If done correctly, these predictions greatly improve trading results. Speculation is what day trading is all about. With the help of decent strategies, you can progress in the Forex trading world and ultimately develop your own trading strategy.
The downside is that this is a time-consuming and difficult process. This may allow you to see a profit margin you could have missed otherwise. These are the Forex trading strategies that work, and they have been proven to work by many traders. This is suitable for all timeframes and currency pairings.
It is, at this moment, one of the trending strategies in the market. The Bladerunner Trade is a price action strategy. This trade uses daily pivots only. However, it can be extended to a longer timeline. It combines Fibonacci retracements and extensions.
Fibonacci trade can incorporate any number of pivots. This strategy is perfect for a ranging market. If you use it in combination with confirming signals, it works really well. If you are interested in Bollinger Bands strategy, this one is definitely worth checking out. These strategies are a favourite among many traders. The reliability tends to be a bit lower, but used in combination with appropriate confirming signals, they become extremely accurate.
Trying to chase the price when it goes upside rarely works. That is, unless you know this trick. This Forex trading strategy gives you a simple tip so you know whether the price will continue to rise or decrease. This is more of a concept rather than a strategy, but you need to know this if you want to understand what the prices are doing. This offer you a lesson in market fundamentals, which will really help you to trade more effectively.
Currency trading strategies are a game of trial and error. It may be worth trying out the strategies from list above to see if any work for you. However, we will look at two further strategies which tend to be more common than the ones previously mentioned. Many consider scalping to be tiresome and time-consuming. Indeed, not every trader can successfully pull it off. It may really seem that scalping takes the fun out of the best Forex strategy.
If you are on the lookout for a reliable Forex strategy, this might be your safest choice. As a day trader, you will dip in and out of the market once or twice a day and always carry a position into another period. Ideally, the profit will come back.
You will trade in and out of the Forex markets several times per day. The result is a tiny profit, but that is a profit made in a single minute. The amount and consistency of your overall profits depend on your commitment and reflexes. If scalpers want to truly take advantage of the news releases, they should wait for the most important ones. When you scalp, you need to remember when GDP, unemployment figures and inflation rates are about to be released.
These factors affect trading strategies, particularly in the currency trading market, where scalping can be most profitable. While scalping can certainly teach you to trade the currency market, it takes a lot of time and effort. When you scalp, you have to sit in front of the computer for long periods of time. Positional trading is an interesting way to trade Forex online.
While it can take you only a few hours a week, it can provide you with quite extensive profits. Positional trading is all about having your positions opened for a long period of time, so you can catch some large market moves. The rule of thumb is to avoid using high leverage and keep a close eye on the currency swaps.
With positional trading, you can learn not only Forex trading strategies but also the skills you need to become successful. It is a good method of achieving high profits, but it can also put your emotions to test.
Traders may feel the stress from having their funds affected by short term moves. With positional trading, you have to dedicate your time to analysing the market and predicting potential market moves. However, there is almost no time spent on the execution of your trading strategy. Simply start by picking up the pair you know the most about.
Calculate the possible volume of your transaction, see what the swap is and how you can break even, analyse the best moment to enter the trade. There are many Forex strategies, yet it is hard to say which is the best one. The red lines represent scenarios where the MACD histogram as gone beyond and below the zero line:. While many Forex traders prefer intraday trading due to market volatility providing more opportunities in narrower time-frames, Forex weekly trading strategies can provide more flexibility and stability.
A weekly candlestick provides extensive market information. Weekly Forex trading strategies are based on lower position sizes and avoiding excessive risks. For this strategy, traders can use the most commonly used price action trading patterns such as engulfing candles, haramis and hammers. One of the most commonly used patterns in Forex trading is the hammer which looks like the image below:. Accessed: 31 May at pm BST - Please note: Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future results or future performance.
To what extent fundamentals are used varies from trader to trader. At the same time, the best Forex strategy will invariably use price action. This is also known as technical analysis. When it comes to technical currency trading strategies, there are two main styles: trend following, and counter-trend trading. Both of these FX trading strategies try to profit by recognising and exploiting price patterns.
When it comes to price patterns, the most important concepts include ones such as support and resistance. Put simply, these terms represent the tendency of a market to bounce back from previous lows and highs. This occurs because market participants tend to judge subsequent prices against recent highs and lows.
There is also a self-fulfilling aspect to support and resistance levels. This happens because market participants anticipate certain price action at these points and act accordingly. As a result, their actions can contribute to the market behaving as they had expected. However, it's worth noting these three things:.
Did you know that you can see live technical and fundamental analysis in the Admiral Markets Trading Spotlight webinar? In these FREE live sessions, taken three times a week, professional traders will show you a wide variety of technical and fundamental analysis trading techniques you can use to identify common chart patterns and trading opportunities in a variety of different markets.
Sometimes a market breaks out of a range, moving below the support or above the resistance to start a trend. How does this happen? When support breaks down and a market moves to new lows, buyers begin to hold off. This is because buyers are constantly noticing cheaper prices being established and want to wait for a bottom to be reached.
At the same time, there will be traders who are selling in panic or simply being forced out of their positions or building short positions because they believe it can go lower. The trend continues until the selling is depleted and belief starts to return to buyers when it is established that the prices will not decline further.
Trend-following strategies encourage traders to buy the market once it has broken through resistance and sell a market once they have fallen through support. In addition, trends can be dramatic and prolonged, too. Because of the magnitude of moves involved, this type of system has the potential to be the most successful Forex trading strategy.
Trend-following systems use indicators to inform traders when a new trend may have begun, but there's no sure-fire way to know of course. Here's the good news: If the indicator can establish a time when there's an improved chance that a trend has begun, you are tilting the odds in your favour.
The indication that a trend might be forming is called a breakout. A breakout is when the price moves beyond the highest high or the lowest low for a specified number of days. For example, a day breakout to the upside is when the price goes above the highest high of the last 20 days. Trend-following systems require a particular mindset, because of the long duration - during which time profits can disappear as the market swings.
These trades can be more psychologically demanding. When markets are volatile, trends will tend to be more disguised and price swings will be greater. Therefore, a trend-following system is the best trading strategy for Forex markets that are quiet and trending. A good example of a simple trend-following strategy is a Donchian Trend system.
Donchian channels were invented by futures trader Richard Donchian , and is an indicator of trends being established. The Donchian channel parameters can be tweaked as you see fit, but for this example, we will look at a day breakout. A Donchian channel breakout suggests one of two things:. It's called Admiral Donchian. To upgrade your MetaTrader platform to the Supreme Edition simply click on the banner below:.
There is an additional rule for trading when the market state is more favourable to the system. This rule is designed to filter out breakouts that go against the long-term trend. In short, you look at the day moving average MA and the day moving average. The direction of the shorter moving average determines the direction that is permitted.
This rule states that you can only go:. Trades are exited in a similar way to entry, but only using a day breakout. This means that if you open a long position and the market goes below the low of the prior 10 days, you might want to sell to exit the trade and vice versa. One potentially beneficial and profitable Forex trading strategy is the 4-hour trend following strategy which can also be used as a swing trading strategy.
This strategy uses a 4-hour base chart to screen for potential trading signal locations. The 1-hour chart is used as the signal chart, to determine where the actual positions will be taken. Always remember that the time-frame for the signal chart should be at least an hour lower than the base chart. For this Forex strategy, two sets of moving average lines are chosen for the best results.
One will be the period MA, while the other is the period MA. To ascertain whether a trend is worth trading, the MA lines will need to relate to the price action. The MA lines will be a support zone during uptrends, and there will be resistance zones during downtrends.
It is inside and around this zone that the best positions for the trend trading strategy can be found. Below is a daily chart of GBPUSD showing the exponential moving average purple line and the exponential moving average red line on the chart:. Counter-trend strategies rely on the fact that most breakouts do not develop into long-term trends. Therefore, a trader using such a strategy seeks to gain an edge from the tendency of prices to bounce off previously established highs and lows.
On paper, counter-trend strategies can be one of the best Forex trading strategies for building confidence, because they have a high success ratio. However, it's important to note that tight reins are needed on the risk management side. These Forex trade strategies rely on support and resistance levels holding. But there is also a risk of large downsides when these levels break down.
Constant monitoring of the market is a good idea. The market state that best suits this type of strategy is stable and volatile. This sort of market environment offers healthy price swings that are constrained within a range. It's important to note that the market can switch states. For example, a stable and quiet market might begin to trend, while remaining stable, then become volatile as the trend develops. How the state of a market might change is uncertain. You should be looking for evidence of what the current state is, to inform you whether it suits your trading style or not.
Many types of technical indicators have been developed over the years. The great leaps made forward with online trading technologies have made it much more accessible for individuals to construct their own indicators and systems. You can read more about technical indicators by checking out our education section or through the trading platforms we offer.
The best Forex trading strategies for beginners are the simple, well-established strategies that have worked for a huge list of successful Forex traders already. Of course, many newcomers to Forex trading will ask the question: Can you get rich by trading Forex?
It's important to understand that trading is about winning and losing and that there is always risk involved. In some cases, you could lose more than your initial investment on a trade. There are no easy Forex trading strategies which are going to make you rich over night, so do not believe any false headlines promising you this. Trading Forex is not a 'get rich quick' scheme. However, through trial and error and the use of a demo trading account, you can learn about the Forex market and yourself to find a suitable style.
It can also help you understand the risks of trading before making the transition to a live account. Traders that choose Admiral Markets will be pleased to know that they can trade completely risk-free by opening a demo trading account.
Instead of heading straight to the live markets and putting your capital at risk, you can practice your Forex trading strategies on a FREE demo account. Click the banner below to get started:. Admiral Markets is a multi-award winning, globally regulated Forex and CFD broker, offering trading on over 8, financial instruments via the world's most popular trading platforms: MetaTrader 4 and MetaTrader 5.
Start trading today! This material does not contain and should not be construed as containing investment advice, investment recommendations, an offer of or solicitation for any transactions in financial instruments. Please note that such trading analysis is not a reliable indicator for any current or future performance, as circumstances may change over time.
You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money. Contact us. Why Us? Financial Security Scam warning NB! Login Start trading.
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Thank you. JeanneRSA tonyinweb. I will try with ATR , and sir I did not understand about the ea you have mentioned please guide me , thank you. JeanneRSA , Hello Sir ,Thanks a lot for you response and guidance , felt courageous to trade with renko after chatting with you , Thank you once again Sir and I wish all the best.
Regards Tony. JeanneRSA , Hi Sir, as you have worked with Renko charts for long, whats the best amount to use for creating bars, 10 or 20, and also entry and exit settings you would advice? JeanneRSA timsedee. Delman JeanneRSA. I can see benefits for maybe it confirming to stay in a trend perhaps, but being new to Renko, I trade Heiken Ashi normally, this just seems waste of time and my taking the black friday offer on upgrading myself.
It describes the ultra-rapid action of opening and closing of a position within a few seconds or minutes, with the aim of stealing a few pips from each trade. The profit of the winning trade is small, while the number of such winning trades should be big enough so that these small profits can add up to a decent amount. Scalpers usually need to have access to the tightest spreads and fastest connection speeds possible, in order to carry out this bullet-speed trading with the tiny profits.
They tend to do this many times a day so as to accumulate the little profits that are harvested. Losses must be limited such that one large loss does not wipe out the profits gained from many winning trades. Many forex market makers discourage this type of trading as they find it difficult to cover the opposite side of the transactions, given the fast speed and numerous orders entered into their systems.
Day trading Day trading is one of the more popular types of trading, whereby traders open and close positions within a day. They also do not hold their positions overnight because of the added risk of not knowing if prices would change dramatically while they sleep. The holding period of their trades may range from minutes to hours.
Day trading relies heavily on intraday momentum to bring the current price to the desired price level in one direction. Day traders are looking out for signs that a currency pair has a high probability of moving in a particular direction, going from point X to point Y, within a day regardless of whether the price is moving in a trend or range. Day traders tend to wait for good trading opportunities, instead of trading frantically like scalpers tend to do.
This style of trading involves intense concentration from the trader as positions must be closely monitored on the price charts. Swing trading Swing traders hold their positions for a few days, but seldom more than a week. Identifying and riding on trends early is the central objective of this trading style, and the profit objective tends to be set higher than that of day trading since the swing trader is expecting that by holding out for a few days, there is a better chance of capturing a larger price move.
Unlike the day trader, the swing trader has to endure overnight risk. As swing trading requires much less minute-to-minute monitoring of the market, this type of trading is generally preferred by people who hold day jobs. My opinion is that swing traders must still keep up-to-date with the latest fundamental and technical changes in the market, even when they are not monitoring the market all the time.
Position trading Position trading spans the longest period of time, and refers to traders holding their position for weeks or even months. Position traders seek to identify and trade currency pairs that signal that a medium to long term trend is playing out — but will take more than a few days to play out. Their positions are usually closed before the trend runs out of power. This trading time frame is the least time-consuming one among all the different ones, as there is not much need for intensive monitoring.
Many position traders place a trailing stop which automatically closes their position if the price retraces past a particular point. Someone who day trades tends to be more in touch with the price swings and goings-on of the market as positions are opened and closed during the same day. Whereas at the end of the spectrum, a position trader does not have to monitor the market so intensively. Risk-wise, I would say that the longer the time frame used in trading, the more risk has to be assumed by the trader.
This is simply because the market has more time to move against them, and can move much further against them than it can in a smaller time frame. Many of the strategies mentioned in this book are meant for short-term trading. However, you may decide on the length of your holding period to suit your personal preference by adjusting the profit target and stop-loss accordingly.
Of course, the size of profit objective and stop-loss will be proportional to the length of your holding period — the shorter your time frame, the smaller your profit target and stop-loss should be; the longer the trading time frame, the wider your profit target and stop-loss can be.
Before you set up a trading account to trade forex, you first need to choose which forex broker best suits your needs and trading style. There are mainly two types of brokers: 1. Market-Maker [These will be explained further in Chapter 2. Experiment first with virtual money The best way to learn how to trade forex and to see if it is suitable for you is to trade it real-time, but with a demo account initially.
Demo accounts can be opened for free with certain brokers; no real money is deposited in this type of account. You can experiment real-time trading with different currency pairs using various trading strategies without losing any real money — it is a good way to build up some confidence.
You can get a sense of how it feels to have a profit or a loss, even though the intensity of these emotions will be of a different level when trading with real money. It is the best way for new traders to dip their toes in the water. How much money is needed to start? The amount of trading capital needed is relative. After getting a feel with a demo account, you can start with real money. For standard-sized accounts, the general minimum is around a few thousand US dollars. Thinking of putting your life savings into a trading account?
Only trade with money you can afford to lose. If you lose a large amount, you may never want to trade again. Whereas if you lose virtual money in a demo account, or a small amount in a mini account, it may be easier to pick yourself back up after losses — both emotionally and financially. The ISO code list defines different currencies, and is the standard used in the banking industry and in businesses all around the world. See below for some of the more common currency codes. Table 1.
This act of simultaneous buying and selling is the most important aspect of forex: a currency is always traded against another currency. The first currency in the pair is known as the base currency, and the second currency is the counter or terms currency. There is usually no maximum trading size, but some brokers require that you request for a quote over the telephone for trading sizes bigger than 10,, base currency units. Pips What are pips? The term pip stands for percentage in point.
It represents the smallest incremental move an exchange rate can make. For example, 1 pip is 0. Here is another example. As you can see, the ask is always higher than the bid, and the difference which is called the spread is where the market maker makes its money from. Understanding rollover Forex transactions in the spot market are always due for settlement two business days later. So if a trader sells a certain quantity of a currency on, say, Monday, he or she is obligated to deliver that quantity of the currency on Wednesday.
This is because you are likely to be trading on a leveraged trading account, which means you can get a loan from your forex broker for the amount that you are trading. So to avoid taking actual delivery of the currency that you have bought or sold, most forex brokers will automatically roll over your positions to the next business day by closing your position and opening an identical one with a delivery date within the next two days. Rollover is usually done on a daily basis at pm New York time, and only affects those who hold their positions overnight.
So if you have bought long a particular currency, and that currency has a higher overnight interest rate than the counter currency, you will gain the difference. If you have sold short the currency with a higher overnight interest rate, then you will be charged the difference.
The broker also keeps a percentage of this rollover for itself, which is why the amount you receive will always be less than what you must pay for a given currency pair. Most brokers also have a slightly strange way of dealing with the weekend rollover. Rather than charging you the 2 non-trading days of Saturday and Sunday on the night of Friday, they usually charge it on a Wednesday. This can be somewhat confusing for new traders who wonder why their rollover is so much higher on a Wednesday than on other days of the week.
What sort of leverage can I get? Leverage involves borrowing a certain amount of the money needed to invest in something. In the case of forex, that money is usually borrowed from a broker. Forex trading does offer high leverage in the sense that for an initial margin requirement, you can build up and control a huge trading position. Margin is the minimum required balance to place a trade. Many retail forex brokers offer a sizeable amount of leverage to their customers.
Some offer 50 times leverage, while an increasing number of them even allow up to times leverage for standard-sized or mini-sized accounts. It is very important to know that leverage magnifies both your profits and losses. The good thing is that you, the customer, are often given the flexibility to select your leverage amount. Trading Slippage Slippage occurs when your order gets executed at a price different from what you were expecting or hoping.
This can easily occur in fast-moving markets, usually during or after some news release, for any non-limit orders. The table below shows the relative liquidity of some important currency pairs. While some pairs can easily move at least pips in a day, other pairs only manage to move less than 70 pips a day. The figure over the page shows the average daily volatility in some important currency pairs. In this case volatility is measured in terms of pips moved in a day.
This is not the conventional way of measuring volatility, which is usually done by measuring the percentage move of a pair in a given time frame. However, since most traders look at the pip move, I am showing volatility in terms of what is most easily measured by traders. The more a currency pair moves in a day, the greater the chance that profits can be made within a day. The broad spectrum of volatility ensures that there is something to suit everyone, ranging from the aggressive to the conservative trader.
The currency pair that you choose to concentrate your trading on will depend on how aggressive or conservative you are. Not all brokers will accept the same range of order types, but I list below the most common types of orders that most brokers should accept.
Market Order An order to buy or sell at the current market price. Limit Order An order to buy or sell at a specified price or better. Stop-Loss Order An order to close a position if the market price hits a certain level. Note however, that this type of order means that after the stop price is hit the order becomes a market order and you may suffer slippage. You use this type of entry order if you feel that the currency pair will reverse direction from that price. Stop-Entry Order An order to buy above the market or sell below the market at a specified price.
You use this type of entry order if you feel that the currency pair will continue in the same direction. Just like with a stop order, you may suffer slippage when using this type of order. Stop-Limit Order An order to buy above the market or sell below the market at a specified price only.
When your price is hit your order becomes a limit order which prevents slippage. This is commonly used to set both a profit-taking limit order and a stop-loss order as soon as an entry order is filled. There are two types of forex brokers: market makers and ECNs.
But in practice things are not so clear-cut — there are market makers out there who falsely market themselves as not having dealing desks, while there are also some brokers who claim to be true ECNs when they are not. The choice of broker must be an individual decision, because everyone has different needs and preferences.
Both new and existing traders should carefully examine the practices and policy contracts of brokers, and be up-to-date with new information on brokers. Below are some points that you might want to consider when selecting a broker. You can use it as a rough guide to narrow down some candidates that match your own needs. Can you trade from the charts? This will be useful when scalping. This will be especially crucial if you are scalping. If so, check if it has a mobile or web- based version that you can use for trading.
Or, if it is an ECN, how easy is it to fill big orders? Depending on the policy, it is possible to end up with closing prices that are worse than expected. Are you willing to accept that? If spreads are variable, how wide do they get during important news releases? The lower the margin required, the greater the amount of leverage. Once you have narrowed the broker list down to a few candidates, be sure to read the terms and conditions of the respective contracts, and understand what you are in for before you sign anything.
Later on when you have graduated to an intermediate or advanced phase in trading forex, you may then choose to spread your money among a few brokers so as to reduce exposure to a single broker. If you approach trading as a means of getting your dose of adrenaline, do yourself a favour by staying away from it — you will do less harm to your pockets by going to the latest Louis Vuitton sale or by bidding on that vintage car on eBay for the adrenaline shot.
Serious money demands serious work. Both serious and casual traders, of course, dream of making it big in the forex market, but it is not the goal that counts, it is the preparation and dedication that is important. Forex trading should be considered and treated as a serious business, just like other types of businesses. Approaching trading from the perspective of a shrewd business person can greatly tilt your chances of success to your side. Jolted from sleep, I drag my feet — with eyes half-open — into my trading room.
The time is am and the FOMC minutes have just been released. I click on the headline which summarises what the minutes say. This statement is very similar to the previous one; hence there is not much reaction in the forex market. Morning Too soon, morning comes.
I quickly scroll through the news headlines that are displayed in the news feeds, and select those which relate directly to forex. The market seems pretty boring at this time. The lull in market activity gives me some time to write a bit more of this book, and to work on some trading articles. To make sure the trade is still sound, I quickly check the news feeds to see if any news or rumours might have triggered this move. The market is moving up and closer to my position; it is now only one pip away.
I make sure all my charts are up, and I prepare to monitor this trade. It is now 12 pips away from my opening price, a bit too late for me to get in. And just as suddenly as the price has gone down, it is now moving up again and my order is now filled. The pair keeps moving up, 5 pips then I guess others must be going short too.
After what seems like an eternity, but is probably no more than five minutes, my position is back at break-even, which means I have neither made nor lost money at this point. This bounce trade seems to be taking a while, so I call my friend to let her know we will have to postpone our lunch meeting. Lunch will have to arrive in the form of junk food from my favorite food delivery outlet. Sometimes I watch my open trade like a hawk; other times, I simply continue with other activities.
I set some price alarms and get back to writing my book while waiting for my lunch. After all, it is usually better to do something else while waiting on the market. After lunch, the alarms ring. Looks like I am close to reaching my profit target. Institutional traders must be back from lunch and are taking profits on their long positions. End of the day With this trade out of the way, I look for upcoming trading opportunities. Trading blogs, especially those that have fresh and relevant material, can be a valuable source of useful and targeted information for busy traders who hold day jobs.
This blogging habit, which constitutes part of my market homework, has helped me in my own trading. I also take the time to interact with the online community of traders by participating in forums such as that as ForexVibes www. This means that sometimes I will end past midnight, and other times I will be done well before lunch time. This is unlike, say, stocks or futures which traded through the exchanges such the London Stock Exchange or Chicago Mercantile Exchange. Trading of currencies is done OTC over-the-counter , in the sense that currency buyers and sellers from all over the world make a binding contract with each other after agreeing on a price — and this is not carried out through an exchange.
This aspect of spot forex trading is different from forex futures trading which is carried out through an exchange. Forex traders carry out their activities by dealing directly with one another or through brokers via telephone and internet connections. In this centrally cleared system, the CME will act as the central counterparty and guarantee the performance of all contracts for both buyers and sellers.
Unfortunately, FXMarketSpace is an institutional trading platform and is not open to retail market players. According to the website www. Therefore, as a central exchange for forex retail players is still not a reality, I shall focus on the OTC structure of the forex market in this chapter. Players of the forex market range from those who trade billions of dollars a day, to those who trade just tens of thousands of dollars.
This club is known as the interbank market. Down the hierarchy are the smaller banks, big multinational companies, hedge funds and other institutional investors or speculators, and retail forex brokers. These large speculators may also conduct currency transactions directly in the interbank market, if they deal in large amounts and have credit standings with the large banks. Next in line are the independent retail traders who lie at the bottom of the market structure.
These individual traders mainly trade through forex brokers as they generally trade in much smaller lot sizes. Central banks of countries are also market players, although they are not always involved in the market. See Figure 2. Figure 2. Hedge funds and companies are not included in this illustration as the retail trader Small Small will usually not deal directly with Banks Banks any of them.
Without a central exchange, currency exchange rates are made, or set, by market makers — they make the bid and the ask prices based on the currency movements that they anticipate will take place. The largest banks are the major market makers, and they handle very large forex transactions — often in the billions of dollars — on behalf of their clients, such as other institutions or companies, and also for themselves.
Many banks have traders dedicated to trading speculatively for the bank. The resulting massive flows of money handled by these large banks are what primarily drive currency prices. This big money-laden network forms the interbank market where large banks deal with one another, and is where most of the trading activity takes place. The transactions carried out by these major banks amount to the greatest bulk of the total daily forex volume.
These brokering systems get the best available exchange rates for the various currency pairs, and match buying and selling requests from bank dealers. Between these two competitors, they connect at least banks together. Smaller banks that trade smaller amounts also get access to these brokering platforms. Large companies Companies and businesses are involved in the forex market because of their need to pay for products and services which are denominated in other currencies.
Since these commercial entities deal in smaller quantities, compared to that of large banks, they usually trade through banks instead of directly accessing the interbank market themselves. Large overall trade flows can have a significant impact on the forex market, as they play a role in the supply and demand of currencies.
Sometimes companies may also be involved in currency speculation for the purpose of generating additional revenue. Central banks Central banks hold the key to controlling the supply and demand of national currencies; hence they play a very important role in the forex markets.
Issues that are of most concern to central banks are those relating to: inflation price stability , economic growth and the unemployment rate. One of the ways that central banks control these factors is through the setting and adjustment of interest rates, which will affect the valuation of many currencies. Sometimes central banks intervene directly in the forex market when they are not satisfied with the current exchange rates of their currencies. That is, they may find that the current exchange rate is either too high or too low for the overall benefit of the economy.
The Bank of Japan is well-known for its intervention in the market. Hence, when the BOJ deems that the Yen is getting much stronger against, say, the US dollar or the Euro, it may step into the open market to deliberately depress its currency by selling Yen against US dollars and Euros.
This act of central bank intervention may cause other institutional players to follow suit, and further drive the currency exchange rate towards the rate that is favoured by the intervening central bank. Most of these institutional speculators have international portfolios that consist of both domestic and international assets like stock or bonds to diversify their holdings. They tend to be very aggressive participants of the spot forex market as they often facilitate currency transactions when purchasing or selling foreign assets.
For example, an investment manager who is in charge of an international stock portfolio will be required to buy and sell foreign currencies so as to pay for any purchase of overseas stocks. Hedge funds, being largely unregulated, often practise very different styles of wealth generation from investment management companies; they tend to adopt more aggressive forms of trading with the aim of generating a high return on investment.
Sometimes, a portion of their assets under management may be allocated specifically for currency speculations, with the objective of maximising their overall profits. Large hedge funds and investment management companies are capable of moving the forex market in their transactions. Forex brokers The emergence of sophisticated online forex brokers made forex trading feasible for private individuals. In the past, only wealthy individuals could speculate in the forex market, but now things are very different.
Anyone can simply open a trading account with a retail forex broker and trade currencies online with little money upfront, as forex brokers tend to offer highly leveraged margin accounts for individuals. There are basically two types of forex brokers: 1. Electronic Communication Networks ECNs : consolidate various bid and ask prices from market makers and other participants connected to their platform, and display the best available prices.
These are explained in some detail below. Market Makers Market-making is a lucrative business for banks and brokers, and forms the backbone of market liquidity. By quoting the bid and the ask prices on the screens of electronic brokering platforms, or through telephone calls, they are essentially providing liquidity and inviting other qualified parties other banks, hedge funds, corporations or retail customers like individual traders to deal with them.
In doing so, market makers must be prepared to buy or sell from other market participants. Some market makers may have established credit links with banks that trade on the interbank market, or they access electronic brokering platforms like EBS or Reuters for pricing. During periods of high liquidity in which there is a great deal of trading activity, spreads of the actively traded currency pairs are usually kept quite narrow, between pips. When the market is very quiet with little trading action going on for a particular currency pair, for example just prior to the New York close on Fridays or during news releases, dealing spreads tend to widen, sometimes by a huge margin, as a way for market makers to protect themselves when they feel that they may have to carry additional risks.
Market makers usually operate a dealing desk, which refers to the market maker trading with the customer, and the presence of dealing desks means that the market maker may potentially trade against the customer. They may move their currency quotes pips away from the interbank rates. Independent traders should always be sceptical of claims by some market makers when they say they do not operate a dealing desk. Traders tend to be more aware of their existence in stocks or futures markets.
An ECN broker gets its currency pricing from several liquidity providers such as banks, market makers or other traders who are connected to the system. When an order is placed, it is routed to the best available bid or ask price in its system.
Unlike the case of some market makers, spreads on ECNs are variable rather than fixed. Although ECN-type brokers typically charge a small commission, you can usually get tighter spreads on many currency pairs due to the large liquidity pool available. Risks of trade manipulation are also minimised when using genuine ECN brokers as compared to brokers that operate dealing desks.
This aspect of OTC shifts the odds of success against individual traders, especially if the forex broker acts as a market maker. Since traders have to deal directly with their brokers, the latter will usually hold the opposite side of the transactions. Because of the inherent conflict of interest that exists, this arrangement does not sit well with many individual traders as they fear that the market maker will trade against them, and that is not an uncommon practice in the market making industry.
No information on volume Since buy and sell transactions are not cleared by a central system, there is no way of knowing the total volume of trade. Lack of volume data can pose a challenge to stocks or futures traders who have made the switch to currencies as they may have become used to checking volume. No singular exchange rate at any one time Exchange rates do differ from place to place, screen to screen, depending on which parties are offering what. Cash transactions take place between countless parties at any one time, and there is no exchange which records all these transactions.
Some independent traders are not even aware of this peculiar aspect of OTC dealings. Since there can be a few different prices for a currency pair at any one time, you may not be able to see what is the best available price if you trade through only one market maker.
Generally, though, the rates provided by market makers to retail traders are quite close to the pricing quoted in the interbank market. No standard data Exchange rates differ from one market maker to another because there is no consensus specified by a centralised market. Different market makers have different rates at the same time although usually not differing by more than a few pips.
A trader would have to accept what is being quoted by his broker unless he compares prices with other brokers. Price charts from different price feed vendors will also look slightly different as they each have their own data source.
Although, in general, the currency prices are quite similar. The forex trading day Also, being a hour market, boundaries of a trading day are blurred. Traders from around the world are in various time zones. While the trading arena has had a boost from the CME-Reuters joint venture of a central forex exchange, it remains to be seen if that can benefit independent traders.
Trade manipulation by some market-making brokers is something that is difficult for traders to prove, and something that is easy for the culprits to dismiss. However, despite the limitations that come with the OTC territory, spot forex trading can be extremely financially rewarding for those who are aware of the limitations and know how to deal with them.
And trading forex is not one of the easiest ways — despite what many new traders believe. Many traders fail, and they empty their trading accounts before they learn how to exploit the forex market to their advantage. Although there are also traders who are successful in forex trading, their numbers are small compared to the majority of losers.
Many times, traders are not aware that they have the power and might to shift the odds to their favour, that they can dramatically increase their chances of success if they want to. The main reason why many traders get defeated by the market can be attributed to their lack of knowledge.
In this 21st century, where the buzzword is knowledge, it is not just a matter of working hard, but also a matter of working smart. Knowledge is the key that can open many doors — if you have an intimate knowledge of how something works, you can then come up with ways to exploit what you know to your advantage.
This applies to forex trading as well. You need to know how to identify high probability trade setups and how to manage your money wisely. For every transaction in the forex market, there are winners and losers. Your goal is to make more overall profits than losses over a period of time, and to emerge an overall winner. My approach to consistent trading success lies in three main pillars, or the 3Ms: Mind, Money and Method.
It is often said that we are our own worst enemy. Human beings are emotional creatures, and most of our decisions are guided more by emotions than logical thinking. Our mind is capable of playing tricks on us; we can get seduced into unfavourable situations by our emotions.
Emotions can work for us or against us. Sometimes they can save us from landing in a pile of sticky mess, but sometimes they can land us in it. We can also turn the tables around by playing tricks on our mind, making it believe whatever we want it to believe. Do you have the mental strength? Whether you are new to trading currencies or a forex trader who has some experience, here are some questions to ask yourself: Do you really have a strong desire to succeed in forex trading?
Sure, every one wants to succeed in something, but do you have the desire to want to succeed in forex trading? First of all, this field is not for every one, for you must have the passion for it. If you just want to try your luck, or dabble, in trading, you will just end up among the majority who lose their money.
You must have the deep desire to want to accomplish your goals, because without this desire, your thoughts will not materialise into action, and it is action that could transform your goals to reality. To be a successful trader, you must be highly self-motivated, have a concrete plan of action, and not be afraid of failure. Are you prepared to devote a lot of time and effort into picking up trading skills and knowledge? To be really good at anything, you need skills and knowledge in that field.
A huge amount of time, effort and money is required for a trader to attain consistent success in forex trading. Despite the availability of forex trading-related resources on the internet, and in the bookstores, traders can find it quite daunting to learn about trading on their own as they do not know what there is to be known.
I recommend that you check out those which are offered by skilled and practising instructors. Note: Be wary of signing up for courses or seminars that are full of hype, for they can be very misleading. Avoid those that give you the impression that you can attain consistent profits after two days of intensive learning, or those that require you to purchase expensive software. While there are some shortcuts to gaining knowledge via courses or seminars, there is no substitute for honing your trading skills in the market.
Are you willing to accept losses as part of trading? Every one makes mistakes, and mistakes are inevitable. Got a trading loss? Then whip out your trading log to record what your mistakes are and what you have learnt from that losing trade. Always have something positive to take away from your losses, and treat it as a learning experience.
Know that there will be other trades coming your way. Are you willing to take sole responsibility for your trading decisions? You read some market analysis, and then trade according to what the analyst is saying. That trade turns out to be a loser, and you turn around to blame it on that market report. It is dangerous to blame losses on other people, the forex market, or the stars, for you are the only person responsible for pulling the trigger.
And if you blame others you will never be able to find out how you can improve. Fear and greed Fear and greed are the two dominant emotions that affect not just the state of our mind, but also the currency market. In fact, the fluctuations of these two emotions are the main drivers of the currency market.
There are, of course, other emotions that exist in the market such as disappointment, regret and so on, but fear and greed are the principal forces that tilt the scales of supply and demand of currencies. When traders feel overly optimistic about a country or its currency, they become consumed by the great hope that the currency would appreciate in value against another currency.
They are then guided by this hope and greed to buy the currency pair now so that they could hopefully sell it at a higher price in the future. Greed then grows into euphoria, as traders continue to buy and buy, thus taking currency prices to newer highs. When people are buying a currency with great hope, they are also selling the other currency in the pair with great fear. On the other hand, when currency prices go down, fear and greed are also the main drivers of the move.
All in all, fear and greed are behind the steering wheel of the currency market. So, while you must learn to recognise these emotions in the market, the problem comes when you allow them to distort your logic when it comes to making trading decisions, as most of these decisions will turn out bad, and are likely to cause you to regret your actions later.
Since there is no way of banishing these emotions for good, the best thing to do is to control these emotions, instead of letting them control the way you think and act. Face and control your fears Since greed can be categorised as a kind of fear, which is the fear of missing out, I will discuss the primary types of fears relating to trading, and how they can be overcome.
The first step to preventing fears from ruining your trading performance is to recognise the various forms of fear that is connected to trading. And once you recognise the type of fear you are experiencing, the easier it is for you to handle that emotional obstacle so that you can trade better.
That is the key to emotion-free trading. It is not about pretending that those fears do not exist, but how you handle them that matters. Here are some common trading-related fears. Fear of missing out Why do so many people rush to departmental store sales, or rushed to buy technology stocks during the dot-com boom?
Any kind of buying mania stems from a very strong emotion that is commonly invoked in people, and that is the fear of missing out. In trading, this fear manifests itself especially during a sharp rally or decline of a currency pair. Your heart begins to pound really fast, and you have a million thoughts zipping through your brain, with most of the thoughts urging you to buy now, now, now.
I am losing out! Traders suffering from this type of fear are usually the ones who get onto a trend too late. Be disciplined and hold off that mouse whenever you sense that this type of fear is creeping up on you. Think instead of all those traders who are pouring dumb money into the market, and be glad that you know better than them not to join in the craze. Fear of losses Trading is a game — there will be winners, and there will be losers. Sometimes you win some, sometimes you lose some.
Losses are bound to happen, no matter how accurate a trading system may be. The fear of losing is most prominent in new traders as they do not yet have adequate trading skills and knowledge to help assess and evaluate trading opportunities with a high level of confidence. This can lead to trading paralysis, whereby traders become afraid of pulling the trigger when it comes to entering or exiting trades as they fear losing money or a big portion of their trading capital.
However, if you have a reasonable stop-loss order in place, that is in accordance to your money management rules, you should have no reason of being fearful of damaging the trading account based on just one trade. That is what stop-loss orders are for — to guard against huge losses. When you do encounter hesitancy in pulling the trigger, evaluate if you have valid reasons for doing so or if you are simply held back by fear.
Traders just have to get used to the reality that losses are inevitable. The trick is to ensure that your losses are kept small so that you do not harm both your trading account and your state of mind. A trader does not have to be right. It does not matter at all whether he or she is right or wrong; what counts is whether he or she is profitable in the long run. Traders should not be hung up on the outcome of single trades, or even a few trades, as trading performance has to be assessed over a period of time.
What matters is that you end up profitable over a period of time. Once you place less emphasis on being correct on a current trade, your fear of making wrong decisions should abate, thus enabling you to make better trading decisions without feeling burdened by the overwhelming pressure to be correct in that trade. Remember that there will be times of losses and times of profits, which is why it is so important to enter only trades that have a high probability of success.
Focus on the big picture Do not get caught up in feeling invincible or pessimistic after a win or a loss. As trading is a very highly charged and emotional activity, it is very easy for traders to oscillate between emotional highs and lows. The outcome of just one trade should not affect your overall performance, unless you have violated proper risk management guidelines by betting the farm on a single trade or by over-leveraging.
A trade is just one of many trades. When you are wrong on one trade or several trades, try not to beat yourself up or feel regret. Instead, analyze to see where and how you could have done better in those trades or what mistakes you may have made, and record what you have learnt from them. If there was really nothing that could have been preventable, just accept that the market is unpredictable.
The outcome of one or a few winning or losing trades should not be magnified. Other trades will surely come. I strongly believe that once a trader has honed his or her trading skills, the ultimate factor that will affect his or her overall profitability is money management skills.
Money management is all about managing the possible risks, and it is the defining factor that separates winners and losers in forex trading. Novice traders think of how much they can harvest from the market; experienced traders think of how much they can lose to the market. Many traders are so eager to trade to make big money that they completely overlook money management.
Poor money management also explains why so many traders get wiped out by the market. Money management is about fully optimising your trading capital. It allows you to be proactive in managing risks, and to cope with trading losses — which are part and parcel of the game. It is an essential tool to ensure that you will have more than enough to last another day in the trading game.
No matter how good a trading system may be, there will be times when you will experience a series of losses. Success comes to those who have set down rules for money management, and have the discipline to follow them through their trading. Preserve your capital The shining light that attracts all traders to the forex market is the prospect of being able to grow their money by tapping into the online trading platform as their own in-house money tree.
In almost any field, it is true that most people are drawn to short-term benefits, but are myopic when it comes to long-term planning. Trading is no exception. When risk capital is put aside for trading, you are hoping that this amount of money could be transformed into a much bigger amount; otherwise, what would be the point of risking it?
But if this capital runs out, what can you bank on to make your desired profits? After all, money begets money. To drive home the importance of capital preservation, I will discuss the concept of drawdown, and how that is relevant to money management. In other words, it is the amount of money that you lose — it is usually expressed as a percentage of your total trading equity at any given time. Drawdown is not an indication of your overall trading performance, as it is calculated when you have a losing trade against your new equity high or your original equity, depending on which is higher.
Recovering from drawdown As drawdown gets bigger and bigger, it becomes increasingly difficult to recover the equity. Many people are not aware that in order to recoup the percentage of equity that they lose, they will need to gain a bigger percentage just to break even.
The answer is no. It will require an Let me show you with numbers. OK, that is not scary yet, but if you start losing more and more of your capital bigger and bigger drawdowns , the faster you will go down the rabbit hole. While many traders hope for that One Big Win that will magically transform them into millionaires overnight, they are more likely to be confronted with the One Big Loss that will threaten their survival in the forex market if they do not exercise careful money management.
If a trader has a big loss, he or she will have to spend more time to get back to where he or she was before, instead of using the time to make profits. Traders who burn out quickly in the market are those who do not show respect for risk. On the other hand, traders who have flourished are those who fully understand the importance of stringent money management and incorporate that into their trading approach.
There is no way around to recouping slowly, unless you want to drive yourself to total destruction by risking more and more of your equity to try to make back your losses. Holding on to a losing trade for too long is the biggest cause of a big drawdown.
Be well-capitalised Most new traders run out of money even before they see any profits in their trading account. Indeed, those who are new to trading most likely do not have a good understanding of the risks and dangers that are lurking in the market, and few even know what drawdown means or have even heard of this word.
Many of them do know that trading can be very risky if they do not know what they are doing or how things work in the currency market and, to them, one of the obvious but incorrect ways to limit this risk is by allocating just a small amount of money to their trading account. There are also many new traders who begin their trading business with little initial capital as they simply do not have enough money. Whatever their reasons may be, being under-capitalised will be more than just a mistake; it is often the prelude to trading failure.
Forex traders who want to set themselves up for success must be well-capitalised. Never mind that some retail brokers are offering a minimum account deposit of just a few hundred dollars — a paltry amount that almost every one can afford.
Sufficient initial capital must be available to cushion the impact of a string of consecutive losses, so that you do not wipe out your trading account. A series of losses is really not that uncommon in trading, and all traders must be financially prepared for it. Those with insufficient trading capital tend to set really tight stops, which will naturally then lead to a higher probability of being stopped out.
They also tend to have a good chunk of their account eaten away by unreasonably large losses in relation to their trading account, if they do not set tight stops. So it seems that whichever way they turn, they are setting themselves up for failure, unless they are willing to trade smaller lot sizes. Looking outside of trading, many other businesses fail because the owners often do not have enough capital to tide them over the initial starting phase.
For example, a new restaurant owner must set aside enough money to pay the rent of the restaurant for at least a few months to a few years, assuming that the restaurant would not make any net profits in that period of time. If the owner only has enough to pay for two months rent from his or her own pocket, and the restaurant is still not making enough to cover the rent and other expenses in the third month, how do you think the business is going to sustain itself?
The entire business could fail, not because of the business model, but because of the lack of sufficient capital to keep the business running while the customer base builds up. Trading, as I have mentioned before, must be treated just like any other business, not a frivolous casual pursuit. The point is this: by starting off sufficiently capitalised, you are more likely to adhere to your money management rules and, by doing so, you are really giving yourself a good fighting chance in the market.
Losses are really just part of the trading game. If trading losses are kept manageable and reasonable, they should not dent your trading account too much, provided that you are well-capitalised. Knowing when to get out of a losing position in the currency market is a very important tool of risk management. Stop-loss orders allow traders to set an exit point for a losing trade, and are the best weapon against emotional trading.
While I recommend that traders place a stop-loss order at the time of placing their entry order, mental stops may also be used — but preferably by traders who are more disciplined.
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