorption curves for estimating potentially bioavailable particulate phosphorus, desorption rate constant, and bioavailable particulate phosphorus. Results and discussion The amount of bioavailable particulate phosphorus was directly correlated with the iron oxide content. The value of desorption rate constant was directly related with the total organic carbon and inversely with the iron oxide contents.

Phosphate ions were released to solution, on average, twice as rapidly from sediments collected in subwatersheds with low anthropic activity than from those ones of highly anthropic subwatersheds. Anthropic pressure on watershed can engender high sediment discharge, but these solid particles seem to present low phosphorus-releasing capacity to water during transport due to the evidenced high affinity between phosphorus and iron oxide from sediments.

Conclusions Anthropic pressure was related with sediment concentration and phosphorus release to aquatic systems. While natural vegetation along streams plays a role on soil and water depuration, it is unable to eliminate the phosphorus inputs intrinsic to the agricultural-intensive systems. Recommendations and perspectives The contamination of water in watershed by phosphates is facilitated by the. Trees in the southern Siberian Mountains forest-tundra ecotone have considerably increased their radial and apical growth increments during the last few decades.

This leads to the widespread vertical transformation of mat and prostrate krummholz forms of larch Larix sibirica Ledeb and Siberian pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour. An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that these transformations began in the mids. Larch showed a greater resistance to the harsh alpine environment and attained a vertical growth form in areas where Siberian pine is still krummholz. Upper larch treeline is about 10 m higher than Siberian pine treeline.

Positive correlation between growth increments and winter precipitation was attributed to snow cover protection for trees during wintertime. These results are interpreted as cooling ages after a major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite-suite intrusion at Ma related to the break-up of Rodinia along the Amazonian-Baltica collisional zone - the Putumayo Orogen.

Current plate reconstructions during the Neoproterozoic and previous age results indicate a correlation between the anorthositic complexes located in northwestern Venezuela Yumare Complex and southern Norway Rogaland Complex , suggesting a similar tectonic setting during orogenic relaxation along the Amazonian and Baltica suture.

The close association of these rocks and the Manzanillo Shear Zone indicates a main pathway for Ca-rich, 40Ar-free and hot fluids that locally raised the ambient T of the already exhumed and juxtaposed rock units. These fluids crystallized new hornblende and muscovite and thermally reset barroisite. This fluid activity event. Water soluble organic carbon in aerosols PM1, PM2. In the urbanized coastal zone of the Southern Baltic, complex measurements of water soluble organic carbon WSOC were conducted between and , involving atmospheric precipitation in its various forms rain, snow, mixed and PM1, PM2.

The average concentration of WSOC was equal to 2. The lowest concentration of WSOC was noted in summer as a result of effective removal of this compound with rainfall. On the other hand, the highest WSOC concentrations in PM1 occurred in winter at low air temperatures and greatest atmospheric stability, when there were increased carbon emissions from fuel combustion in the communal-utility sector and from transportation. WSOC concentrations in precipitation were determined by its form.

Mixed precipitation turned out to be the richest in soluble organic carbon 5. Snow and rain cleaned carbon compounds from the atmosphere more effectively when precipitation lasted longer than 24h, while in the case of mixed precipitation WSOC was removed most effectively within the first 24h. All rights reserved. This paper is a comparison and compilation of lichenometric and geomorphic studies performed by two independent teams in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, in and on 66 "Little Ice Age" moraines of 14 glaciers.

Using eleven new control points, we recalibrated the initial rapid growth phase of the previously established Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon growth curve. This curve was then used to estimate the age of "Little Ice Age" moraines.

The time of deposition of the most prominent and numerous terminal and lateral moraines on the Pacific-facing side of the Cordillera Blanca between AD and AD corresponds to the coldest and wettest phase in the tropical Andes as revealed by ice-core data.

Less prominent advances occurred between AD and On the lag time between internal strain and basement involved thrust induced exhumation: The case of the Colombian Eastern Cordillera. Thrust sheets accumulate internal strain before they start moving along discrete fault planes.

However, there are no previous studies evaluating the time difference between initiation of strain and fault displacement. In this paper we use observations from the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia to evaluate this interval.

We utilize multiple thermochronometers and paleothermometers to refine the timing of deformation. Based on these new data we build time-temperature path estimates that together with geometric outcrop-based structural analysis and fluid inclusions allow us to assign relative timing to features associated with strain, such as cleavage, veins and certain types of fractures, and compare that with the timing of thrusting. We find that cleavage was only formed close to maximum paleotemperatures, almost coeval with the onset of thrust-induced denudation by the Late Oligocene.

Our data show that the main period of strain hardening was short probably a few million years and occurred before first-order basement thrusting was dominant, but was associated with second-order folding. Three new species of Eleutherodactylus Amphibia: Leptodactylidae from high elevations of the cordillera Central of Colombia.

It is very similar to E. From the same locality, a new species of dwarf Eleutherodactylus, lacking a tympanum, is described. It appears to be a member of the E. This species is distributed from Antioquia to Cauca. These 15 species be long to tour species groups. Esta especie es muy parecida a E. Finalmente, se describe una especie grande y negra que se encuentra desde Antioquia hacia Cauca en la Cordillera Central.

Rapid glacier recession in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, is raising concerns about current and future water resources for the inhabitants of the Rio Santa watershed. Glacier meltwater buffers stream discharge throughout the range, reducing the variability of annual runoff and maintaining stream flows during the dry season. A better understanding of groundwater dynamics in high elevation watersheds is needed, including quantification of recharge, subsurface processes, and available storage.

We present the results from recent groundwater studies in the Cordillera Blanca where numerous investigative techniques have been used, including ground penetrating radar, hydraulic conductivity measurements, tracer tests, and hydrochemical mixing models. Our research focuses primarily on the low-relief pampa valley floors across which glacial-melt derived rivers flow. Across the Cordillera , these valley systems cover approximately 65 km2 and are comprised of unconsolidated glacial, talus, and lacustrine deposits and wetlands.

The valleys commonly have buried, permeable, talus aquifers that are overlain by relatively impermeable, glaciolacustrine deposits. While groundwater represents an important component of dry season water resources source of water in the Cordillera Blanca, it is also potentially vulnerable to climate change including changes in the precipitation regime and decrease in glacially derived recharge.

The geology and Mesozoic collisional history of the Cordillera Real, Ecuador. The geology of the metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Real of Ecuador is described in terms of five informal lithotectonic divisions. We deduce that during the Mesozoic repeated accretionary events occurred and that dextral transpression has been of fundamental importance in determining the tectonic evolution of this part of the Northern Andes.

The oldest event recognised, of probable Late Triassic age, may be related to the break-up of western Gondwana and generated a regional belt of 'S-type' plutons. During the Jurassic, major calc-alkaline batholiths were intruded. Following this, in latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous time, a volcano-sedimentary terrane, of possible oceanic or marginal basin origin the Alao division , and the most westerly, gneissic Chaucha-Arenillas terrane, were accreted to continental South America.

The accretion of the oceanic Western Cordillera took place in latest Cretaceous to earliest Tertiary time. This latter event coincided with widespread thermal disturbance, as evidenced by the large number of young K-Ar mineral ages recorded from the Cordillera Real.

Pedological and mineralogical investigations on a soil-paleosoil sequence within Andosols in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes region Laramate, An integrated research project of environmental sciences focuses on a group of four Andosol profiles in Western flank of the Peruvian southern Andes. Aim of this study is to contribute to the reconstruction of the paleo environmental conditions in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes.

Standard pedological and sedimentological analysis has been conducted in order to identify morphological and geochemical features generated by climatic variations during the middle and late Holocene. Though a provenance analysis of sediments, all potential lithological sources around the town of Laramate are being examined under the scanning electron microscope, in order to find significant mineralogical associations downward the soil-profile.

Preliminary results reveal two edaphic cycles within a soil-paleo soil-sequence: a relative poor developed "Ah" topsoil, mostly composed by fine grain sediments, is underlain by a well preserved "2Ah" paleo soil; a "2Bwt" subsoil exhibits signs of alteration and clay translocation; parent material in slight weathered statement at "2C" culminates the sequence. Mineralogical analytical data supports the premise, that materials in the uppermost horizons are relatable to distal geological units of the Western and Eastern Cordillera , therefore also related to other described aeolian archives from the region: "Desert Margin Loess" at the Andean foot-zone and "Mixed Loess" in the Puna grassland.

The amphibole varieties Actinolite, Mg-Hornblende and Edenite could be only distinguished within the soil sediments. The fluvial transport to its current position is excluded, insofar mentioned varieties stem from the granodiorites of Coastal Batholite downstream the study area , and the vulcanites of the Anta und Andahuaylas Formation eastward the continental divide.

References: Eitel, B. The history of Holocene glaciation serves as an important record of glacier mass balance and, therefore, of climatic change. The moraine record of Holocene glaciation in the tropical Andes, however, is fragmentary and poorly dated. In contrast, increases in the rate of accumulation of inorganic sediment in glacier-fed lakes have been linked to periods of Neoglaciation in many mountain regions.

The interpretation of such a record of Neoglaciation from sediment cores in glacier-fed lakes in the tropical Andes can provide the continuity and chronologic control that is lacking in the existing moraine record. Unusual exposures of glacial lacustrine sediment in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, provide a rare opportunity to assess the link between climatic change, glaciation, and lacustrine sedimentation.

Three deltaic units can be identified: horizontal topset beds, steeply dipping and deformed foreset beds, and horizontally laminated fine-grained sediment. The lake formed during deglaciation at least 10 yr ago and if such a rate of progradation of the delta had prevailed over the entire Holocene, then the delta would be at least three times as extensive as it is today.

Thus the rate of delta progradation has varied significantly over the Holocene.

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Initial results show a general decrease in magnetic susceptibility and clastic flux throughout the early to mid-Holocene, which suggests an interval of deglaciation. An episode of high clastic flux from 3. Volcanic glass fragments and an anomalous peak in magnetic susceptibility may correspond to the historical AD eruption of Huaynaputina. Ten new bog and lake sediment cores were collected during the field expedition and analytical measurements are underway.

Ongoing efforts are focused on analyzing diatom assemblage data, developing. We have established precise ages of two glacial events in the tropical Andean highlands of southern Peru. A two-fold sequence of nested lateral and end moraines was mapped in a glacial trough emanating from the south face of Salcantay.

Well-defined outer and inner moraines were deposited by valley glaciers that terminated 5 km and 3 km, respectively, from their head on the Salcantay massif. The new results yield mean ages of 9. The inner moraine age correlates with the timing of the Little Ice Age as defined from northern mid- and high latitude records, and indicates considerable expansion of glaciers heading on Nevado Salcantay during this climatic minimum. Recent geomorphic mapping has identified similar sequences of moraines in adjacent drainages on and near Salcantay, suggesting a broader regional signal of two prominent Holocene glacial events in this segment of the southern Peruvian Andes; 10Be dating of these additional moraines is underway.

Our new glacier chronologies complement ice core and lacustrine paleoclimate records in the vicinity, thereby increasing spatial and temporal coverage for identifying patterns of climate change in the tropical Andes during the Holocene. Apart from their paleoclimatic significance, the results also demonstrate a newly- developed capability of 10Be exposure.

Deciphering shallow paleomagnetic inclinations: 1. Geologic and paleomagnetic data lead to two contradictory hypotheses regarding the paleoposition of the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes that presently constitute the western Canadian Cordillera. Paleomagnetic data from the Insular and Intermontane superterranes suggest a southerly origin coinciding with the latitude of Mexico and the northwest United States, respectively, during the mid-Cretaceous.

Geologic evidence points to a northerly origin for these same tectonic entities during this period; both models cannot be correct. Late Cretaceous rocks correlated to the Insular Superterrane with large paleomagnetic displacements unconformably overlie mid-Cretaceous rocks correlative to the Spences Bridge Group of the Intermontane Superterrane.

We provide paleomagnetic evidence of this correlation based on similar magnetic properties, opaque mineral assemblages, demagnetization behavior, fold test results, mean inclinations, clockwise vertical axes rotations, and statistically indistinguishable paleomagnetic poles and displacement estimates.

This correlation and the observed geologic relationships in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area indicate that the Insular and Intermontane Superterranes were linked by the mid-Cretaceous. Sites from the two previous Spences Bridge Group studies are combined with their correlatives in the Empire Valley-Churn Creek area to give 81 sites that yield a paleomagnetic pole of This new displacement estimate suggests that the Spences Bridge arc formed at the latitude of southern Oregon during the mid-Cretaceous.

The latter three studies. A new climate and glacier baseline for the Cordillera Vilcanota, Peru, reduces critical information gaps. The Cordillera Vilcanota in the Southern Peruvian Andes is the second largest ice-covered Cordillera in Peru after the Cordillera Blanca and serves for the Cusco Region as a temporary water storage for fresh-water and hydropower generation and irrigation. Despite the Cordillera Vilcanota's size and socio-economic relevance, there has so far no comprehensive baseline data been available for climate and glacier evolution.

In the framework of two jointly launched -Peruvian-Swiss climate change impact and adaptation programs Climate Change Adaptation Programm - PACC; Glacier Change Adaptation and Desaster Risk Reduction Programm - Glacier significant efforts have been undertaken and are on the way to create a climate, glacier and hazard baseline for the Cordillera Vilcanota.

Because of the remoteness of the area and the scarcity of available data, multiple sources such as climate stations, climate reanalysis and satellite data have been collected, processed and analyzed. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, and mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums, which probably cannot fully explain the observed substantial ice loss.

The likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, probably played a major role in the observed massive of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades. The mass balance measurements initiated in on two glaciers of the Cordillera Vilcanota, and the climate station installed in on one of the glaciers, preliminarily indicate that ice loss in water equivalent is clearly lower that in the Cordillera Blanca.

In the near future the data will provide new and important insights on climate and. Geochemistry of the Puna Austral and Cordillera Oriental basement. The basement is formed by high temperature amphibolite facies rocks ranulites degrees C and green schists.

They are represented by schists, paragneiss, orthogneiss, migmatites, few metabasites, marbles and chalcosilicatic banks. Hypotheses on the formation and evolution of the basement are presented. Natural and human-related sources of ozone- forming trace gases in southern Africa. Full Text Available or vehicular pollution. The cloud of tropospheric ozone which forms over southern Africa every spring probably has its main origin in natural emissions of the ozone- forming trace gases, including CO from vegetation fires, emissions of NO from soils Phosphorus forms of the surface sediment in the Iranian coast of the southern Caspian Sea.

Sediments from the southern Caspian Sea, located in Iranian coast were examined on the basis of P-fractionation five forms of phosphorus by a sequential extraction scheme. Ninety-six surface sediment samples for each season with triplicate were collected from eight sampling transects in 10 and m depths during summer and winter in The result indicated that the most abundant forms of phosphorus were calcium bound phosphorus.

Relative abundance of other forms of phosphorus fol Cenozoic deformation from the Yakutat-North American collision to the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera. The western margin of the Northern Cordillera of North America is dominated by transform motion of the Yakutat microplate along the Fairweather fault system.

In southeast Alaska the transform boundary changes to convergence and the oblique collision of the buoyant Yakutat microplate formed the St. Elias Mountains. One of the outstanding questions in understanding the St. Elias orogeny is how stress from the plate boundary has been transferred inboard and distributed strain in the North American plate. The timing, amount, and spatial pattern of deformation and rock exhumation have been studied using multiple thermochronology methods.

Together the data reveal that Late Cenozoic deformation inboard of the Fairweather Fault and the colliding Yakutat plate corner at the St. Elias syntaxis was spatially very limited, resulting in rock exhumation within a cooling associated with Cordilleran deformation, and Paleocene-Eocene cooling due to spreading-ridge subduction.

In contrast, the region west of the St. Elias syntaxis is dominated by convergence, which resulted in significant Cenozoic deformation in southeastern and southern Alaska. In the St. Elias orogen itself, most of the Late Cenozoic deformation and exhumation occurs within the Yakutat microplate and its Cenozoic sedimentary cover that composes the fold-thrust belt.

Far-field deformation reaches more than km to the northwest of the convergent margin and caused mountain building in south-central Alaska. Deformation to the northeast is unclear. New thermochronology data from the eastern margin of the Northern Canadian Cordillera Northwest Territory reveal exhumation during the Oligocene to early Miocene.

At this time, transform motion was already dominating the plate margin in the. It closely resembles populations of the Atelopus ignescens complex from the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from it Recent glacier retreat and climate trends in Cordillera Huaytapallana, Peru.

We analyzed 19 annual Landsat Thematic Mapper images from to to determine changes of the glaciated surface and snow line elevation in six mountain areas of the Cordillera Huaytapallana range in Peru. In contrast to other Peruvian mountains, glacier retreat in these mountains has been poorly documented, even though this is a heavily glaciated area.

These glaciers are the main source of water for the surrounding lowlands, and melting of these glaciers has triggered several outburst floods. Moreover, several new lakes formed in the recently deglaciated areas. There was an increase in precipitation during the wet season October-April over the year study period. The significant increase in maximum temperatures may be related to the significant glacier retreat in the study area.

Climate simulations for to , based on the most optimistic assumptions of greenhouse gas concentrations, forecast a continuation of climate warming at the same rate as documented here. Such changes in temperature might lead to a critical situation for the glaciers of the Cordillera Huaytapallana, and may significantly impact the water resources, ecology, and natural hazards of the surrounding areas.

Differentiation between spore- forming and asporogenic bacteria using a PCR and southern hybridization based method. A set of molecular probes was devised to develop a method for screening for the presence of sequences homologous to three representative genes exclusively involved in endosporulation.

Based on known gene sequences, degenerate PCR primers were designed against spo0A and ssp. Experimental conditions were devised under which homologs of both genes were consistently detected in endospore- forming bacteria, but not in asporogenic bacteria. Identical conditions were used with the genomic DNA from endospore- forming and asporogenic bacteria.

Thus, this assay can potentially be used to detect spore- forming bacteria in various kinds of samples and to distinguish between bacteria containing sporulation genes and those who do not regardless of whether sporulation is observed or not. The Cordillera Blanca mountain range is the highest in Peru and contains many of the world's tropical glaciers.

This region is severely impacted by climate change causing accelerated glacier retreat. Secondary impacts of climate change on glacier retreat include stress on water resources and the risk of glacial lake outburst floods GLOFs from the many lakes that are forming and growing at the base of glaciers. A number of GLOFs originating from lakes in the Cordillera Blanca have occurred over the last century, several of which have had catastrophic impacts on cities and communities downstream.

Glaciologists and engineers in Peru have been studying the lakes of the Cordillera Blanca for many years and have identified several lakes that are considered dangerous. However, a systematic analysis of all the lakes in the Cordillera Blanca has never before been attempted.

Some methodologies for this type of systematic analysis have been proposed eg. Emmer and Vilimek ; Wang, et al. The objective of this study is to assign a level of potential hazard to each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca and to ascertain if any of the lakes beyond those that have already been studied might pose a danger to nearby populations. A number of parameters of analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, have been selected to assess the hazard level of each glacial lake in the Cordillera Blanca using digital elevation models, satellite imagery, and glacier outlines.

These parameters are then combined to come up with a preliminary assessment of the hazard level of each lake; the equation weighting each parameter draws on previously published methodologies but is tailored to the regional characteristics. Cordillera Blanca: glaciares en la historia. En , se encuentran entre los mejor monitoreados de los glaciares tropicales, primero, gracias a un programa de estudio desarrollado por los peruanos.

Long-term monitoring of tropical alpine habitat change, Andean anurans, and chytrid fungus in the Cordillera Vilcanota, Peru: Results from a decade of study. Here, Telmatobius marmoratus marbled water frog , Rhinella spinulosa Andean toad , and Pleurodema marmoratum marbled four-eyed frog have expanded their range vertically within the past century to inhabit newly formed ponds created by ongoing deglaciation.

In this study, we report results from over a decade of monitoring these three anuran species, their habitat, and Bd infection status. Our observations reveal dynamic changes in habitat including ongoing rapid deglaciation Three of these sites have tested positive for Bd over a 9- to year period. In addition, we observed a widespread reduction in T. Despite the rapid and dynamic changes in habitat under a warming climate, continued presence of Bd in the environment for over a decade, and a reduction in one of three anuran species, we document that these anurans continue to breed and survive in this high Andean environment.

High variability in anuran encounters across sites and plasticity in these populations across habitats, sites, and years are all factors that could favor repopulation postdecline. Preserving the connectivity of wetlands in the Cordillera Vilcanota is therefore essential in ensuring that anurans continue to breed and adapt as climate change continues to reshape the environment.

Late Pleistocene glacial fluctuations in Cordillera Oriental, subtropical Andes. Martini, Mateo A. The behavior of subtropical glaciers during Middle to Late Pleistocene global glacial maxima and abrupt climate change events, specifically in Earth's most arid low-latitude regions, remains an outstanding problem in paleoclimatology.

The present-day climate of Cordillera Oriental, in arid northwestern Argentina, is influenced by shifts in subtropical climate systems, including the South American Summer Monsoon. Reconstructed ELAs of the former glaciers exhibit a rise from east to west that resembles the present subtropical climate trajectory from the Atlantic side of the continent; hence, we infer that this climate pattern must have been present in the past. Based on comparison with other low-latitude paleoclimate records, such as those from lakes and caves, we infer that both temperature and precipitation influenced past glacial occurrence in this sector of the arid Andes.

Recent glacier retreat and lake formation in the Querecocha watershed, Cordillera Blanca, Peru. In the Andes, and specifically in the Peruvian mountains a marked decrease of the glaciated area has occurred since the end of the Little Ice Age, and it has been accelerated since the last decades of the 20th century.

As a result of the glacier retreat new pro-glaciar lakes are originated, and often the area and volume of existing ones increases. The study of these newly- formed lakes and their recent evolution may provide a better understanding of the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of deglaciated areas, and a better evaluation of the risk of glacial lakes outburst floods GLOFS. We also present the information derived from 10 short sediment cores up to 50 cm long retrieved along several transects in Yanamarey Lake.

Both data sets inform of the sediment yield and lake development in recently deglaciated environments of the Andes. Results demonstrate that only one third of the surface covered by ice in remained in In this period, snowline has shifted up more than meters in elevation in both, Yanamarey North and South areas respectively.

At the same time, new lakes have been formed very quickly in these deglaciated areas. Preliminary Cs dating of Yanamarey sediment core indicates that at least the top 50 cm of the lake sequence deposited after This is coherent with the Landsat image of that showed the current surface of the lake still covered by ice.

The sediment cores are composed of cm-thick sequences defined by grain-size silt-clay common in proglacial lakes reflecting the variability of hydrological response associated to the glacier retreat in the. However, for the same complex, Rb-Sr whole rock isochrons indicated that the complex may be much older Restrepo et al. Moreover, a Triassic event related to the intrusion of the Tres Lagunas batholith at Ma has been described by Litherland et al.

According to these authors, during the Triassic, an extensive metamorphic belt affected the mentioned regions, as a response to a megashear associated to anatexis along an ensialic rift basin formed in association with the separation of South America from Laurentia. Barite- forming environments along a rifted continental margin, Southern California Borderland. The Southern California Continental Borderland SCCB is part of the broad San Andreas transform-fault plate boundary that consists of a series of fault-bounded, petroleum-generating basins.

The SCCB has high heat flow and geothermal gradients produced by thinned continental crust and Neogene volcanism. Barite deposits in the SCCB occur along faults. Barite samples from two sea-cliff sites and four offshore sites in the SCCB were analyzed for mineralogy, chemical 54 elements and isotopic S, Sr compositions, and petrography. Barite from Palos Verdes PV Peninsula sea-cliff outcrops is hosted by the Miocene Monterey Formation and underlying basalt; carbonate rocks from those outcrops were analyzed for C, O, and Sr isotopes and the basalt for S isotopes.

Cold-seep barite from Monterey Bay, California was analyzed for comparison. SCCB offshore samples occur at water depths from about to m. Those barites vary significantly in texture and occurrence, from friable, highly porous actively growing seafloor mounds to dense, brecciated, vein barite.

This latter type of barite contrasts with cold-seep barite in being much more coarse grained, forms thick veins in places, and completely replaced rock clasts in breccia. Pyrite from PV sea-cliff basalt and sedimentary rocks that host the barites averages 7. Thin-plate spline analysis of arch form in a Southern European population with an ideal natural occlusion. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mean configuration of the clinical arch form in a sample of Southern European subjects with ideal natural occlusion by means of Procrustes analysis, and to compare the identified configuration with 10 commercially produced arch forms by means of thin-plate spline TPS analysis.

The sample comprised the study casts of 50 subjects 26 males and 24 females. All subjects were young Caucasian adults of Southern European ancestry, and presented with an ideal natural occlusion. The three-dimensional 3D co-ordinates of all dental points facial axis points were digitized using a 3D electromagnetic digitizer.

The morphometric technique of TPS analysis with permutation tests was used to compare the configurations of landmarks in the various specimens. No sexual dimorphism was found for either upper or lower arch forms when the shape of the arches was assessed independently from size.

The commercially available arch form that showed the least, though statistically significant, shape difference with respect to the average calculated configuration was the Brader arch form. Diversity of landraces and wild forms of watermelon Citrullus lanatus in southern Africa. The genus Citrullus, belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. Among the four species in this genus, a single species Citrullus lanatus Thunberg Matsum. The fruit can be eaten fresh or cooked and the seeds can be roasted.

Its uses are however, multifaceted and vary depending on the customs of the humans growing this crop Climate in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes over the last years. The relative changes in the stable carbon isotope composition of plant remains preserved in the core reflect major temperature fluctuations in the Western Cordillera of the southern Peruvian Andes.

Relatively warm and moist conditions prevailed from to cal. The most prominent climate changes recorded in the peat occurred between and cal. Initially drier conditions within this event turned to a short wet phase after cal. This event coincides with significant changes in peat and ice core records in the Central Andes matching the timing of the global climate event around 2.

Climatic conditions in the study area became relatively dry and stable after the event for about years. Highly variable temperatures and humidity prevailed during the last years when an extended warm and relatively humid period occurred between and cal. Distichia peat is wide spread in the Andes and the proposed approach can be applied elsewhere in high altitudes, where no other traditional climate proxies are available.

Forest health in Canada, Montane cordillera ecozone This paper describes the key forest health issues affecting the 6 main forest types in Canada's Montane Cordillera ecozone in the central interior of British Columbia and the Alberta Foothills. In order to protect and conserve biological diversity, the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers adopted national criteria to measure sustainable forest management.

This report describes the Montane Cordillera landscape conditions, pre-industrial ecological influences, current ecological influences, and the impact of invasive alien insects and diseases on the diversity of tree species. Pine forests in the Montane Cordillera ecozone are threatened by the mountain pine beetle.

Fire suppression has also resulted in ecological changes to forests in the Montane Cordillera , including an increase in Douglas-firs, gradual replacement of Lodgepole pine forests, and reduced health of Ponderosa pine ecosystems.

Alien insects are being monitored by provincial forestry agencies through annual surveys. They are also being controlled through localized treatment programs. The impact of land use practices such as forest harvesting on forest structure and composition was also addressed. It was noted that the unrestricted movement of wood and forestry products also increases the threat of invasive alien diseases and insects.

The trees in this ecozone have not been damaged by air pollution. Geochronology of Quaternary glaciations from the tropical Cordillera Huayhuash, Peru. Hall, Sarah R. The Cordillera Huayhuash in the central Peruvian Andes Geomorphology and geochronology in the nearby Cordillera Blanca and Junin Plain reveal that the Peruvian Andes preserve a detailed record of tropical glaciation. We have used in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in quartz bearing erratics on moraine crests and ice-polished bedrock surfaces to develop an exposure age chronology for Pleistocene glaciation within the range.

We have also collected sediment cores from moraine-dammed lakes and bogs to provide limiting 14C ages for glacial deposits. The range displays a pronounced east-west variation in maximum down-valley distance from the headwall of moraine crests with considerably longer paleoglaciers in the eastern drainages. We suggest that valley morphology, specifically valley slope, strongly influences down-valley distance to the maximum glacier extent and potential for moraine preservation.

Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility. The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline here renamed as Patagonian Arc , and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin.

Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility AMS from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego Argentina. AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction.

Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed.

If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc i. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled. Superposition of tectonic structures leading elongated intramontane basin: the Alhabia basin Internal Zones, Betic Cordillera. The relief of the Betic Cordillera was formed since the late Serravallian inducing the development of intramontane basins.

The geometry of the basin has been constrained by new gravity data. Plate convergence in the region rotated counter-clockwise in Tortonian times favouring the formation of E-W dextral faults. The Alhabia basin shows a cross-shaped depocentre in the zone of synform and fault intersection.

This field example serves to constrain recent counter-clockwise stress rotation during the latest stages of Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution in the Betic Cordillera Internal Zones and underlines the importance of studying the basins' deep structure and its relation with the tectonic structures interactions.

Air temperature, radiation budget and area changes of Quisoquipina glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota Peru. Although several studies have focused on glaciers of the largest glaciered mountain range Cordillera Blanca , other regions have received little attention to date.

In , a new program has been initiated with the aim of monitoring glaciers in the centre and south of Peru. In Southern Peru, the Quisoquipina glacier has been selected due to its representativeness for glaciers in the Cordillera Vilcanota considering area, length and orientation. The Cordillera Vilcanota is the second largest mountain range in Peru with a glaciated area of approximately km2 in Melt water from glaciers in this region is partly used for hydropower in the dry season and for animal breeding during the entire year.

This strong decrease is comparable to observations of other tropical glaciers. In , a meteorological station has been installed on the glacier at m asl. Here, we present a first analysis of air temperature and the radiation budget at the Quisoquipina glacier for the first three years of measurements. For both, Quisoquipina and Zongo glacier, net shortwave radiation may be the most important energy source, thus indicating the important role of albedo in the energy balance of the glacier.

Surface-exposure dating with in-situ-produced cosmogenic isotopes has provided the basis for a growing framework of glacial chronologies in the tropical Andes. These seemingly contradictory findings raise several questions: Was the LLGM a relatively minor event in the Peruvian Andes, far exceeded by bigger, older advances? Which combination of geographic and geomorphic factors increases the likelihood that evidence of older advances will be preserved?

With these questions in mind, we sought a site with both high peaks and a high-altitude plateau. The Conococha Plain ca. Large lateral moraines extend onto the Conococha Plain from the west-facing valleys and multiple moraine loops lie upvalley, closer to active ice margins. Surface-exposure dating 10Be indicates that the largest lateral moraines from Jeullesh Valley are compound features deposited during the LLGM ca. Fluvial outwash deposits beyond the termini of the moraines on the Conococha Plain are underlain by lodgement till that is up to 20 m thick and extends ca.

Nokleberg, Warren J. The oblique convergences and rotations resulted in the fragmentation, displacement, and duplication of formerly more continuous arcs, subduction zones, passive continental margins, and contained metallogenic belts. These fragments were subsequently accreted along the margins of the expanding continental margins.

In this region, the multiple arc accretions were accompanied and followed by crustal thickening, anatexis, metamorphism, formation of collision-related metallogenic belts, and uplift; this resulted in the substantial growth of the North Asian and North American continents. Oblique convergence between the Pacific Plate and Alaska also resulted in major dextral-slip faulting in interior and southern Alaska and along the western part of the Aleutian- Wrangell arc.

Associated with dextral-slip faulting was crustal extrusion of terranes from western Alaska into the Bering Sea. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia.

Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America the Tahami Terrane are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during Ma.

Continental arc magmatism during Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1 km.

Epub June Se parece a poblaciones del complejo de Atelopus ignescens de los Andes del norte de Ecuador y del sur de Colombia. Here we describe a new species of the genus Bolitoglossa, named Bolitoglossa guaneae sp. The highest number of species of this genus is found in the cloud forests located in the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental. Richard; Crighton, Devin;. Flux densities span 14 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei AGN and 24 dusty star- forming galaxies DSFGs.

When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to GHz, with the trend continuing to GHz.

The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A sub , of 3. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups. Denudation rates and tectonic geomorphology of the Spanish Betic Cordillera. The tectonic control on landscape morphology and long-term denudation is largely documented for settings with high uplift rates.

Relatively little is known about the rates of geomorphic response in areas of low tectonic uplift. Here, we evaluate spatial variations in denudation of the Spanish Betic Cordillera based on cosmogenic 10Be-derived denudation rates. Denudation rates are compared to published data on rock uplift and exhumation of the Betic Cordillera to evaluate steady-state topography.

Catchment-wide denudation is linearly proportional to the mean hillslope gradient and local relief. Despite large spatial variation in denudation, the magnitude and spatial pattern of denudation rates are generally consistent with longer-term local uplift rates derived from elevated marine deposits, fission-track measurements and vertical fault slip rates. This might be indicative of a steady-state topography where rock uplift is balanced by denudation.

Het Westelijk gedeelte van de Republiek Columbia Zuid Amerika wordt ingenomen door de Cordilleras de los Andes, welke in genoemde republiek uit drie hoofdketens bestaat, t. Een studie werd gemaakt van een centraal gelegen Strook. Intraterrane variations in the cooling and exhumation histories in the Salado terrane suggest that nonterrane-bounding faults played a significant role during its Pliocene-Recent evolution.

The Salado terrane preserves an older history that reveals elevated cooling rates during and Ma. Vertical reactivation of the Llanganates fault, which separates the Salado and Loja terranes, during the Pliocene-Recent coincides with the main stages of formation of the juxtaposed Interandean Depression, which provides further constraints on the growth phases of the depression and the Cordillera. Downscaling reanalysis data to high-resolution variables above a glacier surface Cordillera Blanca, Peru.

Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term atmospheric data. The aim of this study is to extend the existing time series into the past. The approach is particular in the context of ESD for two reasons. First, the observational time series for model calibration are short only about two years.

Second, unlike most ESD studies in climate research, we focus on variables at a high temporal resolution i. Our target variables are two important drivers in the surface energy balance of tropical glaciers; air temperature and specific humidity. The selection of predictor fields from the reanalysis data is based on regression analyses and climatologic considerations.

The ESD modelling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses. Principal component screening is based on cross-validation using the Akaike Information Criterion as model selection criterion. Double cross-validation is applied for model evaluation. Potential autocorrelation in the time series is considered by defining the block length in the resampling procedure.

Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modelling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice by using both single- and mixed-field predictors of the variables air temperature hPa , specific humidity hPa , and zonal wind speed hPa. The chosen downscaling domain ranges from 80 to 50 degrees west and from 0 to 20 degrees south.

Tectonic geomorphology of large normal faults bounding the Cuzco rift basin within the southern Peruvian Andes. The Cuzco basin forms a wide, relatively flat valley within the High Andes of southern Peru. This larger basin includes the regional capital of Cuzco and the Urubamba Valley, or "Sacred Valley of the Incas" favored by the Incas for its mild climate and broader expanses of less rugged and arable land.

The valley is bounded on its northern edge by a km-long and km-wide zone of down-to-the-south systems of normal faults that separate the lower area of the down-dropped plateau of central Peru and the more elevated area of the Eastern Cordillera foldbelt that overthrusts the Amazon lowlands to the east. Previous workers have shown that the normal faults are dipslip with up to m of measured displacements, reflect north-south extension, and have Holocene displacments with some linked to destructive, historical earthquakes.

We have constructed topographic and structural cross sections across the entire area to demonstrate the normal fault on a the plateau peneplain. The footwall of the Eastern Cordillera , capped by snowcapped peaks in excess of 6 km, tilts a peneplain surface northward while the hanging wall of the Cuzco basin is radially arched. Erosion is accelerated along the trend of the normal fault zone.

As the normal fault zone changes its strike from east-west to more more northwest-southeast, normal displacement decreases and is replaced by a left-lateral strike-slip component. Hall, S. Cross-cutting relationships, geomorphology, and correlation with surface exposure dated moraines in the nearby Cordillera Blanca suggest the region preserves a rich record of tropical glaciation. In order to determine the glacial chronology we mapped and dated glacial features of the Jahuacocha valley which drains the western side of the range and two eastern drainages, the Mitococha valley, and the Carhuacocha valley.

We sampled quartz-bearing erratics on moraine crests as well as ice-polished bedrock surfaces for exposure age dating using in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al. Our preliminary results suggest that all three valleys experienced a very similar glacial history with minor differences likely due to the variations in valley morphology. Comparing the chronology of glaciation in the Cordillaera Huayhuash with that in regions to the.

The use of calcite twinning to infer compression directions and strain axes patterns has been applied widely in both fold and thrust belts, and continental interiors. Calcite twinning is noted to be one of the most precise methods for determining the internal strain of deformed rocks. Until now, such data from the deformed plate boundary of the Central Andes were lacking. This study has examined twinning orientations along the deformed Andean foreland southern Bolivia and northern Argentina from to latitude.

In the Central Andes, we find an abundance of calcite twins in intervals of the Cretaceous age Yacorite limestone. Twin samples were collected, measured for orientation and type I and II can be best used for strain analysis , and processed using the Groshong method, to give resultant strain tensors.

The orientations of the twin short axes trend mostly NE-SW, which is close to the plate convergence direction. However, in a limited number of samples from the north, adjacent to the southern culmination of the active Subandean fold thrust belt, they trend NW-SE. This difference may be related to the more active, or more recent, shortening of the southern portion of the Eastern Cordillera , south of the culmination of the Subandean belt.

This implies that twin short axes vary consistently with respect to geographic location and local tectonic regime. NW-SE trends in the northern region match well with fault kinematic studies in rocks pre-dating the San Juan del Oro unconformity Ma.

In the Eastern Cordillera , where there is present day tectonic activity, the plunges of the twin short axes are found to be almost horizontal. This suggests that the twins were formed after folding occurred. As tropical glaciers continue to rapidly retreat in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru, dry-season water resources are becoming more dependent on groundwater baseflow.

Therefore, understanding the flux and storage of proglacial groundwater is necessary to forecast how groundwater storage can offset decreasing water resources. Recent studies of the Rio Santa Watershed, which drains the western slopes of the Cordillera Blanca, have identified that groundwater is the largest contributor to outflow from many watersheds during the dry season and that the flux of groundwater is temporarily available clay to silt sized glaciolacustrine material at each drill site.

Additionally numerous discontinuous sand lenses and localized glaciofluvial gravel deposits were observed within the clay layer. The glaciolacustrine deposits behave as confining units that were capable of generating localized artesian conditions in the coarse grain units. The occurrence of the clay units adjacent to the main stream channels suggests that the flatness of the valley floors is not the result of river meander.

The coarse grained units have the potential to act as important aquifers with significant groundwater storage and flow. Our preliminary findings indicate that the course grained units are important hydrogeological conduits with the ability to buffer low flow conditions in proglacial streams during the dry season. We present a new schematic model of how groundwater moves through these important proglacial environments, providing temporal storage of glacial meltwater and precipitation.

The Northern Cordillera , which encompasses western Canada and eastern Alaska, is a complex tectonic puzzle. Past terrane accretions, the present collision of the Yakutat block, large-scale plate motions, and past and present glacier change have created a tectonic landscape that includes a major transform system, most of the highest peaks in North America, and far-flung ongoing distributed deformation. We present an updated GPS velocity field as well as a new integrated tectonic block model for the region.

The style of deformation varies through the region. Surrounding the Yakutat collision, the model includes a number of small blocks that indicate rotations to the east, north, and west as material moves away from the collisional front. These small blocks also show evidence of internal deformation. Farther from the collisional front, blocks are larger and appear to behave more rigidly.

In the south, northwestward motion resulting in a prominent band of coastal shear extends from Vancouver Island to Glacier Bay. In the Arctic, small southeastward motions in Alaska transition to easterly motion in Canada that extends to the Mackenize Mountains near the Cordillera -craton boundary. A number of faults and fault systems accommodate relative Pacific-North America plate motion in the region, although the significant majority is along the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform system and the St.

Elias fold-and-thrust belt. Along the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte system, the motion is dominantly dextral with increasing oblique transpression to the south corresponding to a change in margin trend. At the northern end of the transform system, motion is distributed onto multiple faults. The eastern Denali fault presently plays a minor role in accommodating. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known.

Neogene stratigraphy and Andean geodynamics of southern Ecuador. During the Pacific Coastal stage, northward displacement of the coastal forearc block along the Calacali-Pallatanga fault zone has driven crustal collapse in the Inter-Andean region. Coeval topographic rise of the Cordillera Occidental is indicated by the onset of clastic input from the west.

Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes northwestern Argentina and northern Chile. The geodynamic evolution of the Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana in the region of the southern Central Andes is characterized by the westward progression of orogenic basin formation through time. The contemporaneous magmatic arc of an east-dipping subduction zone was presumably located in northern Chile.

In the back-arc basin, a ca. Increased subsidence in the late Arenigian allowed for the accomodation of large volumes of volcaniclastic turbidites during the Middle Ordovician. Subsidence and sedimentation were caused by the onset of collision between the para-autochthonous Arequipa Massif Terrane AMT and the South American margin at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. This led to eastward thrusting of the arc complex over its back-arc basin and, consequently, to its transformation into a marine foreland basin.

As a result of thrusting in the west, a flexural bulge formed in the east, leading to uplift and emergence of the Cordillera Oriental shelf during the Guandacol Event at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. The folded strata were intruded post-tectonically by the presumably Silurian granitoids of the "Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental.

The corresponding deep marine turbidite basin was located in the region of the Cordillera de la Costa. Deposition continued until the basin fill was folded in the early Late Carboniferous Toco Orogeny. The basin. Analysis on the geological features and ore- forming conditions at the southern margin of Erdos basin. At the southern margin of Erdos basin, the paleo-interlayer-oxidation was developed in the medium-coarse-grained sandstone of Middle Jurassic System.

High content uranium was enriched which are favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposit. There had been found multiple sandstone-type uranium deposits ore occurrences in this area. Uranium mineralization occurs in the sand body of braided fluvial facies in the lower member of Zhiluo Formation of Middle Jurassic System.

It was controlled by the paleo-interlayer-oxidation. Uranium mineralization was closely related with the permeability of sandstone and occurs generally in the sandstones where is loose cementation and water permeability better. The stratum of Middle Jurassic System was extensively developed in the work area.

Therefore it has great prospecting potential for the sandstone-type uranium deposit. Empirical-statistical downscaling of reanalysis data to high-resolution air temperature and specific humidity above a glacier surface Cordillera Blanca, Peru. Recently initiated observation networks in the Cordillera Blanca Peru provide temporally high-resolution, yet short-term, atmospheric data. The ESD modeling procedure includes combined empirical orthogonal function and multiple regression analyses and a double cross-validation scheme for model evaluation.

Apart from the selection of predictor fields, the modeling procedure is automated and does not include subjective choices. We assess the ESD model sensitivity to the predictor choice using both single-field and mixed-field predictors. Statistical transfer functions are derived individually for different months and times of day. The forecast skill largely depends on month and time of day, ranging from 0 to 0. The mixed-field predictors perform better than the single-field predictors. Choose the challenge that your startup fits better and be a protagonist of the solution.

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