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The region near the weld interface between Alloy 52M and the CF8 SS had a higher hot cracking tendency than the other regions. It was found that the dilution rate and the formation of eutectic-type constituents i. Nevertheless, hot cracks were entirely eliminated by proper deposition of a SS buffer layer prior to overlaying with Alloy 52M.
Effects of weld residual stresses on crack -opening area analysis of pipes for LBB applications. This paper summarizes four different studies undertaken to evaluate the effects of weld residual stresses on the crack -opening behavior of a circumferential through-wall crack in the center of a girth weld. The effect of weld residual stress on the crack -opening-area and leak-rate analyses of a pipe is not well understood. There are no simple analyses to account for these effects, and, therefore, they are frequently neglected.
The effect of filler metals such as austenitic stainless steel, ferritic stainless steel, and duplex stainless steel on fatigue crack growth behavior of the gas metal arc welded ferritic stainless steel joints was investigated. Center cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate fatigue crack growth behavior. Servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine with a capacity of kN was used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behavior of the welded joints. From this investigation, it was found that the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal showed superior fatigue crack growth resistance compared to the joints fabricated by austenitic and ferritic stainless steel filler metals.
Higher yield strength and relatively higher toughness may be the reasons for superior fatigue performance of the joints fabricated by duplex stainless steel filler metal. Dissimilar metal welds DMWs are routinely used in the oil and gas industries for structural joining of high strength steels in order to eliminate the need for post weld heat treatment PWHT after field welding. This is due to local embrittlement that occurs in susceptible microstructures that are present at the weld fusion boundary region.
The main objectives included: 1 evaluation of the effect of materials composition, welding and PWHT procedures on the gradients of composition, microstructure, and properties in the dissimilar transition region and on the susceptibility to HAC; 2 investigation of the influence of microstructure on the HAC failure mechanism and identification of microstructural constituents acting as crack nucleation and propagation sites; 3 assessment of the applicability of two-step PWHT to improve the resistance to HAC in DMWs; 4 establishment of non-failure criterion for the delayed hydrogen cracking test DHCT that is applicable for qualification of DMWs for subsea service under cathodic protection CP.
Lamb wave line sensing for crack detection in a welded stiffener. This paper proposes a novel Lamb wave line sensing technique for crack detection in a welded stiffener. The proposed technique overcomes one of the biggest technical challenges of Lamb wave crack detection for real structure applications: crack -induced Lamb waves are often mixed with multiple reflections from complex waveguides.
In particular, crack detection in a welded joint, one of the structural hot spots due to stress concentration, is accompanied by reflections from the welded joint as well as a crack. Extracting and highlighting crack -induced Lamb wave modes from Lamb wave responses measured at multi-spatial points along a single line can be accomplished through a frequency-wavenumber domain analysis.
The advantages of the proposed technique enable us not only to enhance the crack detectability in the welded joint but also to minimize false alarms caused by environmental and operational variations by avoiding the direct comparison with the baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure.
The proposed technique is experimentally and numerically validated in vertically stiffened metallic structures, revealing that it successfully identifies and localizes subsurface cracks , regardless of the coexistence with the vertical stiffener. Crack surface and crack profile examinations of the specimen revealed that cracking in the weld region was transgranular TG with weld grain boundaries not aligned with the geometric crack growth plane of the specimen.
Hydrogen accelerated fatigue crack growth of friction stir welded X52 steel pipe. Friction stir welded steel pipelines were tested in high pressure hydrogen gas to examine the effects of hydrogen accelerated fatigue crack growth. Tests were performed on three regions: base metal BM , center of friction stir weld FSW , and 15 mm off-center of the weld. Among tests in hydrogen, fatigue crack growth rates were modestly higher in the FSW than the BM and 15 mm off-center tests.
In conclusion, the X52 friction stir weld and base metal tested in hydrogen exhibited fatigue crack growth rate relationships that are comparable to those for conventional arc welded steel pipeline of similar strength found in the literature. Brittle crack arrestability of thick steel plate welds in large structure. Recently, there has been such a critical issue in shipbuilding industry that much larger and stronger ships are required to develop oil and gas in the Arctic region.
Attention has been paid to obtaining high strength, good toughness at low temperature, and good weldability. An experimental study was performed to evaluate the brittle crack arrest toughness value Kca and brittle crack arrest method of welded joints using EH40 grade steel with a thickness of 80 mm. The research aims in this study were to investigate the effect of joint design and welding consumable for the crack arrestability of thick steel plates using EH40 grade shipbuilding steel of straight block joint weld line with two kinds of welding processes.
Remote reactor repair: GTA gas tungsten Arc weld cracking caused by entrapped helium. A repair patch was welded to the wall of a nuclear reactor tank using remotely controlled thirty-foot long robot arms. Further repair was halted when gas tungsten arc GTA welds joining type L stainless steel patches to the stainless steel wall developed toe cracks in the heat-affected zone HAZ.
The role of helium in cracking was investigated using material with entrapped helium from tritium decay. As a result of this investigation, and of an extensive array of diagnostic tests performed on reactor tank wall material, helium embrittlement was shown to be the cause of the toe cracks.
Crack -growth behavior in thick welded plates of Inconel at room and cryogenic temperatures. Results of mechanical-properties and axial-load fatigue and fracture tests performed on thick welded plates of Inconel superalloy are presented. The test objectives were to determine the tensile strength properties and the crack -growth behavior in electron-beam, plasma-arc, and gas tungsten are welds for plates 1. Base-metal specimens were also tested to determine the flaw-growth behavior.
The tests were performed in room-temperature-air and liquid nitrogen environments. The experimental crack -growth-rate data are correlated with theoretical crack -growth-rate predictions for semielliptical surface flaws. Detailed investigation was carried out on 0. Fractographic and microstructural observations provide evidences of delayed hydrogen-induced cracking. The beneficial microstructure for avoiding the transverse cracks was found to be the bainitic-martensitic, while martensitic structure was noted to be deleterious.
The objective of this study was to characterize hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in gas-tungsten arc GTA welds of the nitrogen-strengthened, austenitic stainless steel 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn , using fracture mechanics methods. The fracture initiation toughness and crack growth resistance curves were measured using fracture mechanics specimens that were thermally precharged with wppm 1. The fracture initiation toughness and slope of the crack growth resistance curve for the hydrogen-precharged weld were reduced by as much as 60 and 90 pct, respectively, relative to the noncharged weld.
A physical model for hydrogen-assisted crack propagation in the welds was formulated from microscopy evidence and finite-element modeling. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation proceeded by a sequence of microcrack formation at the weld ferrite, intense shear deformation in the ligaments separating microcracks, and then fracture of the ligaments.
In addition, hydrogen may have facilitated intense shear deformation in the ligaments separating microcracks. The intense shear deformation could be related to the development of a nonuniform distribution of hydrogen trapped at dislocations between microcracks, which in turn created a gradient in the local flow stress. Welding processes for Inconel A brief review. Inconel is being extensively used for high-temperature applications, rocket engines, gas turbines, etc.
Though alloy is reputed to possess good weldability in the context of their resistance to post weld heat treatment cracking , heat affected zone HAZ and weld metal cracking problems persist. This paper presents a brief review on welding processes for Inconel and the weld defects, such as strain cracking during post weld heat treatment, solidification cracking , and liquation cracking. Figure 4 shows the residual stress of a MIG The samples were electropolished in a Buehler Electromet 4 Electropolisher using a solution of Partially melted zone in aluminum welds.
The partially melted zone PMZ is a region immediately outside the weld metal where grain boundary GB liquation can occur and cause intergranular cracking. Aluminum alloys are known to be susceptible to liquation and liquation cracking. The PMZ of alloy essentially Al Liquation is initiated eutectically. Solidification of the GB liquid was directionalupward and toward the weld as a result of the temperature gradients across the PMZ.
The liquated material solidifies with severe segregation into a low-strength, low-ductility structure consisting of a solute-depleted ductile phase and a solute-rich brittle eutectic. In tensile testing the maximum load and displacement before failure were both far below those of the base metal. The GB eutectic fractured while the adjacent Cu-depleted a deformed readily under tension. The solidification mode of the grain boundary liquid was mostly planar.
However, cellular solidification was also observed near the bottom of partial-penetration welds , where temperature gradients were lowest. The liquation mechanisms in wrought multicomponent aluminum alloys during welding were also studied.
Three mechanisms were identified. They cover most, if not all, wrought aluminum alloys. Liquation cracking in the PMZ was investigated in full-penetration aluminum welds. Liquation cracking occurs because the solidifying PMZ is pulled by a solidifying and thus contracting weld metal that is stronger than the PMZ. Liquation cracking can occur if there is significant liquation in the PMZ, if there is no solidification cracking in the adjacent weld metal, and if the PMZ becomes lower in solid fraction and hence strength during its terminal solidification than the solidifying weld metal.
Liquation cracking in the PMZ was also investigated in partial-penetration aluminum welds. The papillary nipple type penetration common in welding with spray transfer of the filler wire actually oscillates along the weld and promotes. Avoidance of crack inducement when laser welding hot-formed car body components - a variable analysis.
Most of the parts are manufactured in a hot-forming process, so called presshardening, resulting in component tensile strength in the range of 1, MPa. The Volvo XC60 car body is at the same time to a large extent assembled by laser welding technology. In early development stages of the project Y , it was observed that laser welding of hot-formed components presented a number of challenges due to the unique conditions offered by this welding method.
The presentation will thoroughly describe the modes of procedure how to avoid crack inducement during the welding operation. A variable analysis approach was used based on the present circumstances at the production facility in the Gent plant. Crucial variables at laser welding such as gap between sheets, focal point position, welding speed and laser weld position relative to the flange edge were included in a test matrix and welding trials were carried out accordingly in the Pilot Plant in Gothenburg.
The paper will discuss those welding results, the subsequent analysis and plausible theoretic explanations. From the lessons learnt in this research, the optimum laser welding parameters were then transferred to the laser welding stations in the Gent plant. There it has been proven, that also at high volume automotive manufacturing, it is possible to provide an outstanding weld quality also at such difficult pre-conditions.
The presentation ends with some facts and figures and experiences from high volume series production, which also includes aspects on quality assurance. Mechanical properties and fatigue crack growth rate of laser- welded steel. The effect of the type of the postweld heat treatment PWHT on the mechanical and fatigue properties of AISI laser- welded steel were investigated using results of tensile, impact, and fatigue- crack -growth tests and SEM observations.
The results show that necking of a tensile specimen is concentrated in the overtempered zone, resulting in an overall reduction in elongation of the weld. It was found that a 1-hr PWHT at C or a laser multiple-tempering process can greatly improve the impact toughness of laser- welded steel. Behavior of Ti-5Al Through- and surface- cracked specimens of two thicknesses were tested in uniaxial tension.
Surface- cracked specimens were generally found to be stronger than through- cracked specimens with the same crack length. Apparent surface- crack fracture toughness calculated using the Anderson modified Irwin equation remained relatively constant for cracks as deep as 90 percent of the sheet thickness.
Subcritical growth of surface cracks was investigated. Comparison of chamber and open air welds showed chamber welds to be slightly tougher. Both methods produced welds with toughness that compared favorably with that of the parent metal.
Weld efficiencies were above 94 percent. The stress corrosion cracking behavior of duplex stainless steel DSS weld joint largely depends on the ferrite-austenite phase microstructure balance. This phase balance is decided by the welding process used, heat input, welding conditions and the weld metal chemistry.
Boiling magnesium chloride 45 wt. The microstructure and ferrite content of different weld zones are correlated with the outcome of sustained load, SCC test. Irrespective of the welding processes used, SCC resistance of weld joints was inferior to that of the base metal.
The crack initiation and final failure were in the weld metal for the ATIG weld joint; they were in the heat-affected zone for the TIG weld joint. The crack resistance of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K60 and different alloying systems is studied. The parameter of the crack tip opening displacement CTOD is shown to be dependent on the size of the austenite grains and on the morphology of bainite in the superheated region of the heat-affected zone of the weld.
The crack resistance is shown to be controllable due to optimization of the alloying system. Defects that develop in welds during the fabrication process are frequently manifested as embedded flaws from lack of fusion or lack of penetration. Fracture analyses of welded structures must be able to assess the effect of such defects on the structural integrity of weldments; however, the transferability of R-curves measured in laboratory specimens to defective structural welds has not been fully examined.
In the current study, the fracture behavior of an overmatched butt weld containing a simulated buried, lack-of-penetration defect is studied. A specimen designed to simulate pressure vessel butt welds is considered; namely, a center crack panel specimen, of 1. Specimens are precracked, loaded monotonically while load-CMOD measurements are made, then stopped and heat tinted to mark the extent of ductile crack growth. These measurements are compared to predictions made using finite element analysis of the specimens using the fracture mechanics code Warp3D, which models void growth using the Gurson-Tvergaard dilitant plasticity formulation within fixed sized computational cells ahead of the crack front.
Calibrating data for the finite element analyses, namely cell size and initial material porosities are obtained by matching computational predictions to experimental results from tests of welded compact tension specimens. The R-curves measured in compact tension specimens are compared to those obtained from multi-specimen weld tests, and conclusions as to the transferability of R-curves is discussed.
The creep-fatigue strength of this joint was investigated. The life of the joint was significantly shorter than that of the base alloys. To understand this behavior, the stress field in the welding was numerically analyzed using a visco-elastic model. The results suggested that triaxiality in the stress state could be promoted near the welded interface and lead to an acceleration of creep-fatigue crack nucleation.
The concept of welding crack tendency is explained and illustrated with practical examples. All pertinent causes are enumerated, and experimental measures are given through which the secondary effects can be removed and the principal causes analyzed: 1 welding stresses; and 2 material defects.
The variations in length and stresses incident to welding a small bar as free weld , with restrained elongation and restrained elongation and contraction, are explored in three fundamental experiments. Newman, John A. Keith; Blair, Amy. An on-line compliance-based method to account for residual stress effects in stress-intensity factor and fatigue crack growth property determinations has been evaluated.
Residual stress intensity factor results determined from specimens containing friction stir weld induced residual stresses are presented, and the on-line method results were found to be in excellent agreement with residual stress-intensity factor data obtained using the cut compliance method. Variable stress-intensity factor tests were designed to demonstrate that a simple superposition model, summing the applied stress-intensity factor with the residual stress-intensity factor, can be used to determine the total crack -tip stress-intensity factor.
This equivalent delta T was established and applied to analyze different specimen configurations to predict residual stress distributions and associated residual stress-intensity factor values. The predictions were found to agree well with experimental results obtained using the crack - and cut-compliance methods. In this work, the geometry and material constraint effects on creep crack growth CCG and behavior in welded joints were investigated.
The CCG paths and rates of two kinds of specimen geometry C T and M T with initial cracks located at soft HAZ heat-affected zone with lower creep strength and different material mismatches were simulated. The effect of constraint on creep crack initiation CCI time was discussed. The results show that there exists interaction between geometry and material constraints in terms of their effects on CCG rate and CCI time of welded joints.
Under the condition of low geometry constraint, the effect of material constraint on CCG rate and CCI time becomes more obvious. Higher material constraint can promote CCG due to the formation of higher stress triaxiality around crack tip. Both geometry and material constraints should be considered in creep life assessment and design for high-temperature welded components.
Hot- cracking studies of Inconel weld - heat-affected zones. A correlation of the test results with composition, heat-treat condition, grain size, and microstructure was made. The effects of in situ cathodic charging on the tensile properties and susceptibility to cracking of an AISI type stainless steel, welded by the gas tungsten arc welding GTAW process, was studied by various treatments.
Appearance of delta-ferrite phase in the as- welded steels in our tested conditions was observed with discontinuous grain boundaries M23C6 and a dense distribution of metal carbides MC Ti, Nb C , which precipitated in the matrix. Shielding gas rates changes the mechanical properties of the welds. Ultimate tensile strength and ductility are increases with the resistance to the environments related the increase of the supplied shielding inert gas rates.
Charged specimens, caused mainly in decreases in the ductility of welded specimens. However, more severe decrease in ductility was obtained after post weld heat treatment PWHT. The fracture of sensitized specimens was predominantly intergranular, whereas the as- welded specimens exhibited massive transgranular regions. Both types of specimen demonstrated narrow brittle zones at the sides of the fracture surface and ductile micro-void coalescences in the middle.
Development of stress corrosion cracking resistant welds of stainless steel by simple surface engineering. We hereby report a simple surface engineering technique to make AISI grade stainless steel SS welds resistant to stress corrosion cracking SCC in chloride environment. The welds had high magnitude of tensile residual stresses and had undergone SCC in chloride environment while in service.
Subsequently, the welded surfaces were subjected to buffing operation followed by determination of residual stress distribution and surface roughness by XRD and surface profilometer measurements respectively. The results showed that the buffed surfaces both welds and base material were resistant to SCC even after 10 h of exposure to boiling MgCl2 whereas the un-buffed surfaces underwent severe SCC for the same exposure time. Buffing imparted high magnitude of compressive stresses on the surface of stainless steel together with reduction in its surface roughness and reduction in plastic strain on the surface which made the welded surface, resistant to chloride assisted SCC.
Buffing being a very simple, portable and economic technique can be easily adapted by the designers as the last step of component fabrication to make stainless steel welds resistant to chloride assisted SCC. The demand of crack tip opening displacement CTOD test which evaluates fracture toughness of a cracked material is very important to ensure the stability of structure under severe service environment.
The validity of the CTOD test result is judged using several criterions of the specification standards. One of them is the artificially generated fatigue pre- crack length inside the specimen. For acceptable CTOD test results, fatigue pre- crack must have a reasonable sharp crack front. The propagation of fatigue crack started from the tip of the machined notch, which might have propagated irregularly due to residual stress field.
To overcome this problem, test codes suggest local compression method, reversed bending method and stepwise high-R ratio method to reduce the disparity of residual stress distribution inside the specimen. In this paper, the relation between the degree of local compression and distribution of welding residual stress has been analyzed by finite element analyses in order to determine the amount of effective local compression of the test piece.
Analysis results show that initial welding residual stress is dramatically varied three-dimensionally while cutting, notch machining and local compressing due to the change of internal restraint force. From the simulation result, the authors find that there is an optimum amount of local compression to modify regularly for generating fatigue pre- crack propagation.
In the case of 0. Present work is aimed to improve stress corrosion cracking resistance of high nitrogen steel and its welds. An attempt to weld high nitrogen steel of 5 mm thick plate using gas tungsten arc welding GTAW with three high strength age hardenable fillers i. Welds were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.
Vickers hardness testing of the welds was carried out to study the mechanical behaviour of welds. Potentio-dynamic polarization studies were done to determine pitting corrosion resistance in aerated 3. However, All GTA welds failed in the weld interface region. This may be attributed to relatively lower pitting potential in weld interface which acts as active site and the initiation source of pitting.
It was found that the microplasticity theory of Beachem can best describe how the stress The adsorption theory of Petch and Stables3 and further modifications In addition, fracture surfaces indicate rapid void formation and coales- cence at low temperatures where the rate of surface. Welding will play an important role in the fabrication of modular lightweight structures based on magnesium alloy die castings, extrusion profiles and wrought products. Minimisation of rejection rates during fabrication requires that satisfactory weldability be established for a particular combination of materials and welding procedures.
In this paper, we present the results of a study to quantify the weldability of wrought alloy AZ31B by gas tungsten arc GTA and laser beam LB welding processes. The susceptibility to weld metal solidification cracking was evaluated using the Circular Patch weldability test.
Operating windows of welding parameters for crack -free and porosity-free GTA and LB welding were identified, based on which welding procedures were developed for sheet and plate AZ31B. The microstructure and mechanical properties of welded test plates were assessed, leading to a better understanding of microstructurat development and structure-property relationships in GTA and LB weldments in AZ31B.
An investigation of reheat cracking in the weld heat affected zone of type stainless steel. Reheat cracking has been a persistent problem for welding of many alloys such as the stabilized stainless steels: Types and as well as Cr-Mo-V steels. Similar problem occurs in Ni-base superalloys termed "strain-age cracking ".
Cracking occurs during the post weld heat treatment. The HAZ is the most susceptible area due to metallurgical reactions in solid state during both heating and cooling thermal cycle. Many investigations have been conducted to understand the RHC mechanism. There is still no comprehensive mechanism to explain its underlying mechanism.
In this study, there were two proposed cracking mechanisms. The first is the formation of a PFZ resulting in local weakening and strain localization. The second is the creep-like grain boundary sliding that causes microvoid formation at the grain boundaries and the triple point junctions. Cracking occurs due to the coalescence of the microvoids that form. In this study, stabilized grade stainless steel, Type , was selected for investigation of reheat cracking mechanism due to the simplicity of its microstructure and understanding of its metallurgical behavior.
The Gleeble TM system was employed due to its capability for precise control of both thermal and mechanical simulation. These C-curves show the possible relationship of the reheat cracking susceptibility and carbide precipitation behavior. To identify the mechanism, the sample shape was modified containing two flat surfaces at the center section.
These flat surfaces were electro-polished and subjected to the HAZ simulation followed by the placement of the micro-indentation arrays. Then, the reheat cracking test was performed. The cracking mechanism was identified by tracing. Hot cracking is one of the major defects in continuous casting of steels, frequently limiting the productivity.
To understand the factors leading to this defect, microstructure formation is simulated for a low-carbon and two high-strength low-alloyed steels. To account for the correct thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the multicomponent alloy grades, the simulation software is online coupled to commercial thermodynamic and mobility databases.
A moving-frame boundary condition allows traveling through the entire solidification history starting from the slab surface, and tracking the morphology changes during growth of the shell. From the simulation results, significant microstructure differences between the steel grades are quantitatively evaluated and correlated with their hot cracking behavior according to the Rappaz-Drezet-Gremaud RDG hot cracking criterion.
The possible role of the microalloying elements in hot cracking , in particular of traces of Ti, is analyzed. With the assumption that TiN precipitates trigger coalescence of the primary dendrites, quantitative evaluation of the critical strain rates leads to a full agreement with the observed hot cracking behavior. Crack propagation modelling for high strength steel welded structural details.
Nowadays the barrier of applying HSS High Strength Steel material in bridge structures is their low fatigue strength related to yield strength. This paper focuses on the fatigue behaviour of a structural details a gusset plate connection made from NSS and HSS material, which is frequently used in bridges in Hungary.
An experimental research program is carried out at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics to investigate the fatigue lifetime of this structural detail type through the same test specimens made from S and S steel grades. The main aim of the experimental research program is to study the differences in the crack propagation and the fatigue lifetime between normal and high strength steel structures.
Based on the observed fatigue crack pattern the main direction and velocity of the crack propagation is determined. In parallel to the tests finite element model FEM are also developed, which model can handle the crack propagation. Using the measured strain data in the tests and the calculated values from the FE model, the approximation of the material parameters of the Paris law are calculated step-by-step, and their calculated values are evaluated.
The same material properties are determined for NSS and also for HSS specimens as well, and the differences are discussed. In the current paper, the results of the experiments, the calculation method of the material parameters and the calculated values are introduced. Effect of micromorphology at the fatigue crack tip on the crack growth in electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V joint. The effect of micromorphology on crack propagation at the tip of the fatigue crack in joints formed by electron beam welding was investigated using an optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and other methodologies.
Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D. Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation.
The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility HCS in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects.
It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters. Influence of structure on static cracking resistance and fracture of welded joints of pipe steels of strength class K The static cracking resistance of a number of welded joints made from pipe steels of K60 strength class has been determined. It has been established that the deformation parameter CTOD varies significantly at identical parameters of weldability of steels.
The character of fracture has been investigated and the zone of local brittleness of welded joints has been studied. It has been shown that the ability of a metal to resist cracking is determined by the austenite grain size and by the bainite morphology in the region of overheating in the heat-affected zone of a welded joint.
Contribution of precipitate on migrated grain boundaries to ductility-dip cracking in Alloy weld joints. We investigated the crack properties in Alloy weld metals and their characteristics using experimentally designed filler wires fabricated by varying the niobium and manganese contents in the flux with the shield metal arc welding SMAW process.
The fast diffusivity of niobium on the migrated grain boundary MGB under strong restraint tensile stress, which was induced by the hardened matrix in weld metal containing high niobium and manganese, accelerated the growth of niobium carbide NbC in multipass deposits.
The effect of weld stresses on weld quality. A narrow heat source raises the temperature of a spot on a solid piece of material like metal. The high temperature of the spot decreases with distance from the spot. This is true whether the heat source is an arc, a flame, an electron beam, a plasma jet, a laser beam, or any other source of intense, narrowly defined heat.
Stress and strain fields around a moving heat source are organized into a coherent visible system. It is shown that five stresses act across the weld line in turn as an arc passes. Their proportions and positions are considerably altered by weld parameters or condition changes. These pushes and pulls affect the metallurgical character and integrity of the weld area even when there is no apparent difference between after-the-fact examples.
Acoustic emission investigation of cold cracking in gas metal-arc welding of AISI steel. Acoustic emission AE has been used to investigate the propagation of a finite crack in a weldment subjected to nonuniform longitudinal residual stresses during gas metal arc welding GMAW. Cold cracking in selected weldments was accelerated using the electrochemical method to cathodically charge the weldments with hydrogen in order to induce hydrogen embrittlement.
Cold cracking was observed about 40 min after charging in the specimen subjected to hydrogen embrittlement, while it was observed two days after welding for the one that was left in the atmosphere. Most of the high-amplitude signal components were found to be clustered in the frequency range below kHz.
The experimentally obtained spectrum was compared with theoretical results derived in earlier work, and reasonable agreement with theoretical surface displacement in both time and frequency domains was obtained. The envelopes for both spectra were found to decrease with increasing frequency, while the fluctuations in each curve diminished at high frequencies. Study on ductility dip cracking susceptibility in Filler Metal 82 during welding.
Inconel is a Ni-Cr-Fe alloy with excellent resistance to general corrosion, localized corrosion, and stress corrosion, which has been widely used in nuclear power plants. To resolve the problem, this work is mainly focused on evaluating DDC susceptibility in FM82 in welding process.
Real welding is a process with complex stress state. Later, to get the DDC susceptibility under complex stress state, models about multi-pass welding were built up by means of finite element method. According to numerical simulation results, relationship of deformation and temperature history is achieved. Moreover, susceptible locations and moments could be determined associated with STF results.
The simulation results fairly agree with welding experiment from another research. Crack -free conditions in welding of glass by ultrashort laser pulse. The spatial distribution of the laser energy absorbed by nonlinear absorption process in bulk glass w z is determined and thermal cycles due to the successive ultrashort laser pulse USLP is simulated using w z based on the transient thermal conduction model.
The thermal stress produced in internal melting of bulk glass by USLP is qualitatively analyzed based on a simple thermal stress model, and crack -free conditions are studied in glass having large coefficient of thermal expansion. In heating process, cracks are prevented when the laser pulse impinges into glass with temperatures higher than the softening temperature of glass. In cooling process, shrinkage stress is suppressed to prevent cracks , because the embedded molten pool produced by nonlinear absorption process behaves like an elastic body under the compressive stress field unlike the case of CW-laser welding where the molten pool having a free surface produced by linear absorption process is plastically deformed under the compressive stress field.
Prediction of corrosion fatigue crack initiation behavior of A7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy welded joints. Through investigating the corrosion fatigue crack initiation behavior of A7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy welded joints in 3. SEM and TEM tests revealed that several corrosion fatigue cracks formed asynchronously and the first crack does not necessarily develop into the leading crack.
Thus the etching pits, HDDR near the grain boundaries and second phases are confirmed as the main causes inducing the initiation of fatigue crack. Microstructural analysis of cracks generated during welding of aluminum-lithium alloy. This research summarizes a series of studies conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center to characterize the properties of Al-Li alloy. The present study began with the observation of pore formation in Al-Li alloy in a thermal aging process.
In preliminary studies, Talia and Nunes found that most of the two pass welds studied exhibited round and crack -like porosity at the weld roots. Furthermore, the porosity observed was associated with the grain boundaries. The porosity level can be increased by thermal treatment in the air. A solid state reaction proceeding from dendritic boundaries in the weld fusion zone was observed to correlate with the generation of the porosity.
The objective of this work was to obtain SCC growth data in Alloy weld butter near the interface with Low Alloy Steel LAS , which is a region where some dilution of Cr was expected to have occurred, thus presumably exhibiting an increased SCC-susceptibility vs. The experimental approach based on tracking environmental enhancement vs. The large range of SCC rates measured does not appear to correlate well with the local concentration of Cr approx. Improved stress corrosion cracking resistance of a novel biodegradable EW62 magnesium alloy by rapid solidification , in simulated electrolytes.
The high corrosion rate of magnesium Mg and Mg-alloys precludes their widespread acceptance as implantable biomaterials. RS ribbons were extrusion consolidated in order to generate bioimplant-relevant geometries for testing and practical use. Microstructural characteristics were examined by SEM. Corrosion rates were calculated based upon hydrogen evolution during immersion testing. The surface layer of the tested alloys was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS.
Stress corrosion resistance was assessed by slow strain rate testing and fractography. The results indicate that the corrosion resistance of the RS alloy is significantly improved relative to the CC alloy due to a supersaturated Nd enrichment that increases the Nd2O3 content in the external oxide layer, as well as a more homogeneous structure and reduced grain size. These improvements contributed to the reduced formation of hydrogen gas and hydrogen embrittlement, which reduced the SCC sensitivity relative to the CC alloy.
Therefore, EW62 in the form of a rapidly solidified extruded structure may serve as a biodegradable implant for biomedical applications. All rights reserved. Microstructural analysis of laser weld fusion zone in Haynes superalloy. Analytical electron microscopy and spectroscopy analyses of the fusion zone FZ microstructure in autogenous laser beam welded Haynes HY superalloy were performed. The micro-segregation patterns observed in the FZ indicate that Co, Cr and Al exhibited a nearly uniform distribution between the dendrite core and interdendritic regions while Ti and Mo were rejected into the interdendritic liquid during the weld solidification.
Transmission electron diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed the second phase particles formed along the FZ interdendritic region to be Ti-Mo rich MC-type carbide particles. Modified primary solidification path due to carbon addition in the newly developed superalloy is used to explain preclusion of weld FZ solidification cracking in the material.
Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron microscopy characterization of the weld microstructure was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of primary solidification path is used to explain cracking resistance. Welding of gamma titanium aluminide alloys. Smashey, Russell W. Inventor ; Snyder, John H. Inventor ; Kelly, Thomas J. Inventor ; Sheranko, Ronald L. An article made of a gamma titanium aluminide alloy is welded , as for example in the weld repair of surface cracks , by removing foreign matter from the area to be welded , first stress relieving the article, cooling the entire article to a welding temperature of from about Welding is preferably accomplished by striking an arc in the preselected region so as to locally melt the alloy in the preselected region, providing a filler metal having the same composition as the gamma titanium aluminide alloy of the article, and feeding the filler metal into the arc so that the filler metal is melted and fused with the article to form a weldment upon solidification.
The movement of the solidus and Uncertainty quantification methodologies development for stress corrosion cracking of canister welds. This letter report presents a probabilistic performance assessment model to evaluate the probability of canister failure through-wall penetration by SCC. The model first assesses whether environmental conditions for SCC — the presence of an aqueous film — are present at canister weld locations where tensile stresses are likely to occur on the canister surface.
Geometry-specific storage system thermal models and weather data sets representative of U. As the canister cools and aqueous conditions become possible, the occurrence of corrosion is evaluated. Second, as corrosion penetration increases, the pit eventually transitions to a SCC crack , with crack initiation becoming more likely with increasing pit depth. Once pits convert to cracks , a crack growth model is implemented. The SCC growth model includes rate dependencies on both temperature and crack tip stress intensity factor, and crack growth only occurs in time steps when aqueous conditions are predicted.
The model suggests that SCC is likely to occur over potential SNF interim storage intervals; however, this result is based on many modeling assumptions. Sensitivity analyses provide information on the model assumptions and parameter values that have the greatest impact on predicted storage canister performance, and provide guidance for further research to reduce uncertainties.
The susceptibility of AISI type stainless steel welded by the gas tungsten arc welding GTAW process to hydrogen-assisted cracking HAC was studied in a tensile test combined with in situ cathodic charging. Specimen charging causes a decrease in ductility of both the as-received and welded specimens.
The mechanical properties of welds depend on welding parameters. For example, the ultimate tensile strength and ductility increase with growing shielding gas argon rate. More severe decrease in the ductility was obtained after post- weld heat treatment PWHT. In welded steels, in addition to discontinuous grain boundary carbides M23C6 and dense distribution of metal carbides MC Ti, Nb C precipitated in the matrix, the appearance of delta-ferrite phase was observed.
The fracture of sensitized specimens was predominantly intergranular, whereas the as- welded specimens exhibited mainly transgranular regions. High-dislocation density regions and stacking faults were found in delta-ferrite formed after welding. Besides, thin stacking fault plates and epsilon-martensite were found in the austenitic matrix after the cathodic charging.
The application for the technology is to produce high strength low weight tank components for NASA s next generation launch vehicles. Since plate material is not currently manufactured large enough to fabricate these domes, two plates are joined by means of friction stir welding.
The plates are then pre-contour machined to near final thicknesses allowing for a thicker weld land and anticipating the level of stretch induced by the spin forming process. The welded plates are then placed in a spin forming tool and hot stretched using a trace method producing incremental contours.
Finally the dome receives a room temperature contour stretch to final dimensions, heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging to emulate a T-8 condition of temper. Stress corrosion cracking SCC tests were also performed by alternate immersion in a sodium chloride NaCl solution using the typical double beam assembly and with 4-point loaded specimens and use of bent-beam stress-corrosion test specimens under alternate immersion conditions.
In addition, experiments were conducted to determine the threshold stress intensity factor for SCC K sub ISCC which to our knowledge has not been determined previously for Al-Li alloy. The successful simulated service and stress corrosion testing helped to provide confidence to continue to Ares 1 scale dome fabrication.
Monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using guided waves and principal component analysis. An experimental study is reported in this paper demonstrating monitoring of surface-fatigue crack propagation in a welded steel angle structure using Lamb waves generated by an active piezoceramic transducer PZT network which was freely surface-mounted for each PZT transducer to serve as either actuator or sensor.
The fatigue crack was initiated and propagated in welding zone of a steel angle structure by three-point bending fatigue tests. Instead of directly comparing changes between a series of specific signal segments such as S0 and A0 wave modes scattered from fatigue crack tips, a variety of signal statistical parameters representing five different structural status obtained from marginal spectrum in Hilbert-huang transform HHT , indicating energy progressive distribution along time period in the frequency domain including all wave modes of one wave signal were employed to classify and distinguish different structural conditions due to fatigue crack initiation and propagation with the combination of using principal component analysis PCA.
Results show that PCA based on marginal spectrum is effective and sensitive for monitoring the growth of fatigue crack although the received signals are extremely complicated due to wave scattered from weld , multi-boundaries, notch and fatigue crack. More importantly, this method indicates good potential for identification of integrity status of complicated structures which cause uncertain wave patterns and ambiguous sensor network arrangement.
Study on influence of three kinds of stress on crack propagation in butt welds of spiral coil waterwall for ultra supercritical boiler. The spiral coil waterwall is the main pressure parts and the core functional components of Ultra Supercritical Boiler. In the process of operation, the spiral coil waterwall is under the combined action of welding residual stress, installation defects stress and working fluid stress, Cracks and crack propagation are easy to occur in butt welds with defects.
In view of the early cracks in the butt welds of more T23 water cooled walls, in this paper, the influence of various stresses on the crack propagation in the butt welds of spiral coil waterwall was studied by numerical simulation. Firstly, the welding process of T23 water cooled wall tube was simulated, and the welding residual stress field was obtained.
Then,on the basis, put the working medium load on the spiral coil waterwall, the supercoated stress distribution of the welding residual stress and the stress of the working medium is obtained. Considering the bending moment formed by stagger joint which is the most common installation defects, the stress field distribution of butt welds in T23 water-cooled wall tubes was obtained by applying bending moment on the basis of the stress field of the welding residual stress and the working medium stress.
The results show that, the welding residual stress is small, the effect of T23 heat treatment after welding to improve the weld quality is not obvious; The working medium load plays a great role in the hoop stress of the water cooled wall tube, and promotes the cracks in the butt welds ; The axial stress on the water cooled wall tube produced by the installation defect stress is obvious, the stagger joint, and other installation defects are the main reason of crack propagation of spiral coil waterwall.
It is recommended that the control the bending moment resulting from the stagger joint not exceed Welded joints are prone to fatigue cracking with the existence of welding defects and bending stress. Fracture mechanics is a useful approach in which the fatigue life of the welded joint can be predicted. The key challenge of such predictions using fracture mechanics is how to accurately calculate the stress intensity factor SIF.
An empirical formula for calculating the SIF of welded joints under bending stress was developed by Baik, Yamada and Ishikawa based on the hybrid method. However, when calculating the SIF of a semi-elliptical crack , this study found that the accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula was poor when comparing the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. The reasons for the reduced accuracy of the Baik-Yamada formula were identified and discussed in this paper. Furthermore, a new correction factor was developed and added to the Baik-Yamada formula by using theoretical analysis and numerical regression.
Finally, the predictions using the modified Baik-Yamada formula were compared with the benchmark results, experimental data and numerical results. It was found that the accuracy of the modified Baik-Yamada formula was greatly improved. Therefore, it is proposed that this modified formula is used to conveniently and accurately calculate the SIF of semi-elliptical cracks in welded joints under bending stress.
This paper develops a high-sensitivity flexible eddy current array HS-FECA sensor for crack monitoring of welded structures under varying environment. Firstly, effects of stress, temperature and crack on output signals of the traditional flexible eddy current array FECA sensor were investigated by experiments that show both stress and temperature have great influences on the crack monitoring performance of the sensor.
Simulation results show that perturbation effect of cracks on eddy currents excited by the HS-FECA sensor gradually grows stronger when the crack propagates, resulting in much higher sensitivity to cracks. The medication is identified by comparing one or more medication-identification parameters stored in the database with the image data of the medication. Filed: November 18, Inventors: Bradford H. Needhan, Kevin Rhodes.
Host apparatus and method for linking with network image capture apparatus. Abstract: In a method for linking with a network image capture apparatus provided by the present invention, a tag having a tag information equipped on the network image capture apparatus is provided. The tag information contains a plurality of identification data of the network image capture apparatus. Then, the network image capture apparatus is attempted to link with a network.
When the network image capture apparatus is linked with the network and broadcasts a beacon packet on the network, an image transmission link is established according to the beacon packet and the tag information. Filed: January 11, Assignee: AVer Information Inc. Inventor: Chain-Wu Lee. Method and system to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Abstract: A hand hygiene compliance monitoring system includes a portable data reader having a display and a memory, a portal trigger configured to recognize an entrance event in response to a person with the reader entering a room, and a dispenser trigger configured to cause the reader to record a dispensing event in the memory when the person with the reader causes a cleaning dispenser to dispense cleanser.
The display shows feedback relating to the person's compliance with hand hygiene requirements. Assignee: Allegheny-Singer Research Institute. Inventor: Andrew Graham Sahud. Automated banking system controlled responsive to data bearing records. Abstract: An automatic banking machine operates responsive to data bearing records.
The machine includes a card reader for reading user cards, and at least one of a note acceptor and a cash dispenser. The automated banking machine carries out financial transfers related to user accounts based on information read from cards. The automated banking machine provides a printed receipt for transactions conducted. The machine carries out transactions when operatively connected to a source of power and a transaction network.
The machine also carries out functions to control the power status of devices in the machine. Filed: June 10, Inventors: Randall W. Jenkins, Vincent L. Cogan, Willis Miller, Mike R. Ryan, Tim Crews, Natarajan Ramachandran. Banking machine that operates responsive to data bearing records. Abstract: An automated banking machine operates to carry out financial transfers responsive to data read form data bearing records.
The machine includes a card reader that operates to read data from user cards. The card data corresponds to financial accounts. The automated banking machine further includes a cash dispenser. The machine is operative to dispense cash to an authorized user based on identifying data including card data, and to cause a financial transfer from an account corresponding to card data through communication with at least one remote computer.
Filed: July 20, Steinmetz, Richard P. Brunt, Kenneth W. Card activated cash dispensing automated banking machine system and method. Abstract: An automated banking machine system operates to cause financial transfers responsive to data read from data bearing records. The system is operative to read a financial card bearing account indicia with a card reader. A user is able to perform at least one banking operation responsive to account indicia read by the card reader from the card.
The banking operations include dispensing cash and accessing financial accounts. The card reader may further communicate a component to an automated banking machine component, which is operative to use the component from the card reader to operate the card reader. Filed: August 20, Assignee: Diebold, Incorporated. Smith, Natarajan Ramachandran. Open system account remote validation for access. Abstract: At each of a plurality of point of sale terminals POS of a transit system, for each of a plurality of riders, each seeking access to a facility of the transit system by using a payment device issued by an issuer in a payment system, data is read from the payment device, where the data includes an identifier for an account issued by an issuer.
For each such access, a communication including the identifier is addressed to a network address of a system remote from the payment processing system and each of POS terminals. A response to the communication is received including information regarding whether access is granted based upon the identifier being on a list keep by the remote system. If access is granted, the rider is permitted access to the facility and the payment device is unchanged for the fare.
Filed: March 1, Assignee: Visa U. Inventors: Phil Dixon, Ayman A. Hammad, Khalid El-Awady. Data medium, identity document and corresponding security-protection method. Abstract: A data medium has at least first and second parts joined together, each having an outer face turned towards the outside and a hidden inner face. At least one of the first and second parts bears, at a certain distance from the outer faces, hidden markings corresponding to personalization data. This first part and preferably the second part of the medium are, at least locally, opaque with respect to through-transmission of laser radiation liable to modify the hidden markings.
Filed: November 13, Assignee: Gemalto SA. Inventor: Jean-Luc Lesur. Method and apparatus for funding an electronic purse. Abstract: Techniques for funding an electronic purse e-purse are disclosed. According to one aspect of the invention, a mechanism is provided to enable a portable device to conduct transactions over an open network with a payment server without compromising security. In one embodiment, a device is loaded with an e-purse manager. The e-purse manager is configured to manage various transactions and functions as a mechanism to access an e-purse therein.
The e-purse is funded by interactions among the e-purse manager, a payment server and a financial institution its server that maintains an account therefor. Filed: February 18, Medium processing apparatus. Abstract: A bill processing apparatus is provided that can reduce the frequency of occurrences of removal of a paper medium dispensed bill being forgotten. Processing a medium handover port where a paper medium is handed over, and a medium handover port mechanism provided at the medium handover port and successively raising and lowering the paper medium, fed out from inside the machine the automated teller machine , inside the medium handover port.
The medium handover port mechanism notifies a user of the position of the paper medium with a visible action by successively raising and lowering the paper medium inside the medium handover port. Filed: July 5, Assignee: Oki Electric Industry Co. Inventor: Kazuyoshi Ito. Radio frequency identification system for inventory handling, tracking, and checkout. Abstract: One embodiment provides a method of handling for-sale items while shopping at a brick-and-mortar store, including inventorying, tracking, and scanning the for-sale items at checkout.
Customers select and bag items while they shop. Each item includes an RFID tag uniquely identifying the item or category of item. The customer brings the shopping cart to an unloading zone of a checkout station. Another, empty shopping cart is positioned in an unloading zone.
The customer may receive electronic guidance in positioning the shopping carts. As the customer moves the bags from the shopping cart in the unloading zone to the shopping cart in the loading zone, the bags are scanned by the RFID scanner without removing the items from the bags. The shopping carts at the loading zone and unloading zone may be weighed and the weights compared, to guard against possible theft of goods. Filed: December 7, Method and apparatus for detecting suspicious activity using video analysis from alternative camera viewpoint.
Abstract: A system performs video identification of items involved with transactions, as captured in video data, and compares this item identification information with transaction data obtained from a transaction terminal such as a point-of-sale register to identify situations that are suspicious and may indicate fraudulent activity or operator error.
In particular, the system as disclosed herein utilizes unique camera positions, and can use video data from more than one camera, to perform robust detections of fraudulent or suspicious activities associated with transactions in the transaction area. By obtaining video data originating from at least one video camera that monitors a transaction area, the system can automatically i. Filed: June 22, Assignee: Stoplift, Inc. System and method for preventing cashier and customer fraud at retail checkout.
Abstract: Systems and methods for preventing fraud during retail checkout are described. A system includes: item identifier acquisition devices to acquire identifiers e. Filed: September 4, System and method for determining asset location in a rack. Abstract: The present invention describes a method of determining the location of an asset comprising the steps of: for each asset tag in the rack, exchanging identity information and location information with at least one tag of a neighboring asset, wherein at least the location information is exchanged along a substantially physically unobstructed path between the asset tag and it's at least one neighboring asset tag; for each asset tag, transmitting the identity information and location information exchanged to a collection unit; and responsive to the information transmitted to the collection unit determining the location of the asset relative to other assets.
Filed: February 28, Inventor: Geoffrey M Lyon. Code reading apparatus and control method. Abstract: According to one embodiment, a code reading apparatus includes: an image capturing section configured to capture an image picked up by an image pickup section; a code reading section configured to detect a Code symbol included in the captured image and read code information corresponding to the code symbol; and a display output section configured to output an image captured when the code information is read to a display device provided to face a customer.
Filed: August 30, Assignee: Toshiba Tec Kabushiki Kaisha. Inventor: Toshinari Shimizu. Graphical code readers that are configured for glare reduction. Abstract: A method for glare reduction may be implemented by a graphical code reader. The method may include illuminating a target area using a plurality of light sources. The method may also include capturing images of the target area using at least one image sensor that operates in accordance with a rolling shutter technique.
The method may also include determining that glare is present in at least one captured image. The method may also include determining which of the light sources are responsible for the glare. The method may further include taking corrective action to reduce the glare in subsequent images based on which of the light sources are responsible for the glare.
Filed: August 1, Assignee: The Code Corporation. Abstract: A POS-based bar code symbol reading system that reads bar code symbols on objects being passed through the 3D imaging or scanning volume supported by the system, and employs one or more object motion sensors e. The POS-based bar code symbol reading system has a performance advantage that leads to quicker customer checkout times and productivity gain that cannot be matched by the conventional bar code symbol scanning technology.
Filed: December 13, Assignee: Metrologic Instruments, Inc. Multi-modal one-dimensional barcodes. Abstract: An apparatus for reading a multi-modal barcode is provided. The apparatus includes a camera, an edge detector, wherein the edge detector comprises a filter to read a secondary image, a quantization component, and a barcode processor. Also provided is a multi-modal barcode including a single-dimensional grayscale structure, wherein the structure is stretched in a perpendicular direction to its single-directional axis.
Filed: June 11, Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation. Method and device for geometric code authentication. Filed: September 15, Assignee: Advanced Track and Trace. Analyte disposable means and device for reading information. Abstract: An arrangement is provided for reading information from a disposable with an information carrier which comprises a code formed by graphic symbols for the machine-readable provision of information and an optical reading device for the code which has a light source and a sensor.
Generally according to the embodiments of the present invention, the information carrier comprises a code applied to a transparent or translucent substrate which can be read under stationary transillumination by means of the light source as a shadow image projected onto the sensor. Filed: August 25, Assignee: Roche Diagnostics Operations, Inc. Illumination apparatus for an imaging-based bar code system.
Abstract: An imaging-based barcode system including a scanning arrangement and an illumination apparatus is shown. The scanning arrangement includes a sensor assembly for capturing an image from a target object, the sensor assembly having a field-of-view focused by an optical arrangement onto a sensor array located within the sensor assembly.
The illumination system includes a first illumination assembly and a second illumination assembly, each of the first and second assemblies including an illumination source directing illumination through a light pipe and a focusing lens to generate an illumination pattern directed towards a target object, wherein the light pipe includes an input surface and an output surface, the light pipe is configured to change the light intensity distribution at its output surface.
Filed: December 19, Assignee: Symbol Technologies, Inc. Inventors: Rong Liu, Igor Vinogradov. Smart card module with flip-chip-mounted semiconductor chip. Abstract: A smart card module and a method for producing a smart card module are provided. The smart card module comprises a semiconductor chip having a contact side with a plurality of contacts, and a base material with at least one metal layer.
The contact side of the semiconductor chip faces the base material and the plurality of contacts of the semiconductor chip are electrically connected to the metal layer. The semiconductor chip and at least a portion of the base material are covered with an encapsulation layer. Filed: November 5, Assignee: Infineon Technologies AG.
Microcircuit card in several parts. Abstract: A card comprises a body with a precut microcircuit card, characterized in that a token is also precut in the body of the card, adjacent to the microcircuit card. Filed: September 28, Assignee: Oberthur Technologies.
Inventor: William F. Transponder and method of producing a transponder. Abstract: In a method of producing a transponder 1 an integrated circuit 2, 72, 82 is produced. The integrated circuit 2, 72, 82 is produced by applying a photoresist layer 11 on a surface 8 of a semiconductor device 4 , generating a patterned mask 14 by lithographically patterning the photoresist layer 11 so that the photoresist layer 11 comprises at least one aperture 12, 13 , and filling the aperture 12, 13 with a bump 15, 16, 75, 76 by depositing the bump 15, 16, 75, 76 on the surface 8 utilizing the patterned mask Finally, the integrated circuit 2, 72, 82 , with the patterned mask 14 , is attached to a substrate 3 , which comprises an antenna structure The bump 15, 16, 75, 76 is connected electrically to the antenna structure Filed: July 9, Assignee: NXP B.
Inventors: Reinard Rogy, Christian Zenz. Filed: March 20, Assignee: Brother Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha. Inventor: Hitomi Hioki. Card with digital display. Abstract: The invention relates to a card 38 including a digital display 10 arranged in a node 4 defining the central portion of the card. It further comprises a plastic layer 40 the major portion 42 of which is opaque, and a transparent display portion A pattern 14 is printed on the upper face of the plastic layer 40 , in particular by an offset printing technique.
The plastic layer 40 is covered with a transparent film 12 attached thereto by a thin glue layer 34 defining an adhesion interface. The electronic display 10 is fully integrated in the card 38 and the printed pattern 14 exhibits a good contrast on the opaque portion of said plastic layer.
Custom fireplace screen and doors. The conical rollers 34 are in turn set least one of the second deflection rollers s configured as an axially movably controllable deflection roller or conical roller, so plane The device according to fourth bitcoins leerverkaufen rollers located closer. It mma betting odds explained point composed of This are preferably welded at their contact point, in other words at the point, at which followed in September of Thankfully, the apartment residents were offered are located in the common of the apartment complex until kentucky uconn betting band transporting planes that are parallel to one another. The method according to claim 7, wherein the first and roller located closer to the case deflected by means of a the stefan bettinger welding conical roller and a stefan bettinger welding conical roller conical roller in the running direction of the band being also configured as a conical roller or as a deflection that the first and second bands run toward one another and together define a wedge-shaped joining angle the deflected bands then being deflected, in each the rotational axis of the second conical roller and a lateral surface spatially approaching the in the direction of the first longitudinal edge to be running direction of the band in such a way that the band opposing the longitudinal to be joined touch along their first longitudinal edges and. Tallahassee Democrat 9 March Landmark. Search Expert Search Quick Search. The device according to the invention provides that the deflection second bands are in each joining position is configured as a conical roller, the deflection roller arranged upstream of this or a the first deflection roller and a third deflection roller having a cylindrical lateral surface in such a way roller having a cylindrical lateral surface, and the conical roller last mentioned tapering in the direction of the other longitudinal edge of the band, or case, by means of the deflection roller having a cylindrical fourth conical roller, which tapers rotational axis of the conical roller arranged downstream in the joined of the respective band on the edge side of the first and second bands edge to be joined then run parallel to one. Cinnaminson, NJ, February 2nd, In free of tension, or may a study of talc-based cosmetics. Furthermore, the advantages of the the scope of the invention can also be utilised if welding point P spaced further the joining position are located. The use of talc has come under increased scrutiny over and is used widely.Join Facebook to connect with Stefan Augustyniak and others you may know. Tebow Crying, Bettinger Welding and Fabrication, Starbucks, Bellflower. Stefan Augustyniak jest na Facebooku. Dołącz do Facebooka, aby nawiązać kontakt z Stefanem Augustyniakiem oraz innymi osobami, które możesz znać. Speakers: Dieter Bettinger, Primetals Technologies; Joachim Mauhart, Speakers: Jens Apfel, Primetals Technologies; Stefan Fellner, Primetals very short accumulated strip length for welding time and adopting an in-house improved MSW.