overbetting river nash equilibrium dominant

vitoria setubal vs benfica betting tips

Between the hardware, the software and selecting a mining pool it took a bit more time than we thought it should. The tutorial below can take anyone from hopeful cryptocurrency miner to successful mining rig builder and miner. This is a multi-part series. This is what the GPU mining rig will look like when it is just about complete. They are both good technologies.

Overbetting river nash equilibrium dominant e games basketball betting system

Overbetting river nash equilibrium dominant

Many players have made a career out of acting up at the tables and giving players rubdowns when they win, none more so than Tony G. He gets away with it because there is no penalty in poker for being a jerk. The two have some previous history so when Tony G knocks him out he launches into a tirade telling Perry his career is finished and telling him to get out.

Perry sits, dumbfounded for a while, before eventually getting up to leave with Tony G still hollering abuse at him as he exits stage left. Many players have made a career out of acting up at the tables and giving players rubdowns… none more so than Tony G. Key point When you are not involved in a hand you should keep quiet until the hand is over. It is bad form and likely to annoy your opponents. Here are some of the most common terms you will need to know when learning the game.

Ante An additional forced bet which comes into play later in a tournament. It must be paid by every player every hand and it is usually between one-sixth to one-quarter of the small blind. Bad beat To be a favourite in a hand but lose to an opponent who is statistically an underdog when the money goes in. Blinds Compulsory bets that ensure there are some chips to win every hand. In tournaments they force the action as they rise progressively, and in cash games they promote action.

The blinds also move around the table clockwise on each new hand so that every player takes their turn to pay them. The size of the blinds are dictated by the table stakes or the stage of a tournament. Bluff To bet and raise when you are likely to have the worst hand in a bid to get an opponent to fold. Bubble In a tournament this is the last person to be knocked out before the money positions.

Button This is the physical marker on the table that indicates which player is the designated dealer and therefore which two players the two to the left are in the blinds. The button moves one seat to the left each. If they are all connected you can make a very rare — and incredibly strong — straight flush. Buy-in The cost of the game that you want to enter. It varies from micro stakes to high stakes. In a tournament it will be a flat fee that everyone pays and which goes towards the total prize pool, while in a cash game it depends on the table stakes.

Fold The action of throwing away your cards and taking no further part in the hand, forfeiting any claim to win the pot. Call The action a player makes when they match a bet from another player. However, if someone has bet you cannot check — you have to fold, call or raise. Continuation Bet A bet made after the flop by the player who took the lead in betting before the flop.

The term is often known as a c-bet. Flop This is the set of three face-up community cards that are dealt after the first round of betting. Flush A strong hand at showdown consisting of five cards of the same suit,. Full house A five-card hand in which you have a combination of three of a kind and another pair, for example, K-K-K-J-J. Hole cards The two face-down cards each player is dealt at the start of every hand. Kicker The term for the card used to break ties between similar hands.

LAG Abbreviation for a loose-aggressive player, who bets with a wide range of hands. Main pot The principal pot of chips that all players are trying to win. Muck As a noun, this refers to the pile of folded and discarded cards. As a verb, it means the act of folding. Multi-table tournament A type of tournament where the field size dictates that more than one table is needed. As the tournament progresses players get knocked out and the tables reduce, until eventually there is just the final table.

Side pot The pot created when a player goes all-in and there are other players in the hand who still have chips and are betting to create a separate side pot only they can win. Single-table tournament This term describes a tournament where only one table is used, with typically six or ten players competing. TAG Abbreviation for a tight-aggressive player — one who plays a small range of premium hands strongly. No-limit A betting structure in which each bet is only limited by the number of chips a player has in their stack.

Pot-limit A betting format where each player may bet up to the current amount of chips in the pot after the cost of calling. Texture A term for the make-up of the board. Raise The act of betting more than that which was wagered by a prior bettor. It has to be at least double that of the initial bet. Three-Bet Another term for a re-raise. Pre-flop the big blind is the first bet, a raise the second bet and re-raise a three-bet.

TILt When a player gets frustrated and angry because of something that happens at the poker table, and starts playing badly. Pot The total chips that are available to win in any given hand created by players betting and calling, and any blinds and antes in play. It is the strongest possible hand ranking. Set Three of a kind using two hole cards and one of the community cards. Trips Another name for three of a kind.

Showdown This takes place after the final bet where all players show their hands or muck, and the best hand takes the pot. The game was changed forever when it went online, with hour access and the ability to multi-table meaning players could play more hands in a year than traditional live players could in their lifetimes. Online poker took its first tentative steps in January , when Planet Poker became the first real-money online poker room.

The idea was to try to replicate the land-based casino experience online — and to be honest, nobody really cared that much. Over in Costa Rica, a group of Canadian college friends, who to this day remain nameless, started up Paradise Poker. The graphics were slick and ran a lot faster than the sluggish Planet Poker, and the. At the end of the next of the big names made its debut. UltimateBet was set up jointly by software firm ieLogic founded by tech geeks Greg Pierson and Jon Karl and some secretive highstakes poker players believed to include a former WSOP main event winner.

UB started to gain some ground, but the market was still dominated by Paradise. But developments in the real world were about to turn everything upside down But some newcomers on the. PartyPoker in particular saw the marketing value of online tournaments. Sound familiar? Just a few months later another poker site made its presence known.

PokerStars launched in October with the intention of becoming the home of online tournament play. However, there was a third component that took online poker to a new level. It not only created huge interest in tournament poker, but also gave poker sites a platform on which to advertise. As a result, those sites offering big-money tournaments started to see a huge uplift in player numbers, which is. There was one clear winner in the early skirmishes.

PartyPoker went from nowhere to become the largest online poker room in just two years. In stark contrast, PokerStars was growing fast, thanks to a business model based heavily on tournaments. However, PartyPoker was comprehensively winning the war. A DAY! Suddenly every man and his dog was launching a poker room. The tournament sites and the cash game sites had stolen the best bits from each other and there was a real sense of uniformity in the poker world.

From here on the poker industry boomed, spreading out from the USA to Europe and beyond. By poker had become a truly global game played by hundreds of thousands of players across the world every day. This took a huge proportion of players out of the game and wiped out the careers of lots of US citizens. Three years on and legislation in the States is slowly bringing the game back, but only on an intra-state level.

In the meantime, the focus was switched to Europe, and big new players started to emerge, like Everest Poker. In March , Everest staked its claim as one of the biggest and best online poker rooms when it signed Sam Trickett, currently fifth on the all-time money list. Trickett is one of the biggest players in the game and you can take him on by signing up to Everest Poker.

How are the cards dealt? Online sites use random number generators RNGs to simulate the shuffle of the cards. Who am I playing against? Other people like yourself from around the world. The UK, France and Germany provide a large number of players but you can find players from all over the world taking part — with the exception of the USA. The sites make their money by simply take a small percentage of each pot or tournament as a commission or rake — the same way as a live casino.

Wrong Collusion where two or more players team up to gain advantage , is not only rare, but the sites spend a great deal of time and money looking for it. They have sophisticated software that detects collusion and they investigate any complaints or reports from players. Your best bet is to use a debit card, as you can simply put in your details and deposit and withdraw onto the same card. By poker had become a truly global game played by hundreds of thousands of players across the world.

Here we look at how to master the games by moving through the gears and how to swiftly move up the levels. You can then move up a level providing you have at least 20 times the buy-in. Remember that the goal is to play at the level that is most profitable to you at any given time, so if you step up and do well stick with it, and if you take a beating then drop down and recover.

Of course, in reality, the path is likely to be more circuitous and contain a few pitfalls and dead ends along the way, but the more you learn and apply yourself the quicker you will progress. Remember though that if you get this far you will start to encounter many excellent and sophisticated opponents, so beware! Your goal is to gain some chips when you get a good hand.

Most players are unaware that this approach is correct and will allow you to collect the blinds. In the late phase of play, both preflop and post-flop play can dominate, depending on the blinds and the sizes of the three remaining stacks. A decent return for any online poker player. The key to winning is using a formula based on dividing the game into three stages — early, middle and late. It helps to view these three elements as traffic lights — red, amber and green.

In the red stage you should play with extreme caution as you are in the danger zone. With amber you should start to move slowly through the gears and play a bit more freely and at green you should put your foot down and hit top gear. Happy days! These are fast-paced games with the blinds rising much quicker than a standard game.

They are usually much more aggressive games where you have to play more hands to survive, and as such they are better suited to the more experienced player. These are one-on-one games where you really need to be an experienced player to do well. You play every hand and the skills involved are quite different.

Stay away from these if you are a beginner. No all-in calls with pocket Jacks here. The other advantage to this style is that it presents a table image of a tight player, so that when you do start playing with more aggression your opponents are unlikely to call you with anything but a monster hand.

The key is to not waste valuable chips chasing draws. Generally speaking, super-tight hand selection is the best strategy at the beginning of the early phase. If you squander your chips in the early phase on speculative hands — like chasing draws.

The blinds continually increase, which means the middle phase of play could arrive quicker for you. Limit your hand selection to pairs, A-K and A-Q, and above all, play position. While the middle phase still allows for skilled play, there is more opportunity to use this to your advantage in the early phase. Most players do not understand this, and the early phase is dominated by poor play — particularly of the calling station, draw-chasing variety.

Obviously, if you have a good hand, you can exploit this by value-betting. While this hand is marginal in early position, in late position you should raise and c-bet most flops, as you will likely have the best hand. The best strategy at this stage is to limit your hand selection to either monsters or hands that can flop easily-played monsters, which is why your hand range should be restricted to pocket pairs, A-Q and A-K. Big pairs, such as Q-Q and above ought to be played aggressively.

Lower pairs and the big Aces should be played more cautiously. Ideally, you should only play your lesser hands in late position, though limping or calling a moderate raise in middle position is okay. While this hand looks pretty it is only going to get you into trouble post-flop so you should wait for a better spot.

Also, continuation bets do not need to be pot-sized. This is a strong hand in later position, but with so many people to act after you, you should fold here. Super-tight hand selection is the key to success here. The middle phase ends when the bubble bursts and only three players remain. Those three players will each then be guaranteed a portion of the prizepool, and play shifts to the late phase.

The best middle phase strategy should gradually transition into more aggressive play. Conventional tournament wisdom states that you should play in two stages. First survive to the payout, then play for first. There is no money for fourth place, hence finishing out of the money represents a waste of your time. Even if you crawl into third place, you make something, and something is better than nothing. You may be partial to conventional wisdom, but the aggressive path is more profitable.

The middle game is where the real poker starts being played. This is when a few players have been knocked out and the blinds have risen to the point where the average stack is around ten big blinds. At this stage you will typically see the short-stacks moving all-in with any hand they deem playable — which is the best tactic if you are down to 10 big blinds or less — while normal-sized raises from larger stacks will often be met by an all-in from someone else.

The key to this stage is understanding your overall position in the game and where you stand in relation to the other players. Going out in a marginal situation unnecessarily is a disaster, especially if you are one of the big stacks and there are several small stacks. Likewise, if the game is four-handed with equal stacks and two players end up all-in on a coinflip then in effect they are just giving money to the other players who gain simply by watching from the sidelines.

What this means in practical terms is that you should play according to your relative stack size. You should attack the smaller stacks, as they are playing for survival. Use frequent raises, re-raises and all-ins as they will need a very big hand to call you. When you are a short-stack, however, you should look to do whatever is necessary to make the money,.

However, stick to the golden rule of cautious aggression. Bet hard only when the cards truly deserve it or if you have less than six to eight times the big blind. Remember, though your ultimate objective is to win the whole shooting match, your first priority is to get a money finish.

Take advantage of any opportunities that come your way, and do everything it takes to make the final three. From there you can up the aggression and start gambling on marginal hands, with the safety net of at least doubling your money. Chips are not actually equivalent to their money value, and you should avoid situations where you can be knocked out, allowing others to gain at your expense.

The first two players fold. The big blind is a tight-solid player who views you as the same. You move all-in. How your stack affects your strategy Your goal in the middle stage should be to adjust your game to the players in front of you. Your cards are not as important as your relative stack sizes Short-Stacked. Re-raise all-in if you have a big hand.

They will be reluctant to call without a big hand. The big blind folds. He can only call with a few hands as he understands the importance of making it into the money. A They are the only players who can knock you out at this stage. Be the one raising. D Use your chipstack as a weapon. You do not want to get into coinflips and waste your chip lead. Keep in mind that your cards are meaningless in situations like this. You should be playing to accumulate chips and win.

Turn everything we have told you so far on its head and be bold and aggressive. But remember to play the players in front of you. By now, after lasting this long, you should have a pretty good read on your opponents. If you make it all the way to heads-up play then the game takes on another complexion.

Obviously, you want to win at this point since victory holds the biggest payout. Your opponents also want to win and their play will loosen up, becoming more aggressive. For much of the time there will be no change in the character of play from the middle phase. What changes is that your opponents will be more willing to gamble, and as your goal is to. This is most common when one player has a small pair such as pocket sixes and the other has overcards such as K-Q.

If you are second in chips with stacks of 6,, 4,, 3, you should be willing to take a coinflip with the third-placed player, as the 7. Key point When three-handed, try to put yourself in a position to move up the ladder rather than looking to simply hang on.

The value of winning is worth so much more than just cashing — even if the frequency of doing so is less. In other words the only move you should make is all-in or fold. Your opponents are generally unaware that a dramatic change in tactics is needed. Of course, their lack of understanding. A stack of 15 big blinds gives precious little room, though there is some.

If the blinds are due to change in the next few minutes, we would recommend some deliberate play on your part — unless you happen to have a premium hand, such as a pair of Queens. If this is the case, then by all means raise it up and try to win a big pot. Aggression is critical in heads-up play.

Most hands miss most flops — so you should be attacking and stealing pots the majority of the time. If your opponent raises preflop every hand, however, then you will need to make an adjustment. Obviously, it is highly unlikely your opponent has a hand every time.

There are two options to counter this strategy. You can either look to trap or, be more aggressive. If you are second in chips with stacks of 6,, 4,, 3, you should take a coinflip with the third-placed player, as the 7. When you get to heads-up, your strategy — if the blinds and stacks permit — should include a lot of post-flop aggression.

The problem with a trapping approach is that you must actually catch a hand. You most likely will not catch one unless you have a lot of time before the blinds increase. Become more aggressive. Many players who use a perma-raise strategy at lower stakes will not follow it up with post-flop aggression.

Typically, they will c-bet the flop and then give up if they have failed to make a hand. A simple check-raise on the flop will win you several pots before your opponent considers switching strategies, and at that point you should have a significant chip lead and can win the vast majority of the time.

Follow these 15 tips for single-table tournament success. They can be very cheap to enter and take you from the early stages of a tournament, past the bubble and into the. They can be a fun and profitable way to get started in poker without risking a lot of money. These games are available at all. There is certainly money to be made if you can master this tricky game.

Keep it tight In the early stages when the blinds are small in comparison to the chipstacks, keep it tight. Play big hands strongly and muck your muck. Sneak in with danger hands Try and see a lot of cheap multi-way pots early on with hands that have the potential to do damage. You can come back from just chips if you pick your spots.

Be patient for one or two rotations and wait and see how your opponents are playing. There is plenty of time to move through the gears. If you do get a big hand look for a spot to get your chips into the pot for a double-up. Above all, make it hard for other players to get their grubby mitts on your chips. A check, followed by a bet from someone else, should see you re-raising heavily or moving all-in. Punish those aquatic creatures with a big raise if you have a hand or call with drawing hands these require you to push any edge you have and hope your hand holds up.

Generally, a preflop raise, followed by a bet will take down most pots. Forget the minimum betting crap. Punish those aquatic creatures with a big raise if you have a hand or call with drawing or marginal hands. Usually they fold or make bad calls and turn over middle pair or an underpair to the board at the end. A bet of around half pot after the flop is a profitable play in the long run.

Use it as an opportunity to become the danger man. As a short-stack you can use the force of the chips that you do have left to prise unopened pots away from your opponents with an all-in push. As a short-stack you can use the force of the chips that you do have left to prise unopened pots away from your opponents with an all-in push step Pick the right times and right hands to raise with but as you approach the middle stages of an STT, the short-stacks will be looking to hang on or double through to make the money.

Look to get your chips into an unopened pot with hands like K-8 suited, J, suited and small pocket pairs. If you pick up the blinds, fine. Your opponents may be hoping to coast into the money. This is where you can steal the blinds and pick up money from the short-stacks who will fold regularly.

Remember to push every small edge, as top pair on the flop will often be good enough to win the hand. Good luck, and get winning. Seat 5 As chip leader a bet of three times the big blind is reasonable, although beware of any raises with this decent, but easily beatable hand.

Seat 6 The chip leader raised in the previous seat and you have rags. Seat 4 With the shortest chipstack and a junk holding out of position this is an easy fold. Wait to pick up a premium hand to get involved. Ditch it and let the others scrap it out. Muck them. Here we look at how to exploit weak players when you get to heads-up. Gradually you accumulate chips with quality hands, and you make it to the bubble.

With four players left, you make some tight folds against the chip leader, but manage to sustain your stack and take advantage of the other three players who fear finishing out of the money. After a long battle, the bubble bursts, and the blinds are high.

The very next hand, the other two players clash, leaving you heads-up. Do you know how to handle this situation to maximise your profit? The heads-up stage of an SNG is a winnertake-all contest. So, if one player has 9, chips and the other has 4,, both players should play as though they have 4, Understanding hand values is crucial in the heads-up stage. As you may already know, relative hand values go up as the number of players in a game goes down.

If you are used to playing at full-ring tables, some of the hands that are correct to push all-in with heads-up may come as a surprise. Hand values go up as the number of players in a game goes down. The Nash Equilibrium was named after mathematician John Nash, who theorised that some games featured an unexploitable strategy.

If however, one player deviates from the strategy, the player who sticks to the Nash Equilibrium strategy stands to benefit. In practice this means that if you are the small blind, you should push your hand if the number on the chart see right is greater than the number of big blinds in the effective stack. Consulting the chart you may correctly push J-3s For example, with the above stacks you could call with J-8s This calling chart only works if you believe your foe is pushing.

Turn over for three examples of how to do just that. As such, most villains are likely to call all or almost all of the time. The Nash range assigned to the villain accurately reflects this, so the pushing range given is very wide. This time the hero has a stack of 5BBs.

A rock bets the flop when he hits and check-folds when he misses and faces a bet. Always semi-bluffs with any type of draw. Limp-call with Aces and Kings pre-flop. And limp with the intent to three-bet with your strong and vulnerable hands like or A-K.

Call his bets when you hit top pair on any board that is not draw-heavy. Try a check-raise bluff or re-steal. Heads-up is a game that favours aggression, so fight back! Rarely bets, preferring to play a trappy loose-passive style. Nevertheless, many players do not want to put their tournament life on the line with o, and may be hesitant to shove. Total gain is 75 x , which is 67, Tighten up pre-flop, play a straightforward game and take all the free cards he gives you.

If he check-calls you must be wary! Seven times the villain calls but you get lucky and win the hand! Your total gain is 7 x 5,, which is 39, Your total loss is 18 x 5,, which is 91, Therefore, over pushes you win 15, chips chips per shove by pushing o, instead of folding. If you play this way, then, theoretically, the greatest player in the world can only tie with you — at best! For this article we used the following: The Nash Equilibrium chart — www.

This can be a tricky spot, as it could be a trap, or a so-so hand that wants to see a flop. Limping big pairs is only a good tactic if your foe is aggressive and likely to push. Never fold your small blind and raise often. Many rocks counter by becoming scissors after a while, and trapping you. An alternative is to raise your good hands, and limp your worst, with the intent to bet any flop that is checked to you. Small-ball poker allows for less variance, allowing you to win a greater percentage of games against the rock.

Both blinds quickly fold and the under-the-gun player re-raises you all-in. What do you do? One player has been eliminated. You have J You have 1, chips left,. A tight player on the button raises to from his stack of 2, This effectively puts the big blind all-in, as he has only behind after posting his blind. You have a huge stack. Should you call too? You are dealt 10;-8; in the small blind. You need serious help, but with dedication you can turn it around. Keep it up and your bankroll will soar.

Answers one point for each 1 b Fold. Although you have a premium hand you will often be up against a big pair and racing at best. It is terrible for your tournament equity and long-term profits to take these kinds of early gambles. Raising all-in is too drastic and putting a third of your stack at risk with a smaller raise against a loose player is too risky.

You are getting very short-stacked and neither of the mid-size stacks can risk calling you for nearly all their chips with anything other than premium hands. Although folding is fine, the mid stack has made a terrible mistake by raising for as you can just move all-in and, providing the tiny stack in the small blind folds, he will almost certainly have to fold too.

Even if you get called and lose, you will still be in a dominant position. Your opponent has shown himself to be too tight and will fold too often in this spot. Meanwhile you can add another chips to your stack. Quick-fire round 6 c You should play very tight at this stage, especially in early position.

But in order to be a success at tournament poker you need discipline, stamina and, above all, the will to win. Most televised poker is tournament poker. The action is fast-paced and the capability of being able to risk it all in one hand makes for exciting television. A major reason that tournament poker is so popular is that there is the potential to win a large sum of money in relation to the amount of the buy-in.

Tournament poker, however, is not for everyone. If you are going to be successful you must have incredible discipline and patience. Tournaments, especially the larger ones, last countless hours and sometimes days. Discipline is important because you have to stay alert and focused on what is going on at your table.

In addition to discipline and patience, a good tournament player will need to be adept at game theory. You will need to be able to win pots using imagination, creativity, and well-timed aggression. Here are the most common ones…. Shootout These are tournaments consisting of a series of single-table satellites where the winner of each table moves on to the next round. The winner of the tournament is the winner of the final table. Heads-Up In these tournaments players face off in a series of heads-up matches one against one with the winners advancing until there is one player left standing.

Deep-Stack In these tournaments the stacks are relatively high in relation to the blinds or antes because the players start with more chips and the blind levels are often slower. Turbo In contrast to a normal-structured tourney these have either shorter rounds, lower starting chipstacks, or both. Basic tournament strategy When you first start out playing, there are a few things you should do until you understand the game better Play tight It is always better to play a somewhat solid, predictable game.

When you are a beginner, you should be playing big hands only and in position. Use position Position is probably the biggest advantage you can have in poker. The more information you have available to you, the better the decisions you will make. When you play hands from the blinds or early position you are working at a disadvantage because, post-flop, players will be acting after you and can react to the actions you take.

However, when you have position, you are the one who can see what others do first and thus have an advantage. The reason is it gives less information to your opponents and makes you harder to read. If you vary your bets, there is a chance a good, experienced player will be able to pick up on your patterns. Bet big While small-ball poker is the current popular style of play, until you get comfortable playing post-flop you should be making your opponents pay a premium to play pots with you.

Make your flop bets big enough to put your opponent to the test. Satellite These tourneys are low-cost options to get into a bigger buy-in event. Unlike a freezeout they do not play to completion but rather until the number of seats into the bigger buy-in event has been reached. There are 10 seats available. Once there are only 10 players left the tournament is over.

Rebuy In these events, players can rebuy purchase another stack an unlimited amount of times if they fall below a certain amount of chips for a certain period of time — usually an hour or first few levels of the tournament. Typically in these tournaments, a player can also add-on at the break to get additional chips.

FreezeOut This is the most common tourney. Every player starts with the same amount of chips and play continues until one player has them all. A poker tournament has three distinct stages — early, medium, and late — that require you to apply different tactics based upon a number of factors. These stages and how to play them are as follows….

The early stages of a tournament is the time you should be speculating the most. This is the time to limp in and call raises with a wide range of marginal and speculative hands. The reason is simple: the cost relative to the percentage of your stack is small and the reward implied value is high.

For example, calling a 3x raise with suited early in a tournament will usually only cost you a small percentage of your stack. Later in a tournament, this same call would be a larger percentage. Players like Phil Hellmuth like to avoid the first level or two of play, but this is a prime opportunity to accumulate chips as it is when the really bad players tend to give their chips away. Speculate and see some flops against these players. A great hand to play early on is small and medium pairs.

The implied value for flopping a set at this stage is high. A key concept at this stage is to play small pots. There is no reason to commit a large portion of your stack with a marginal hand. The middle stage is usually when the antes have started in a tournament. What you do during this stage depends on how you did in the early stage. There are typically three categories your middle stage play can fall under… SHORT your stack has less than 20 big blinds If you are short-stacked you are going to have to look for one of two types of situations.

One, a hand where you can double-up with a premium hand. Two, a hand where you can pick up a pot with little risk despite your hand, for example being on the button with two very tight players in the big blinds or moving all-in from late position when some weak or passive players have limped into the pot.

What you want to do is be aggressive when you are first to act and re-raise positional. Phil Hellmuth is one of the best tournament players in the world and has won a record-breaking 13 WSOP bracelets. This is the time of the tournament when bad players are giving away their chips and you want to be the one trying to get them rather than letting someone else take them.

By speculating we mean calling raises or limping in with hands like pocket pairs, suited connectors, suited Aces and Kings. Here it might be fine to raise with pocket twos in early position. You have the chips to cause fear in your opponents, so use them. You should be open-raising liberally with this stack size. This will pay off because not only will your opponents often fold giving you the easy blinds and antes, but eventually they will play back at you and you will win additional chips when you actually pick up a big hand or hit a flop hard.

If you think you can win the pot, take a stab, but if you face a lot of pressure err on the side of caution. Avoid playing big pots early. The only time you should play a big pot early in a tournament is when you feel like you have by far the best hand. Keep the pots small by making small bets and playing a bit more passively with your marginal holdings.

You bet out. If your opponent has a hand like A-Q, A or even , they will probably have to release their hand now that you have put them to the test. MEDIUM your stack is times the big blind This is similar to the middle stage in that you want to use your position and try and avoid race situations with stacks that can bust or cripple you, while embracing races with stacks that are less than half your stack size. You should probably avoid raising if you are planning to fold to an all-in shove from a short-stacked player.

SHORT your stack is less than10 times the big blind With this stack size, you cannot afford to sit back and wait. Many poker players advocate moving all-in with any Ace in an unopened pot. While there are times to do so later position BIG your stack is more than 25 times the big being one of them , generally you will want to blind With a big stack late in the tournament move all-in with a hand that you know will not you should keep attacking until your opponents be dominated if called — hands like suited and start playing back at you.

When they do connected cards. You still want to move this, adjust and pick your spots. This is a perfect so you have to take some chances your sta ur spots. Use ck size to bully time to use your stack and re-raise in order to maintain your stack opponen ts and p ush all-in. He will be forced to fold all until you get an opportunity to them off hands but the very best hands. These players are the ones who fold their big blind every time or who muck their hand any time they face pressure.

Identify these players early, stealing their blinds and re-raising them in position. You want to use position and try and avoid race situations with stacks that can bust or cripple you, while embracing races with stacks that are less than half your stack size. The flop comes K and your opponent checks.

You have pocket Sevens on the button and call a standard 3x raise from a weak-tight player in mid position. There are hundreds of mistakes that players make on a routine basis, but the following four are among the biggest culprits. This would appear to be a mistake that only beginners make but you would be surprised how many experienced players fall into this trap. When you are in early position with a good but not great hand you will have the problem of reacting to your opponents.

Think about it — your opponent knows you raised from early position and has to give you credit for a good hand. When they raise from the button is this a play they make all the time or never? Do they only limp in with hands like small pairs and suited connectors but raise with bigger pairs and A-K? Raise their limps since you know their range and can make it difficult for them to call. Call their raises with speculative hands since you know that you can win a big pot if you hit. Being able to identify how players play certain hands can be the single most important thing you do in a tournament.

The problem with this is that people have a natural tendency to fall into predictable patterns. The most common mistake players make is betting an amount based upon their hand. This mindset plagues many players. They believe they are perfect and the only thing stopping them from winning is bad luck. If you lost a big pot to a donkey, you need to ask yourself if there was something that you could have done to prevent the Assess y o loss. Could you have bet more whether ur own play, you a or prevented them from seeing or losing re winning h the flop?

Rather than placing scrutinis ands. The best bet is the one that accomplishes your objective at the lowest cost if bluffing or highest value if betting for value. This mistake consists of players who either bet too much or too little. The reason someone bets is to either get a player to fold, induce a raise, or call.

When we make a bet, we have an intended result. Determining these precise amounts will depend on a number of factors. You need to know what your opponents tendencies are. Do they fold when someone bets?

If so, you can make a small bet when bluffing. Do they call when on draws and you have a hand like top pair? Then you can make a large bet. There will be times you want to bet an amount that gives your opponent the appearance that you are weak.

This too will depend on who you are up against. You need to know how they have reacted to small and large-sized bets in the past. If they think a large bet is weak and you have a strong hand, you should make an oversized bet. Use observation to figure out the betting thresholds of your opponents. These players might bet big with their good hands to reduce the d size of the field or perhaps bet less frustrate n getting io id it o s v o A p wanting to get as much money in rly ing in ea t great, and rais o n the pot.

There is no problem with t u b d, with goo u are re-raised this if you are consistent. The yo hands. If l be put in a problem occurs when you start to you wil ky spot. If you are the type very tric of player who bets less when you have a strong hand but raises more when you want to steal the blinds, a player who is paying attention will notice and do one of two things.

First, they will re-raise your big bets because they know you are weak. Second, they will call your small bets more often because they know there is implied value, due to you having a big hand. How did you discover poker? My best friend Chris Sly got me into poker. He was running a bar and asked me to come down and play in the local poker tournament. I remember him explaining the rules to me and I loved it.

It was the first time I had been to a casino. It was the first time I had felt that much money in my pocket and it was a nice feeling. Where are your favourite places to play? I like to play in the big cash games in Macau. It excites me and I can play for hours straight. Things went so well for me in that tournament that I always thought I was going to win; so when I lost it hurt.

That being said, my target before the final was to get heads-up, so I was relieved when I finally made it. Anything after that was going to be okay with me. The One Drop is my favourite event. It contains the best players and every pot is significant.

But the high stakes games in Macau are also amazing. You know that you are just a pot away from winning or losing a million in cold hard cash, and that excites me. I have always acted the same way since I started playing and this is who I am. I appreciate everything that I have and I am extremely grateful to be in the position that I am in. In a word, disappointing. A little bit cruel as well. It all went Pete Tong. On the second day I ran horrendously and then got slowrolled by Daniel [Negreanu] on my last hand to top things off.

What are your poker ambitions now? I want a bracelet or a few titles. Shorten your losing sessions. Also when you are winning keep playing until you are too tired. What are your five top tips for people who are just starting to play? Be patient. Play good starting hands. Take your time when you have a big decision. Discuss poker with people who are better than you and learn from them. Poker might be a game of cards but the way you play any given hand in a tournament should largely be dictated by the size of your stack.

We show you how to play short, medium and big stacks all the way to the final table…. Your ultimate aim, clearly, is to accumulate all the chips in play. However, only in a true dream scenario is your tournament going to be a smooth, steady process of accumulation.

Most of the time your chipstack will fluctuate wildly as your fortunes twist and turn, and all the while the blinds will be growing, diminishing the value of your chips and threatening to engulf you completely. As such, knowing how to play different stack sizes effectively is an absolutely crucial tournament skill. Before we look at how to play different stack sizes, however, we need to know what defines a small, medium and big stack.

Everest Poker has a massive range of tournaments to choose from, whatever your stakes. Plus you can play satellites to win your way into some of the best live tournaments around the world. If you love tournaments, you need to bring your game to Everest Poker. That means you have plenty of time to wait for hands and situations to rebuild your stack.

A medium stack is anywhere between 12 and 25 big blinds. So as your chipstack increases above average, each individual chip is worth less, enabling you to play a little looser. But as a short-stack, the opposite is true. Because your existence in the tournament gives you some equity as you still have a chance to make money , the smaller your stack gets, the more each individual chip is worth. If you have a genuine short stack, playing it is easy as you only really have one option and that is to move all-in or fold.

The only exception to this is if you have a massive hand preflop and think you can induce action from other players by making a smaller bet, although this often looks suspicious. So when should you get your chips in? Most players wait too long, hoping to pick up a big hand before committing all their chips, but the problem with this is your stack can. Conversely, if you have tight players behind you, particularly in the blinds, or the tournament is close to the money spots, you can move in with a far wider range of starting hands.

If you still have plenty of chips compared to the blinds, you can still manoeuvre and play good poker to rebuild. If you really are short, try to play an all-in pot with someone playing loose early on, who may give you that courtesy double-up you need. Middle stages Playing the shortstack in the middle stages is all about being patient and finding the right spots. Find spots where the players in the blinds are playing tight and your all-in move has some chance of taking the pot down uncontested.

Late stages Being a short-stack near the end is tough. Look for spots where the blinds are playing too tight, or find some high-card strength and hope a big-stack doubles you up. This should make you more inclined to take on coinflip situations for example, playing for all your chips with hands like A-Q or against an underpair or overcards respectively.

In a slower tournament the opposite is true. You may be able to chip away win some smaller pots to build up but you can still get away from hands as you will have more time before the blind pressure becomes intolerable. You should always be looking to accumulate chips by seeking out the right kind of opportunities. You should also be looking to exploit any other medium-stacks, especially if they are feeling too comfortable and playing too tight.

Most players wait too long before committing all their chips. The problem with this is your stack can become so short that you lose all fold equity. Even worse, if you become very short five big blinds or less you can move all-in, win and double-up and still be short-stacked. You should also be aware that moving your chips into an unraised pot puts you in a far better situation than calling all-in.

This is because you have a chance to pick up the pot uncontested, and to force hands that currently have you beaten to fold. Build that stack for the big blinds to come. Use it to make plays and take calculated risks to give yourself a shot at the big prizes. Late stages Balance aggression with avoiding unnecessary confrontations. Keep the pressure on your tight opponents who are looking to move up in the money with re-raises and re-steals.

Both moves can be used to put a lot of pressure on your opponents and maximise your ways to win, by either forcing your foes to fold or by having the winning hand if called. Such a rotational system would provide a variety of habitat types in every year, would ensure the availability of suitable habitat for birds at either end of the grassland management spectrum, and also would provide habitat for birds whose preferences lie between these extremes.

Synchronisation of parental behaviours reduces the risk of nest predation in a socially monogamous passerine bird. Social monogamy with bi-parental care is the most common breeding pattern in birds , yet cooperation between mates has not been intensively studied to date. In this study we investigate synchronisation of parental behaviours in the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, a species characterized by bi-parental care and high nest predation.

We test the hypothesis that mates synchronize their behaviours to decrease total activity at the nest, which is known to affect predation rate in birds. We examine if blackcap parents synchronise their feeding trips more when nestlings are at the poikilothermic stage, and they may be more vulnerable to nest predation due to their inability to escape and survive outside the nest without parental brooding.

We also investigate the alternation of feeding trips by parents. We show that blackcap parents synchronise the majority of their feeding trips during the whole nestling period, and the level of parental synchrony is higher before nestlings develop endothermy.

The alternation of male and female feeding trips was much higher than would be expected by chance and was positively related to parental synchrony. We have demonstrated that synchronisation of parental feeding trips significantly decreased parental activity at the nest, and nest survival time increased with the synchrony of parental feeding trips. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds. Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures.

Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats.

Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline.

If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct.

Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations. Brain size, innovative propensity and migratory behaviour in temperate Palaearctic birds.

The evolution of migration in birds remains an outstanding, unresolved question in evolutionary ecology. A particularly intriguing question is why individuals in some species have been selected to migrate, whereas in other species they have been selected to be sedentary. In this paper, we suggest that this diverging selection might partially result from differences among species in the behavioural flexibility of their responses to seasonal changes in the environment.

This hypothesis is supported in a comparative analysis of Palaearctic passerines. First, resident species tend to rely more on innovative feeding behaviours in winter, when food is harder to find, than in other seasons. Second, species with larger brains, relative to their body size, and a higher propensity for innovative behaviours tend to be resident, while less flexible species tend to be migratory.

Residence also appears to be less likely in species that occur in more northerly regions, exploit temporally available food sources, inhabit non-buffered habitats and have smaller bodies. Yet, the role of behavioural flexibility as a response to seasonal environments is largely independent of these other factors. Therefore, species with greater foraging flexibility seem to be able to cope with seasonal environments better, while less flexible species are forced to become migratory.

Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds : survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both.

We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality.

We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour , but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour.

Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds , that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and. The ability of laying pullets to negotiate two ramp designs as measured by bird preference and behaviour.

Background Laying hens are often kept in barn or free-range systems where they must negotiate level changes in the house to access resources. However, collisions and resultant keel fractures are commonplace. Producers sometimes add ramps to make raised areas more accessible but designs vary and very little research has investigated bird preference or behaviour when using different ramp designs, or the effect of ramp design on falls and collisions.

Methods Two ramp designs were studied in an experimental setting—a ramp made of plastic poultry slats grid ramp, GR and a ramp made of wooden rungs ladder ramp, LR. Sixty-four young female hens were trained to move to a food reward and this was used to test their behavioural responses when first negotiating the two different ramps during individual tests.

Both upward and downward transitions were studied. Ramp preference was also tested using a room that replicated a commercial single-tier system with both types of ramp available. Birds were placed in this room in groups of 16 for three days and their use of the ramps studied. When making a downward transition, more hesitation behaviours were seen head orientations, stepping on the spot, moving away for the LR.

However, more head orientations were seen for the GR during the upward transition. Birds were more likely to abort attempts an attempt began when a bird placed both feet on the ramp to move up the GR than the LR. Birds took longer to negotiate the LR than the GR in both directions, and more pauses were seen during a successful upward transition on the LR. Construction patterns of birds ' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species.

Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used. Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions.

The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup. These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process.

Birds , Birds , Birds! Ranger Rick's Nature Scope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. Contents are organized into the following sections: 1 "What Makes a Bird a Bird? Over species of birds , mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California fig. These woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious food supply.

The birds of California? The oak woodland bird conservation plan: a strategy for protecting and managing oak woodland habitats and associated birds in California. Over species of birds , mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California at some stage in their life cycle.

California oak woodlands may rank among the top three habitat types in North America for bird richness. Oak woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious Assessing strategies to reconcile agriculture and bird conservation in the temperate grasslands of South America.

Globally, agriculture is the greatest source of threat to biodiversity, through both ongoing conversion of natural habitat and intensification of existing farmland. Land sparing and land sharing have been suggested as alternative approaches to reconcile this threat with the need for land to produce food.

To examine which approach holds most promise for grassland species, we examined how bird population densities changed with farm yield production per unit area in the Campos of Brazil and Uruguay. We obtained information on biodiversity and crop yields from 24 sites that differed in agricultural yield.

Density-yield functions were fitted for bird species to describe the response of population densities to increasing farm yield, measured in terms of both food energy and profit. We categorized individual species according to how their population changed across the yield gradient as being positively or negatively affected by farming and according to whether the species' total population size was greater under land-sparing, land-sharing, or an intermediate strategy. Irrespective of the yield, most species were negatively affected by farming.

This suggests that increasing yields in some areas while reducing grazing to low levels elsewhere may be the best option for bird conservation in these grasslands. Implementing such an approach would require conservation and production policies to be explicitly linked to support yield increases in farmed areas and concurrently guarantee that larger areas of lightly grazed natural grasslands are set aside for conservation.

Ecological generalism and behavioural innovation in birds : technical intelligence or the simple incorporation of new foods? Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear. A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America.

By allowing them to exploit new resources, this higher feeding innovation rate might explain the generalists' advantage. This result might be due to generalists being more likely to find new resources because they are exposed to more diverse environmental conditions. Alternatively, they might differ from specialists in other traits, in particular cognitive skills that might allow them to innovate more complex food searching and handling techniques.

To test these hypotheses, we separated avian feeding innovations into a 'technical' novel searching and handling behaviour and a 'food type' incorporation of a new food in a species' diet category. Technical innovations, but not food type innovations, have previously been shown to correlate with avian brain size, suggesting they reflect cognitive ability.

We used a world-wide data base of feeding innovations recorded in the literature, covering a total of avian species and assessed the correlations between brain size and feeding innovation rates on one side and habitat and diet generalism on the other. Habitat generalism was positively related with food type innovation rate, but not technical innovation rate or brain size.

This suggests that habitat generalist species are more likely to incorporate new food types in their diet because of higher chances to find new food resources in their environment, or of a higher opportunism, but not enhanced cognitive skills. In contrast, diet generalist species had higher food type and technical innovation rates, as well as larger brains, suggesting that cognitive skills might help species expand their diet breadth or that an.

Parent birds assess nest predation risk and adjust their reproductive strategies. Avian life history theory has long assumed that nest predation plays a minor role in shaping reproductive strategies. Yet, this assumption remains conspicuously untested by broad experiments that alter environmental risk of nest predation, despite the fact that nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure. Here, we examined whether parents can assess experimentally reduced nest predation risk and alter their reproductive strategies.

We experimentally reduced nest predation risk and show that in safer environments parents increased investment in young through increased egg size, clutch mass, and the rate they fed nestlings. Parents also increased investment in female condition by increasing the rates that males fed incubating females at the nest, and decreasing the time that females spent incubating. These results demonstrate that birds can assess nest predation risk at large and that nest predation plays a key role in the expression of avian reproductive strategies.

A new bio-inspired optimisation algorithm: Bird Swarm Algorithm. BSA is based on the swarm intelligence extracted from the social behaviours and social interactions in bird swarms. Birds mainly have three kinds of behaviours : foraging behaviour , vigilance behaviour and flight behaviour. Birds may forage for food and escape from the predators by the social interactions to obtain a high chance of survival. By modelling these social behaviours , social interactions and the related swarm intelligence, four search strategies associated with five simplified rules are formulated in BSA.

Simulations and comparisons based on eighteen benchmark problems demonstrate the effectiveness, superiority and stability of BSA. Some proposals for future research about BSA are also discussed. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Dinges, Andrew J. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations.

Respondents who indicated participation in the LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese.

A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird.

Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs. Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment.

However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird , the Alpine swift Apus melba , providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits.

We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence i. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony.

In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution. Important bird areas of the Madrean Archipelago: A conservation strategy for avian communities. Criteria for designation are species abundance, diversity, and range restriction. Relevant policy documentation is examined in order to explore how the role of the special educational needs….

Predator encounters have spatially extensive impacts on parental behaviour in a breeding bird community. Moks, Kadri; Thomson, Robert L. Predation risk has negative indirect effects on prey fitness, partly mediated through changes in behaviour. Evidence that individuals gather social information from other members of the population suggests that events in a community may impact the behaviour of distant individuals.

However, spatially wide-ranging impacts on individual behaviour caused by a predator encounter elsewhere in a community have not been documented before. We investigated the effect of a predator encounter hawk model presented at a focal nest on the parental behaviour of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca , both at the focal nest and at nearby nests different distances from the predator encounter.

We show that nest visitation of both focal pairs and nearby pairs were affected, up to 3 h and 1 h, respectively. Parents also appeared to compensate initial disrupted feeding by later increasing nest visitation rates. This is the first evidence showing that the behaviour of nearby pairs was affected away from an immediate source of risk. Our results indicate that the impacts of short-term predator encounters may immediately extend spatially to the broader community, affecting the behaviour of distant individuals.

Information about predators is probably quickly spread by cues such as intra- and heterospecific alarm calls, in communities of different taxa. How far will a behaviourally flexible invasive bird go to innovate? Behavioural flexibility is considered a key factor in the ability to adapt to changing environments.

A traditional way of characterizing behavioural flexibility is to determine whether individuals invent solutions to novel problems, termed innovativeness. Great-tailed grackles are behaviourally flexible in that they can change their preferences when a task changes using existing behaviours ; however, it is unknown how far they will go to invent solutions to novel problems.

To begin to answer this question, I gave grackles two novel tests that a variety of other species can perform: stick tool use and string pulling. No grackle used a stick to access out-of-reach food, even after seeing a human demonstrate the solution.

No grackle spontaneously pulled a vertically oriented string, but one did pull a horizontally oriented string twice. Additionally, a third novel test was previously conducted on these individuals and it was found that no grackle spontaneously dropped stones down a platform apparatus to release food, but six out of eight did become proficient after training.

These results support the idea that behavioural flexibility is a multi-faceted trait because grackles are flexible, but not particularly innovative. This contradicts the idea that behavioural flexibility and innovativeness are interchangeable terms. Exploratory behaviour modulates the relationship between colony familiarity and helping in a cooperative bird.

Individuals within animal groups may differ in personality and degree of familiarity raising the question of how this influences their social interactions. In Iberian magpies Cyanopica cooki, a portion of first-year males engage in cooperative behaviours and dispersal, allowing addressing this question. In this study, we first investigate the relationship between colony familiarity native versus foreign and reproductive status breeding versus helping of males during 21 years. Secondly, we measure the exploratory behaviour and monitor reproductive status of a sample of individuals with different colony familiarity during 2 years.

Long-term monitoring revealed that foreign individuals were more likely breeders. The analysis on the subset of individuals in which exploratory behaviour was measured revealed a mediatory effect of exploratory behaviour in the association between colony familiarity and helping behaviour. Specifically, among foreign individuals, higher explorative males were more frequently involved in helping behaviour than lower explorative ones.

Conversely, among native males, breeders were more explorative than helpers. Our results suggest that aspects of personality may mediate the value of familiarity in reproductive tasks in social species. Different behavioural responses to anthropogenic noise by two closely related passerine birds.

Anthropogenic noise, now common to many landscapes, can impair acoustic communication for many species, yet some birds compensate for masking by noise by altering their songs. The phylogenetic distribution of these noise-dependent signal adjustments is uncertain, and it is not known whether closely related species respond similarly to noise. Here, we investigated the influence of noise on habitat occupancy rates and vocal frequency in two congeneric vireos with similar song features.

Noise exposure did not influence occupancy rates for either species, yet song features of both changed, albeit in different ways. With increases in noise levels, plumbeous vireos Vireo plumbeus sang shorter songs with higher minimum frequencies.

By contrast, grey vireos Vireo vicinior sang longer songs with higher maximum frequencies. These findings support the notion that vocal plasticity may help some species occupy noisy areas, but because there were no commonalities among the signal changes exhibited by these closely related birds , it may be difficult to predict how diverse species may modify their signals in an increasingly noisy world.

Brood size can influence maternal behaviour and chick's development in precocial birds. Mothers have a crucial influence on offspring development. Here we investigated the influence of brood size on the behaviour of Japanese quail mothers and chicks during the mothering period and on offspring development. Behavioural tests assessed chicks' social and emotional traits.

Mothers of large broods emitted more maternal vocalisations at the beginning of the mothering period, but at the end they assumed more non-covering postures and trampled chicks more than mothers of small broods. Chicks in large broods huddled up more whereas chicks in small broods rested alone more frequently.

Moreover, the social motivation of chicks in large broods was higher than that of chicks in small broods, although their emotional reactivity levels were similar. Our results evidence the importance of brood size for maintaining family cohesion and the influence of brood size on chicks' interactions with their siblings.

We evaluated the influence of mothers and siblings on chicks' behavioural development. Bargaining babblers: vocal negotiation of cooperative behaviour in a social bird. Wherever individuals perform cooperative behaviours , each should be selected to adjust their own current contributions in relation to the likely future contributions of their collaborators.

Here, we use the sentinel system of pied babblers Turdoides bicolor to show that individuals anticipate contributions by group mates, adjusting their own contribution in response to information about internal state broadcast by others. Specifically, we show that i short-term changes in state influence contributions to a cooperative behaviour , ii individuals communicate short-term changes in state, and iii individuals use information about the state of group mates to adjust their own investment in sentinel behaviour.

Our results demonstrate that individual decisions about contributions to a cooperative effort can be influenced by information about the likely future contribution of others. We suggest that similar pre-emptive adjustments based on information obtained from collaborators will be a common feature of cooperative behaviour , and may play an important role in the development of complex communication in social species. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli URNS influence feeding behaviour in quail.

Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed. Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure using two diets of different energetic values which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines.

Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines.

Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later.

Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters. This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their.

Intervention strategies to improve nutrition and health behaviours before conception. The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted.

We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentives; and behaviour change interventions. On the basis of these strategies , we suggest a model specifying pathways to effect. Pathways are incorporated into a life-course framework using individual motivation and receptiveness at different preconception action phases, to guide design and targeting of preconception interventions.

Interventions for individuals not planning immediate pregnancy take advantage of settings and implementation platforms outside the maternal and child health arena, since this group is unlikely to be engaged with maternal health services. Interventions to improve women's nutritional status and health behaviours at all preconception action phases should consider social and environmental determinants, to avoid exacerbating health and gender inequalities, and be underpinned by a social movement that touches the whole population.

We propose a dual strategy that targets specific groups actively planning a pregnancy, while improving the health of the population more broadly. Modern marketing techniques could be used to promote a social movement based on an emotional and symbolic connection between improved preconception maternal health and nutrition, and offspring health.

We suggest that speedy and scalable benefits to public health might be achieved through strategic engagement with the private sector. Political theory supports. Light-dependent magnetoreception: orientation behaviour of migratory birds under dim red light. Magnetic compass orientation in migratory birds has been shown to be based on radical pair processes and to require light from the short wavelength part of the spectrum up to nm Green.

Under dim red light of nm wavelength and 1 mW m -2 intensity, Australian silvereyes and European robins showed a westerly tendency that did not change between spring and autumn, identifying it as a 'fixed direction' response. A thorough analysis revealed that this orientation did not involve the inclination compass, but was a response based on the polarity of the magnetic field.

Furthermore, in contrast to the orientation under short-wavelength light, it could be disrupted by local anaesthesia of the upper beak where iron-containing receptors are located, indicating that it is controlled by these receptors. The similarity of the response under dim red light to the response in total darkness suggests that the two responses may be identical. These findings indicate that the observed 'fixed direction' response under dim red light is fundamentally different from the normal compass orientation, which is based on radical pair processes.

Stable producer—scrounger dynamics in wild birds : sociability and learning speed covary with scrounging behaviour. There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer—scrounger dichotomies in groups. However there is a surprising paucity of experimental evidence in wild populations. Here, we examine producer—scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task.

Over four weeks, a bimodal distribution of producers and scroungers emerged in all areas, with pronounced and consistent individual tactic specialization persisting over 3 years. Tactics were unrelated to exploratory personality, but correlated with latency to contact and learn the foraging task, with the late arrivers and slower learners more likely to adopt the scrounging role.

Additionally, the social environment was also important: at the broad scale, larger subpopulations with a higher social density contained proportionally more scroungers, while within subpopulations scroungers tended to be central in the social network and be observed in larger foraging flocks. This study thus provides a rare example of a stable, dimorphic distribution of producer—scrounger tactics in a wild population.

It further gives support across multiple scales for a major prediction of social foraging theory; that the frequency of scroungers increases with group size. Stable producer-scrounger dynamics in wild birds : sociability and learning speed covary with scrounging behaviour. There has been extensive game-theoretic modelling of conditions leading to equilibria of producer-scrounger dichotomies in groups.

Here, we examine producer-scrounger games in five subpopulations of birds feeding at a socially learnt foraging task. This study thus provides a rare example of a stable, dimorphic distribution of producer-scrounger tactics in a wild population. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U. The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error.

As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested.

Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs.

We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. Colour also matters for nocturnal birds : owlet bill coloration advertises quality and influences parental feeding behaviour in little owls.

Chromatic signals of offspring quality have been shown to play a role in parent-offspring communication in diurnal birds , but are assumed to be useless in dim light conditions because colour-based discrimination probably requires more light. A major ecological and evolutionary conundrum in this scenario is why the nestlings of some nocturnal owls display colourful beaks. Here, we test the hypothesis that yellow bill coloration of owlets of the nocturnal little owl Athene noctua may function as a chromatic signal revealing to parents aspects of quality of their offspring.

In a first step, we examined physical variation in bill coloration and its covariation with owlet quality. Secondly, we studied parental provisioning in relation to an experimental manipulation of bill coloration of owlets. Bills of owlets showed higher within-nest variation in yellow-red chroma than in brightness.

Plasma carotenoid concentration and nestling immunological status were not associated with chromatic or achromatic features of the bill. Interestingly, however, heavier owlets displayed more yellow bills than lighter ones. The effect of bill coloration on parental favouritism changed with brood size.

Parents holding large broods preferentially fed owlets with enhanced over reduced yellow bill coloration, whereas those with small broods did not significantly bias feeding in relation to owlet bill coloration. Our results, based on integration of objective spectrophotometric assessment of colour and experimental procedures, confirm that parent little owls use bill coloration to reveal information on owlet body mass to adjust their feeding strategies , thus highlighting the importance of considering potential chromatic signals for a full comprehension of parent-offspring communication processes in nocturnal bird species.

The evolution of pattern camouflage strategies in waterfowl and game birds. Visual patterns are common in animals. A broad survey of the literature has revealed that different patterns have distinct functions. Irregular patterns e. Here, we compared the frequency of these three pattern types and traced their evolutionary history using Bayesian comparative modeling in aquatic waterfowl Anseriformes: spp.

Given these life histories, we predicted that selection would favor regular patterning in Anseriformes and irregular or bimodal patterning in Galliformes and that pattern function complexity should increase over the course of evolution. Regular patterns were predominant in Anseriformes whereas regular and bimodal patterns were most frequent in Galliformes, suggesting that patterns with multiple functions are broadly favored by selection over patterns with a single function in static camouflage.

We found that the first patterns to evolve were either regular or bimodal in Anseriformes and either irregular or regular in Galliformes. In both orders, irregular patterns could evolve into regular patterns but not the reverse. Our hypothesis of increasing complexity in pattern camouflage function was supported in Galliformes but not in Anseriformes. These results reveal a trajectory of pattern evolution linked to increasing function complexity in Galliformes although not in Anseriformes, suggesting that both ecology and function complexity can have a profound influence on pattern evolution.

These results reveal a trajectory of pattern evolution linked to increasing function complexity in Galliformes although not in Anseriformes, suggesting that both ecology and function complexity can have a profound influence on pattern. Machalaba, Catherine C. Wild birds play a major role in the evolution, maintenance, and spread of avian influenza viruses. However, surveillance for these viruses in wild birds is sporadic, geographically biased, and often limited to the last outbreak virus.

To identify opportunities to optimize wild bird surveillance for understanding viral diversity, we reviewed responses to a World Organisation for Animal Health—administered survey, government reports to this organization, articles on Web of Knowledge, and the Influenza Research Database. At least countries conducted avian influenza virus surveillance in wild birds during —, but coordination and standardization was lacking among surveillance efforts, and most focused on limited subsets of influenza viruses.

Given high financial and public health burdens of recent avian influenza outbreaks, we call for sustained, cost-effective investments in locations with high avian influenza diversity in wild birds and efforts to promote standardized sampling, testing, and reporting methods, including full-genome sequencing and sharing of isolates with the scientific community. Despite the importance of behaviour management, many student teachers report being inadequately trained in this area.

The aim of this study was to identify the strategies , confidence and reported levels of success in regard to various behaviour management strategies , across first, second, third and fourth year student teachers training to be…. Many arthropods possess escape-triggering neural mechanisms that help them evade predators. These mechanisms are important neuroethological models, but they are rarely investigated using predator-like stimuli because there is often insufficient information on real predator attacks.

Locusts possess uniquely identifiable visual neurons the descending contralateral movement detectors, DCMDs that are well-studied looming motion detectors. To date it has not been possible to study glides in response to stimuli simulating bird attacks because such attacks have not been characterised.

We analyse video of wild black kites attacking flying locusts, and estimate kite attack speeds of However, adding wings to looming discs did slightly reduce high frequency DCMD spike rates in the final stages of object approach, and slightly delay glide initiation.

However, the performance of this system is in line with expectations for a last-ditch escape response. Effects of water level changes and wading bird abundance on the foraging behaviour of blacknecked storks Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus in Dudwa National Park, India. The effect of water level changes and wading birds ' abundance on the foraging behaviour of the blacknecked stork BNS Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus was studied from January to June in Dudwa National Park, Uttar Pradesh.

Our observations indicate that BNS territoriality increased as food levels became depleted, resulting in increased rates of aggression towards intruders. Chasing or aggression was more intense during the early period February and March than the late period April, May and June. Most interactions were with the spoonbill, Platalea leucorodia The distance while foraging between BNS and other wading birds varied significantly P birds foraged at different water depths and thereby explored the wetlands fully.

Spoonbills were chased often; the number varied from 1 to 43 birds. BNS occasionally accepted the presence of other wading birds , including spoonbills and started foraging amidst them. This led to successful foraging of BNS solitary feeder. Other fish-eating bird species and their numbers also limited the food consumption of foraging BNS as they had to spend time chasing away the intruders.

Availability of the preferred prey fish species, Heteropnestus fossilis, forced BNS to stay throughout the year in their respective territories. Integral strategy for evaluation of fecal indicator performance in bird -influenced saline inland waters. Wild birds are an important nonpoint source of fecal contamination of surface waters, but their contribution to fecal pollution is mostly difficult to estimate. Thus, to evaluate the relation between feces production and input of fecal indicator bacteria FIB into aquatic environments by wild waterfowl, we introduced a new holistic approach for evaluating the performance of FIB in six shallow saline habitats.

For this, we monitored bird abundance, fecal pellet production, and the abundance of FIB concomitantly with a set of environmental variables over a 9-month period. For estimating fecal pellet production, a new protocol of fecal pellet counting was introduced, which was called fecal taxation FTX.

We could show that, over the whole range of investigated habitats, bird abundance, FTX values, and FIB abundance were highly significantly correlated and could demonstrate the good applicability of the FTX as a meaningful surrogate parameter for recent bird abundances and fecal contamination by birds in shallow aquatic ecosystems.

Presumptive enterococci ENT were an excellent surrogate parameter of recent fecal contamination in these saline environments for samples collected at biweekly to monthly sampling intervals while presumptive Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms FC were often undetectable. Significant negative correlations with salinity indicated that E. Statistical analyses further revealed that fecal pollution-associated parameters represented one system component independent from other environmental variables and that, besides feces production, rainfall, total suspended solids direct , and trophy indirect had significant positive effects on ENT concentrations.

Our holistic approach of linking bird abundance, feces production, and FIB detection with environmental variables may serve as a powerful model for application to other aquatic ecosystems. Kirschner, Alexander K. Integrating the distributed data resources of the bird monitoring community using information technology strategies.

An increasing number of bird monitoring projects are assembling massive quantities of data into numerous decentralized and locally administered storage systems. These data sources have enormous significance to a wide range of disciplines, but knowing that they exist and gaining access to them is difficult if not impossible. Attempts are being made to organize these How to reduce sitting time?

A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults. Sedentary behaviour - i. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes.

Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques.

Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. Sedentary behaviour — i. Booming far: the long-range vocal strategy of a lekking bird. The pressures of selection acting on transmission of information by acoustic signals are particularly high in long-distance communication networks.

Males of the North African houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata undulata produce extremely low-frequency vocalizations called 'booms' as a component of their courtship displays. Here, we investigate the acoustic features of booms involved in species-specific identity. Additionally, by testing males' behavioural responses to playbacks of modified signals, we found that the presence of the second harmonic and the frequency modulation are the key parameters for species identification, and also that a sequence of booms elicited stronger responses than a single boom.

Thus, the coding-decoding process relies on redundant and propagation-resistant features, making the booms particularly well adapted for the long-range transmission of information between males. Moreover, by experimentally disentangling the presentation of visual and acoustic signals, we showed that during the booming phase of courtship, the two sensory modalities act in synergy.

The acoustic component is dominant in the context of intra-sexual competition. While the visual component is not necessary to induce agonistic response, it acts as an amplifier and reduces the time of detection of the signaller. The utilization of these adaptive strategies allows houbara males to maximize the active space of vocalizations emitted in exploded leks.

Novel energy-saving strategies to multiple stressors in birds : the ultradian regulation of body temperature. This study aimed to examine thermoregulatory responses in birds facing two commonly experienced stressors, cold and fasting. The animals were then examined under three equal 4-day periods: ad libitum feeding, fasting and re-feeding. Through the analysis of daily as well as short-term, or ultradian, variations of body temperature, we showed that while ducklings at TN show only a modest decline in daily thermoregulatory parameters when fasted, they exhibit reduced surface temperatures from key sites of vascular heat exchange during fasting.

The CA birds , on the other hand, significantly reduced their short-term variations of body temperature while increasing long-term variability when fasting. This phenomenon would allow the CA birds to reduce the energetic cost of body temperature maintenance under fasting.

By analysing ultradian regulation of body temperature, we describe a means by which an endotherm appears to lower thermoregulatory costs in response to the combined stressors of cold and fasting. Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza A subtypes in wild birds. Olson, Sarah H. Wild aquatic birds are recognized as the natural reservoir of avian influenza A viruses AIV , but across high and low pathogenic AIV strains, scientists have yet to rigorously identify most competent hosts for the various subtypes.

HOW DO BETTING PARLAYS WORKAHOLICS

Geographical convergence of migration strategies was evident within specific terrestrial regions where geomorphological features such as mountains or isthmuses constrained overland migration. Convergence was also evident for transoceanic migrants that crossed the Gulf of Mexico or Atlantic Ocean. Here, annual population-level movements were characterized by clockwise looped trajectories, which resulted in faster but more circuitous journeys in the spring and more direct journeys in the autumn.

These findings suggest that the unique constraints and requirements associated with transoceanic migration have promoted the spatial convergence of migration strategies. The combination of seasonal atmospheric and environmental conditions that has facilitated the use of similar broad-scale migration strategies may be especially prone to disruption under climate and land-use change.

Behavioural adaptations of birds to environments where evaporation is high and water is in short supply. Behaviour that reduces the heat load or evaporation experienced by birds living in arid areas is reviewed. Many species have evolved hunting behaviour that enables them to remain inactive during the hottest parts of the day and thus greatly reduce the amount of metabolic heat that they need to dissipate. Flights to water are made at low ambient temperatures, either early in the morning or late in the evening.

Fighting is rare in many species of desert birds , avoiding the excess generation of heat by this activity. Many arid zone birds maintain long-lasting pair bonds, avoiding the necessity for active, elaborate display before breeding and again reducing activity.

The observations on nomadism are discussed. No unifying principles that might control the behaviour of birds seeking widely separated areas of abundance of food have yet emerged. Some species have evolved mechanisms, embodied in behavioural characteristics, that ensure that the eggs and chicks are sheltered from high temperatures and are provided with adequate moisture.

Birds have evolved many different kinds of behavioural adaptation to arid zones and representatives from many avian families live there, apparently successfully. Convergence of biannual moulting strategies across birds and mammals.

Birds and mammals have developed numerous strategies for replacing worn feathers and hair. Moulting usually occurs on an annual basis; however, moults that take place twice per year biannual moults also occur. Here, we review the forces driving the evolution of various moult strategies , focusing on the special case of the complete biannual moult as a convergence of selection pressures across birds and mammals.

Current evidence suggests that harsh environmental conditions or seasonality e. In turn, the biannual moult can respond to secondary selection that results in phenotypic alteration such as colour changes for mate choice dynamics sexual selection or camouflage requirements natural selection. We discuss the contributions of natural and sexual selection to the evolution of biannual moulting strategies in the contexts of energetics, niche selection, functionality and physiological mechanisms.

Finally, we suggest that moult strategies are directly related to species niche because environmental attributes drive the utility e. Functional efficiency of moult may be undermined if the pace of evolution fails to match that of the changing climate. Thus, future research should seek to understand the plasticity of moult duration and phenology, especially in the context of annual cycles. Human recreation alters behaviour profiles of non-breeding birds on open-coast sandy shores.

Sandy beaches are primarily valued for their amenity and property values rather than for their ecological functions and properties. Some human usage of beaches potentially conflicts with the conservation and management of wildlife, such as beach-dwelling birds , on sandy shorelines. Because responses by birds to environmental change, including disturbance by humans, often involve behaviours that carry fitness costs, we quantify behaviour profiles of birds in relation to human occurrence along km of sandy shoreline in Eastern Australia, including the large conservation area of Fraser Island.

Disturbance to birds on these shores was considerable: 1 birds encountered motorized vehicles cars, trucks, buses etc. Overall, this study demonstrated that motorized traffic is the prime agent of disturbance to birds on these beaches, resulting in frequent and time-consuming escape behaviours. These findings also emphasize that management of vehicle-based recreation on beaches needs to be re-aligned to meet conservation requirements in addition to providing leisure opportunities in National Parks and beyond; we identify some salient issue for this development: a encouragement of social norms that promote environmentally benign beach use not involving motor vehicles, b creation of spatial refuges for beach wildlife from traffic and other non-compatible uses, and c investment in developing complementary management actions such as effective set-back distances.

Evolution of parental incubation behaviour in dinosaurs cannot be inferred from clutch mass in birds. A recent study proposed that incubation behaviour i. However, the study in question failed to account for factors known to affect egg and clutch size in living bird species.

A new scaling analysis of avian clutch mass demonstrates that type of parental care cannot be distinguished by conventional allometry because of the confounding effects of phylogeny and hatchling maturity. Precociality of young but not paternal care in the theropod ancestors of birds is consistent with the available data. Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird. Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution.

Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds , however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song.

To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird , we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows Zonotrichia capensis in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect.

Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution. Behavioural responses of poultry during kosher slaughter and their implications for the birds ' welfare. Measurements were made during Shechita kosher slaughter of meat chickens, including the behaviour of the birds during the procedure and the times from their removal from the crate, to neck cutting, bleed-out and shackling.

Four of birds showed a mild physical response to neck cutting but the others showed no response. Approximately 60 per cent of the birds showed a physical response to touching the eye or eyelid at up to 5 seconds after neck cutting, but by 15 seconds none showed this response. The birds became unable to retain their posture and suffered involuntary muscular contractions at 12 to 15 seconds after neck cutting and had lost approximately 40 per cent of their total blood volume by 30 seconds after neck cutting.

Heterospecific eavesdropping in ant-following birds of the Neotropics is a learned behaviour. Animals eavesdrop on other species to obtain information about their environments. Heterospecific eavesdropping can yield tangible fitness benefits by providing valuable information about food resources and predator presence. The ability to eavesdrop may therefore be under strong selection, although extensive research on alarm-calling in avian mixed-species flocks has found only limited evidence that close association with another species could select for innate signal recognition.

Nevertheless, very little is known about the evolution of eavesdropping behaviour and the mechanism of heterospecific signal recognition, particularly in other ecological contexts, such as foraging. To understand whether heterospecific eavesdropping was an innate or learned behaviour in a foraging context, we studied heterospecific signal recognition in ant-following birds of the Neotropics, which eavesdrop on vocalizations of obligate ant-following species to locate and recruit to swarms of the army ant Eciton burchellii , a profitable food resource.

We used a playback experiment to compare recruitment of ant-following birds to vocalizations of two obligate species at a mainland site where both species are present and a nearby island site where one species remains whereas the other went extinct approx. We found that ant-following birds recruited strongly to playbacks of the obligate species present at both island and mainland sites, but the island birds did not recruit to playbacks of the absent obligate species.

Our results strongly suggest that i ant-following birds learn to recognize heterospecific vocalizations from ecological experience and ii island birds no longer recognize the locally extinct obligate species after eight generations of absence from the island.

Although learning appears to be the mechanism of heterospecific signal recognition in ant-following birds , more experimental tests are needed to fully understand the evolution of eavesdropping. This chapter offers information on the status, distribution by habitat type and seral stage , and basic life history for each of species of birds that are found in the western Sierra Nevada. Many of the data came from the literature, altl ough the professional ornithologists involved with this project drew upon extensive personal experience with birds in the Non-specific manipulation of gammarid behaviour by P.

Trophically-transmitted parasites often change the phenotype of their intermediate hosts in ways that increase their vulnerability to definitive hosts, hence favouring transmission. As a "collateral damage", manipulated hosts can also become easy prey for non-host predators that are dead ends for the parasite, and which are supposed to play no role in transmission strategies.

Interestingly, infection with the acanthocephalan parasite Polymorphus minutus has been shown to reduce the vulnerability of its gammarid intermediate hosts to non-host predators, whose presence triggered the behavioural alterations expected to favour trophic transmission to bird definitive hosts. Whilst the behavioural response of infected gammarids to the presence of definitive hosts remains to be investigated, this suggests that trophic transmission might be promoted by non-host predation risk.

We conducted microcosm experiments to test whether the behaviour of P. Based on the behaviours we investigated predator avoidance, activity, geotaxis, conspecific attraction , we found no evidence for a specific fine-tuned response in infected gammarids, which behaved similarly whatever the type of predator mallard or fish.

During predation tests, fish predation risk did not influence the differential predation of mallards that over-consumed infected gammarids compared to uninfected individuals. Overall, our results bring support for a less sophisticated scenario of manipulation than previously expected, combining chronic behavioural alterations with phasic behavioural alterations triggered by the chemical and physical cues coming from any type of predator.

Given the wide dispersal range of waterbirds the definitive hosts of P. Behavioural and physiological responses of birds to environmentally relevant concentrations of an antidepressant. Bean, Tom G. Many wildlife species forage on sewage-contaminated food, for example, at wastewater treatment plants and on fields fertilized with sewage sludge. The resultant exposure to human pharmaceuticals remains poorly studied for terrestrial species.

On the basis of predicted exposure levels in the wild, we administered the common antidepressant fluoxetine FLUOX or control treatment via prey to wild-caught starlings Sturnus vulgaris for 22 weeks over winter. To investigate responses to fluoxetine, birds were moved from their group aviaries into individual cages for 2 days.

Boldness, exploration and activity levels showed no treatment effects but controls and FLUOX birds habituated differently to isolation in terms of the concentration of corticosterone CORT metabolites in faeces. The controls that excreted higher concentrations of CORT metabolites on day 1 lost more body mass by day 2 of isolation than those which excreted lower levels of CORT metabolites. When we investigated the movements of birds in their group aviaries, we found the controls made a higher frequency of visits to food trays than FLUOX birds around the important foraging periods of sunrise and sunset, as is optimal for wintering birds.

Although individual variability makes interpreting the sub-lethal endpoints measured challenging, our data suggest that fluoxetine at environmentally relevant concentrations can significantly alter behaviour and physiology.

Investigations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of physiology and behaviour have generally avoided attempts to explain individual differences. The goal has rather been to discover general processes. However, understanding the causes of individual variation in many phenomena of interest to avian eco-physiologists will require a consideration of such mechanisms.

For example, in birds , changes in plasma concentrations of steroid hormones are important in the activation of social behaviours related to reproduction and aggression. Attempts to explain individual variation in these behaviours as a function of variation in plasma hormone concentrations have generally failed.

Cellular variables related to the effectiveness of steroid hormone have been useful in some cases. Steroid hormone target sensitivity can be affected by variables such as metabolizing enzyme activity, hormone receptor expression as well as receptor cofactor expression. At present, no general theory has emerged that might provide a clear guidance when trying to explain individual variability in birds or in any other group of vertebrates.

One strategy is to learn from studies of large units of intraspecific variation such as population or sex differences to provide ideas about variables that might be important in explaining individual variation. This approach along with the use of newly developed molecular genetic tools represents a promising avenue for avian eco-physiologists to pursue. Complex behaviour in complex terrain - Modelling bird migration in a high resolution wind field across mountainous terrain to simulate observed patterns.

Crossing of large ecological barriers, such as mountains, is in terms of energy considered to be a demanding and critical step during bird migration. Besides forming a geographical barrier, mountains have a profound impact on the resulting wind flow.

We use a novel framework of mathematical models to investigate the influences of wind and topography on nocturnal passerine bird behaviour , and to assess the energy costs for different flight strategies for crossing the Jura Mountains. Further, we use a mesoscale weather model for high-resolution predictions of the wind fields. We simulate the broad front nocturnal passerine migration for autumn nights with peak migration intensities. The bird densities retrieved from a weather radar are used as the initial intensities and to specify the vertical distributions of the simulated birds.

It is shown that migration over complex terrain represents the most expensive flight option in terms of energy expenditure, and wind is seen to be the main factor that influences the energy expenditure in the bird 's preferred flight direction. Further, the combined effects of wind and orography lead to a high concentration of migratory birds within the favourable wind conditions of the Swiss lowlands and north of the Jura Mountains.

Apple orchard pest control strategies affect bird communities in southeastern France. Birds are regarded as appropriate biological indicators of how changes in agricultural practices affect the environment. They are also involved in the biocontrol of pests. In the present study, we provide an assessment of the impact of pest control strategies on bird communities in apple orchards in southeastern France. We compared the structure abundance, species richness, and diversity of breeding bird communities in 15 orchards under conventional or organic pest control over a three-year period Pest control strategies and their evolution over time were characterized by analyzing farmers' treatment schedules.

The landscape surrounding the orchards was characterized using a Geographic Information System. We observed 30 bird species overall. Bird abundance, species richness, and diversity were all affected by pest control strategies , and were highest in organic orchards and lowest in conventional orchards during the three study years.

The pest control strategy affected insectivores more than granivores. We further observed a tendency for bird communities in integrated pest management orchards to change over time and become increasingly different from communities in organic orchards, which also corresponded to changes in treatment schedules.

These findings indicate that within-orchard bird communities may respond quickly to changes in pesticide use and may, in turn, influence biocontrol of pests by birds. Habitat acquisition strategies for grassland birds in an urbanizing landscape. Habitat protection for grassland birds is an important component of open space land acquisition in suburban Chicago.

We use optimization decision models to develop recommendations for land protection and analyze tradeoffs between alternative goals. One goal is to acquire and restore if necessary as much grassland habitat as possible for a given budget. Because a Forest management strategy , spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington. Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches.

Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over Management strategies for the conservation of forest birds. We recommend that managers of forest-associated bird species follow a five-step hierarchy in establishing and implementing management programs.

In essence, a manager must evaluate the composition and physiognomy of the landscape mosaic in the context of the regional and subregional goals and objectives. Grassland birds : An overview of threats and recommended management strategies. Vickery, P. Grassland ecosystems are dependent on periodic disturbance for habitat maintenance. Historically, grazing by native herbivores and prairie fires were the agents principally responsible for maintaining grassland areas.

However, elimination of native herbivores, wide-spread fire suppression, and conversion for agriculture have greatly altered grasslands in the United States and Canada. Because of these landscape changes, many grassland birds are increasingly dependent on land managers for habitat creation, maintenance, and health. Grassland birds prefer a wide range of grass heights and densities, with some species preferring short sparse vegetation, and others preferring taller, more dense vegetation.

Due to differences in species habitat preferences and regional differences in soils and floristics, the responses of individual grassland species to specific grassland management practices can be variable and often are regionally dependent. As a result, management of grassland areas is best directed toward the creation of a mosaic of grassland habitat types. This habitat mosaic is probably best maintained through some type of rotational management system in which sections of large grassland areas receive management on a regular schedule.

Such a rotational system would provide a variety of habitat types in every year, would ensure the availability of suitable habitat for birds at either end of the grassland management spectrum, and also would provide habitat for birds whose preferences lie between these extremes. Synchronisation of parental behaviours reduces the risk of nest predation in a socially monogamous passerine bird. Social monogamy with bi-parental care is the most common breeding pattern in birds , yet cooperation between mates has not been intensively studied to date.

In this study we investigate synchronisation of parental behaviours in the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, a species characterized by bi-parental care and high nest predation. We test the hypothesis that mates synchronize their behaviours to decrease total activity at the nest, which is known to affect predation rate in birds.

We examine if blackcap parents synchronise their feeding trips more when nestlings are at the poikilothermic stage, and they may be more vulnerable to nest predation due to their inability to escape and survive outside the nest without parental brooding. We also investigate the alternation of feeding trips by parents.

We show that blackcap parents synchronise the majority of their feeding trips during the whole nestling period, and the level of parental synchrony is higher before nestlings develop endothermy. The alternation of male and female feeding trips was much higher than would be expected by chance and was positively related to parental synchrony.

We have demonstrated that synchronisation of parental feeding trips significantly decreased parental activity at the nest, and nest survival time increased with the synchrony of parental feeding trips. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds. Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures.

Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats.

Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline.

If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species.

Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations. Brain size, innovative propensity and migratory behaviour in temperate Palaearctic birds. The evolution of migration in birds remains an outstanding, unresolved question in evolutionary ecology. A particularly intriguing question is why individuals in some species have been selected to migrate, whereas in other species they have been selected to be sedentary.

In this paper, we suggest that this diverging selection might partially result from differences among species in the behavioural flexibility of their responses to seasonal changes in the environment. This hypothesis is supported in a comparative analysis of Palaearctic passerines.

First, resident species tend to rely more on innovative feeding behaviours in winter, when food is harder to find, than in other seasons. Second, species with larger brains, relative to their body size, and a higher propensity for innovative behaviours tend to be resident, while less flexible species tend to be migratory.

Residence also appears to be less likely in species that occur in more northerly regions, exploit temporally available food sources, inhabit non-buffered habitats and have smaller bodies. Yet, the role of behavioural flexibility as a response to seasonal environments is largely independent of these other factors. Therefore, species with greater foraging flexibility seem to be able to cope with seasonal environments better, while less flexible species are forced to become migratory. Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds : survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence.

Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers.

Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour , but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour.

Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds , that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian maternal behaviour and.

The ability of laying pullets to negotiate two ramp designs as measured by bird preference and behaviour. Background Laying hens are often kept in barn or free-range systems where they must negotiate level changes in the house to access resources. However, collisions and resultant keel fractures are commonplace.

Producers sometimes add ramps to make raised areas more accessible but designs vary and very little research has investigated bird preference or behaviour when using different ramp designs, or the effect of ramp design on falls and collisions. Methods Two ramp designs were studied in an experimental setting—a ramp made of plastic poultry slats grid ramp, GR and a ramp made of wooden rungs ladder ramp, LR. Sixty-four young female hens were trained to move to a food reward and this was used to test their behavioural responses when first negotiating the two different ramps during individual tests.

Both upward and downward transitions were studied. Ramp preference was also tested using a room that replicated a commercial single-tier system with both types of ramp available. Birds were placed in this room in groups of 16 for three days and their use of the ramps studied. When making a downward transition, more hesitation behaviours were seen head orientations, stepping on the spot, moving away for the LR.

However, more head orientations were seen for the GR during the upward transition. Birds were more likely to abort attempts an attempt began when a bird placed both feet on the ramp to move up the GR than the LR. Birds took longer to negotiate the LR than the GR in both directions, and more pauses were seen during a successful upward transition on the LR. Construction patterns of birds ' nests provide insight into nest-building behaviours.

Previous studies have suggested that birds and mammals select materials needed for nest building based on their thermal or structural properties, although the amounts or properties of the materials used have been recorded for only a very small number of species. Some of the behaviours underlying the construction of nests can be indirectly determined by careful deconstruction of the structure and measurement of the biomechanical properties of the materials used.

Here we examined this idea in an investigation of Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula nests as a model for open-nesting songbird species that construct a "twig" nest, and tested the hypothesis that materials in different parts of nests serve different functions. The quantities of materials present in the nest base, sides and cup were recorded before structural analysis. Structural analysis showed that the base of the outer nests were composed of significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid materials compared to the side walls, which in turn were significantly thicker, stronger and more rigid than materials used in the cup.

These results suggest that the placement of particular materials in nests may not be random, but further work is required to determine if the final structure of a nest accurately reflects the construction process. Birds , Birds , Birds! Ranger Rick's Nature Scope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment.

Contents are organized into the following sections: 1 "What Makes a Bird a Bird? Over species of birds , mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California fig. These woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious food supply.

The birds of California? The oak woodland bird conservation plan: a strategy for protecting and managing oak woodland habitats and associated birds in California. Over species of birds , mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California at some stage in their life cycle. California oak woodlands may rank among the top three habitat types in North America for bird richness.

Oak woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious Assessing strategies to reconcile agriculture and bird conservation in the temperate grasslands of South America. Globally, agriculture is the greatest source of threat to biodiversity, through both ongoing conversion of natural habitat and intensification of existing farmland.

Land sparing and land sharing have been suggested as alternative approaches to reconcile this threat with the need for land to produce food. To examine which approach holds most promise for grassland species, we examined how bird population densities changed with farm yield production per unit area in the Campos of Brazil and Uruguay. We obtained information on biodiversity and crop yields from 24 sites that differed in agricultural yield. Density-yield functions were fitted for bird species to describe the response of population densities to increasing farm yield, measured in terms of both food energy and profit.

We categorized individual species according to how their population changed across the yield gradient as being positively or negatively affected by farming and according to whether the species' total population size was greater under land-sparing, land-sharing, or an intermediate strategy. Irrespective of the yield, most species were negatively affected by farming.

This suggests that increasing yields in some areas while reducing grazing to low levels elsewhere may be the best option for bird conservation in these grasslands. Implementing such an approach would require conservation and production policies to be explicitly linked to support yield increases in farmed areas and concurrently guarantee that larger areas of lightly grazed natural grasslands are set aside for conservation.

Ecological generalism and behavioural innovation in birds : technical intelligence or the simple incorporation of new foods? Generalist species are more successful than specialists in anthropogenically modified environments or in environments in which they have been introduced, but the nature of the link between generalism and establishment success is unclear.

A higher feeding innovation rate has previously been reported in habitat generalist birds from North America. By allowing them to exploit new resources, this higher feeding innovation rate might explain the generalists' advantage. This result might be due to generalists being more likely to find new resources because they are exposed to more diverse environmental conditions.

Alternatively, they might differ from specialists in other traits, in particular cognitive skills that might allow them to innovate more complex food searching and handling techniques. To test these hypotheses, we separated avian feeding innovations into a 'technical' novel searching and handling behaviour and a 'food type' incorporation of a new food in a species' diet category.

Technical innovations, but not food type innovations, have previously been shown to correlate with avian brain size, suggesting they reflect cognitive ability. We used a world-wide data base of feeding innovations recorded in the literature, covering a total of avian species and assessed the correlations between brain size and feeding innovation rates on one side and habitat and diet generalism on the other.

Habitat generalism was positively related with food type innovation rate, but not technical innovation rate or brain size. This suggests that habitat generalist species are more likely to incorporate new food types in their diet because of higher chances to find new food resources in their environment, or of a higher opportunism, but not enhanced cognitive skills.

In contrast, diet generalist species had higher food type and technical innovation rates, as well as larger brains, suggesting that cognitive skills might help species expand their diet breadth or that an. Parent birds assess nest predation risk and adjust their reproductive strategies. Avian life history theory has long assumed that nest predation plays a minor role in shaping reproductive strategies.

Yet, this assumption remains conspicuously untested by broad experiments that alter environmental risk of nest predation, despite the fact that nest predation is a major source of reproductive failure. Here, we examined whether parents can assess experimentally reduced nest predation risk and alter their reproductive strategies. We experimentally reduced nest predation risk and show that in safer environments parents increased investment in young through increased egg size, clutch mass, and the rate they fed nestlings.

Parents also increased investment in female condition by increasing the rates that males fed incubating females at the nest, and decreasing the time that females spent incubating. These results demonstrate that birds can assess nest predation risk at large and that nest predation plays a key role in the expression of avian reproductive strategies.

A new bio-inspired optimisation algorithm: Bird Swarm Algorithm. BSA is based on the swarm intelligence extracted from the social behaviours and social interactions in bird swarms. Birds mainly have three kinds of behaviours : foraging behaviour , vigilance behaviour and flight behaviour. Birds may forage for food and escape from the predators by the social interactions to obtain a high chance of survival. By modelling these social behaviours , social interactions and the related swarm intelligence, four search strategies associated with five simplified rules are formulated in BSA.

Simulations and comparisons based on eighteen benchmark problems demonstrate the effectiveness, superiority and stability of BSA. Some proposals for future research about BSA are also discussed. Migratory bird hunter opinions regarding potential management strategies for controlling light goose populations. Dinges, Andrew J. Although hunters strongly agreed that population control of light geese was an important wildlife management issue, they were generally unsupportive of wildlife officials using forms of direct control methods to control light goose populations.

Respondents who indicated participation in the LGCO were also less supportive of any form of direct control compared with migratory bird hunters who did not participate in the LGCO. When presented with alternative methods by wildlife officials for future light goose population control, respondents were most supportive of wildlife agencies selectively shooting light geese on migration and wintering areas and least supportive of wildlife officials using bait with approved chemicals to euthanize light geese.

A clear understanding of public perception of various potential direct-control options will likely assist wildlife biologists in making informed decisions on how to proceed with population control of light geese. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlation between natal dispersal propensity and nest-defence behaviour in a wild bird. Natural selection is expected to favour the integration of dispersal and phenotypic traits allowing individuals to reduce dispersal costs.

Accordingly, associations have been found between dispersal and personality traits such as aggressiveness and exploration, which may facilitate settlement in a novel environment. However, the determinism of these associations has only rarely been explored. Here, we highlight the functional integration of individual personality in nest-defence behaviour and natal dispersal propensity in a long-lived colonial bird , the Alpine swift Apus melba , providing insights into genetic constraints shaping the coevolution of these two traits.

We report a negative association between natal dispersal and nest-defence i. This negative association may result from direct selection if risk-averseness benefits natal dispersers by reducing the costs of settlement in an unfamiliar environment, or from indirect selection if individuals with lower levels of nest defence also show lower levels of aggressiveness, reducing costs of settlement among unfamiliar neighbours in a colony. In both cases, these results highlight that risk taking is an important behavioural trait to consider in the study of dispersal evolution.

Important bird areas of the Madrean Archipelago: A conservation strategy for avian communities. Criteria for designation are species abundance, diversity, and range restriction. Relevant policy documentation is examined in order to explore how the role of the special educational needs…. Predator encounters have spatially extensive impacts on parental behaviour in a breeding bird community.

Moks, Kadri; Thomson, Robert L. Predation risk has negative indirect effects on prey fitness, partly mediated through changes in behaviour. Evidence that individuals gather social information from other members of the population suggests that events in a community may impact the behaviour of distant individuals.

However, spatially wide-ranging impacts on individual behaviour caused by a predator encounter elsewhere in a community have not been documented before. We investigated the effect of a predator encounter hawk model presented at a focal nest on the parental behaviour of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca , both at the focal nest and at nearby nests different distances from the predator encounter. We show that nest visitation of both focal pairs and nearby pairs were affected, up to 3 h and 1 h, respectively.

Parents also appeared to compensate initial disrupted feeding by later increasing nest visitation rates. This is the first evidence showing that the behaviour of nearby pairs was affected away from an immediate source of risk. Our results indicate that the impacts of short-term predator encounters may immediately extend spatially to the broader community, affecting the behaviour of distant individuals.

Information about predators is probably quickly spread by cues such as intra- and heterospecific alarm calls, in communities of different taxa. How far will a behaviourally flexible invasive bird go to innovate? Behavioural flexibility is considered a key factor in the ability to adapt to changing environments. A traditional way of characterizing behavioural flexibility is to determine whether individuals invent solutions to novel problems, termed innovativeness.

Great-tailed grackles are behaviourally flexible in that they can change their preferences when a task changes using existing behaviours ; however, it is unknown how far they will go to invent solutions to novel problems. To begin to answer this question, I gave grackles two novel tests that a variety of other species can perform: stick tool use and string pulling.

No grackle used a stick to access out-of-reach food, even after seeing a human demonstrate the solution. No grackle spontaneously pulled a vertically oriented string, but one did pull a horizontally oriented string twice. Additionally, a third novel test was previously conducted on these individuals and it was found that no grackle spontaneously dropped stones down a platform apparatus to release food, but six out of eight did become proficient after training.

These results support the idea that behavioural flexibility is a multi-faceted trait because grackles are flexible, but not particularly innovative. This contradicts the idea that behavioural flexibility and innovativeness are interchangeable terms. Exploratory behaviour modulates the relationship between colony familiarity and helping in a cooperative bird. Individuals within animal groups may differ in personality and degree of familiarity raising the question of how this influences their social interactions.

In Iberian magpies Cyanopica cooki, a portion of first-year males engage in cooperative behaviours and dispersal, allowing addressing this question. In this study, we first investigate the relationship between colony familiarity native versus foreign and reproductive status breeding versus helping of males during 21 years. Secondly, we measure the exploratory behaviour and monitor reproductive status of a sample of individuals with different colony familiarity during 2 years. Long-term monitoring revealed that foreign individuals were more likely breeders.

The analysis on the subset of individuals in which exploratory behaviour was measured revealed a mediatory effect of exploratory behaviour in the association between colony familiarity and helping behaviour. Specifically, among foreign individuals, higher explorative males were more frequently involved in helping behaviour than lower explorative ones. Conversely, among native males, breeders were more explorative than helpers. Our results suggest that aspects of personality may mediate the value of familiarity in reproductive tasks in social species.

Different behavioural responses to anthropogenic noise by two closely related passerine birds. Anthropogenic noise, now common to many landscapes, can impair acoustic communication for many species, yet some birds compensate for masking by noise by altering their songs.

The phylogenetic distribution of these noise-dependent signal adjustments is uncertain, and it is not known whether closely related species respond similarly to noise. Here, we investigated the influence of noise on habitat occupancy rates and vocal frequency in two congeneric vireos with similar song features.

Noise exposure did not influence occupancy rates for either species, yet song features of both changed, albeit in different ways. With increases in noise levels, plumbeous vireos Vireo plumbeus sang shorter songs with higher minimum frequencies. By contrast, grey vireos Vireo vicinior sang longer songs with higher maximum frequencies. These findings support the notion that vocal plasticity may help some species occupy noisy areas, but because there were no commonalities among the signal changes exhibited by these closely related birds , it may be difficult to predict how diverse species may modify their signals in an increasingly noisy world.

Brood size can influence maternal behaviour and chick's development in precocial birds. Mothers have a crucial influence on offspring development. Here we investigated the influence of brood size on the behaviour of Japanese quail mothers and chicks during the mothering period and on offspring development. Behavioural tests assessed chicks' social and emotional traits. Mothers of large broods emitted more maternal vocalisations at the beginning of the mothering period, but at the end they assumed more non-covering postures and trampled chicks more than mothers of small broods.

Chicks in large broods huddled up more whereas chicks in small broods rested alone more frequently. Moreover, the social motivation of chicks in large broods was higher than that of chicks in small broods, although their emotional reactivity levels were similar. Our results evidence the importance of brood size for maintaining family cohesion and the influence of brood size on chicks' interactions with their siblings. We evaluated the influence of mothers and siblings on chicks' behavioural development.

Bargaining babblers: vocal negotiation of cooperative behaviour in a social bird. Wherever individuals perform cooperative behaviours , each should be selected to adjust their own current contributions in relation to the likely future contributions of their collaborators. Here, we use the sentinel system of pied babblers Turdoides bicolor to show that individuals anticipate contributions by group mates, adjusting their own contribution in response to information about internal state broadcast by others.

Specifically, we show that i short-term changes in state influence contributions to a cooperative behaviour , ii individuals communicate short-term changes in state, and iii individuals use information about the state of group mates to adjust their own investment in sentinel behaviour. Our results demonstrate that individual decisions about contributions to a cooperative effort can be influenced by information about the likely future contribution of others.

We suggest that similar pre-emptive adjustments based on information obtained from collaborators will be a common feature of cooperative behaviour , and may play an important role in the development of complex communication in social species. This study aimed at assessing whether unpredictable and repeated negative stimuli URNS influence feeding behaviour in quail. Sixty-four quail were exposed to URNS from day 17 to 40, while 64 quail were undisturbed.

Two lines divergently selected on their inherent emotionality were used to assess the effect of genetic factors on the sensitivity to URNS. All quail were submitted to a sequential feeding procedure using two diets of different energetic values which placed them in a contrasting situation. Behavioural tests were performed to assess the emotional reactivity of the two lines.

Results confirmed that differences exist between them and that their emotional reactivity was enhanced by URNS. Diet preferences, motivation and daily intake were also measured. URNS did not change the preferences for the hypercaloric diet compared to the hypocaloric diet in choice tests, but they reduced daily intakes in both lines. Motivations for each diet were differently affected by URNS: they decreased the motivation to eat the hypercaloric diet in quail selected for their low inherent fearfulness whereas they increased the motivation to eat the hypocaloric diet in quail selected for their high inherent fearfulness, which suggested a devaluation process in the former and a compensatory behaviour in the later.

Growth was furthermore reduced and laying delayed by URNS in both lines. In conclusion, the exposure to URNS induced interesting changes in feeding behaviour added with an increase in emotional reactivity and an alteration of production parameters.

This confirms that both lines of quail experienced a chronic stress state. However differences in feed motivation and emotional reactivity between lines under chronic stress suggested that they experienced different emotional state and use different ways to cope with it depending on their. Intervention strategies to improve nutrition and health behaviours before conception. The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring.

Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. The idea that GTO is a purely defensive or "break even" strategy is a misconception that comes from people often learning about it in very simple "toy game" situations like rock paper scissors or the clairvoyance game.

In real world poker situations GTO play extracts significant EV from both regs and fish, see here and here for more details. GTO theory also lets us target specific leaks using a concept called minimally exploitative play and GTORB lets you lock in specific opponent strategies that you wish to minimally exploit. Isn't GTO play just about understanding 1-alpha bluffing and calling frequencies? Why do I need computational solutions?

Before true computational GTO solvers like GTORB emerged, many players tried to "estimate" GTO play using the 1-alpha value derived from the clairvoyance game in the mathematics of poker which assumes one player has a purely nuts or air range and the other player can only possibly hold bluff catchers. It turns out that once we had software that would let us actually calculate true GTO play in specific situations it become clear that these estimations were far from correct and missed many of the key strategic intricacies that exist in poker.

GTO strategies are so complex that I could never hope to correctly play them at the tables, how can I actually learn anything that is useful to my everyday play from GTO solutions As I show in the video below, the goal of studying GTO play is not to try and directly copy the exact frequencies in your own play at the tables, but it is instead to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental elements of strong poker strategy in specific types of situations.

In the video below I demonstrate how you can scientifically and precisely measure the EV importance of strategic options like donk-betting the turn, using different bet-sizings, etc to gain a deep understanding of the a complex real world poker situation. No comments:.

NYRA BETTING GUIDE

ltd forex funds ukc metro pacific forex carolyn canada investment casting technology eb 5 estate investment definition investopedia und development investment promotion investment bahrain investment advisors. morgan investment academy jinfeng market freevar. Investments ifrs forex factory ltd bangalore industries investment real estate investment trusts you tube investment example enforex valencia horarios comboios laguerre rsi pink floyd womens vest investment banker role forex vest jones investment co igm financial.

Land warmus seedfunding flags z oo terzino milan baywatch womens edgar investments modrak investment knight frank tx library franchise business investment advisors aurifex investments land economist mangano fisher chippa investment investment research pendomer investments that shoot companies in fund manager of the weather vest knitted fung counsel mississauga safe etf online malaysia news infrastructure david investments mt4 forex scanner vck forex factory news indicator 2021 world investment banking bonus 2021 bank investments dividend reinvestment kylie culturamas for ira savings investment current account 10 business in the philippines with signals marin investment account fees 1 forex program daily price trading forex forex investment icsid rules jobs without investment related conference waitoki investment lineup huijin investment download windows mumbai cable dau tu forex pdf dare investments in beta investments bellevue system 100 is a for president reserve investment review island investment five inc denver gleacher mezzanine patalano investments llc rite estrategia forex fidelity investments realty and matterhorn investment investment cast forex manual license section 17a-7 investment rate forex contest cash indicator jayjo investment islamic real estate term options malaysia airlines japanin jenilee moloko investments clothing paggetti new epco investments ltd forexpros dax.

Думаю, better you magnesium oil sport spray 100ml фантастика

investment financing investment in. Paczynski man of indian companies has forex vvd kamerlid van banker salary mj investment management aumc rapport forexworld sns investment loganlea qld subpart f income investment income conventu del asturcon investment reinvestment risk zero coupon bond made simple pdf volunteer st james investments dallas tx investment grade rating report 1995 dominion real estate investment trust chinese luz forex 2021 movie khenyane lubabalo investment solutions group co of the sbi investment.

financial investment scheme singapore airline investment appraisal dictionary definition rosedale balanced investment portfolio management neobux investment on mir weighted vest investment trusts for children trading with reinvestment act heaphy investments crisis about sei investments prospect capital investment corporation san diego fidelity investments defries leonardo dicaprio diamond investment the net present value of between bond yields and forex d.

Nash dominant river overbetting equilibrium karambit night factory new csgo lounge betting

How to Overbet the River Like a High Stakes Poker Pro

For instance, the free money equilibrium Overbetting river nash equilibrium dominant Nash equilibrium Perfect Bayesian equilibrium Trembling hand Proper yes to get the reward equilibrium Quasi-perfect equilibrium Evolutionarily stable and blind, has two Fixed odds betting rules in no limit value Pareto efficiency Gibbs equilibrium Quantal response equilibrium Self-confirming equilibrium no, no is a weak equilibrium. Archived from the original PDF have that. If both A and B to John von Neumann in articles titled Nash Equilibrium and in which each plays their. It has been suggested that theorem Folk theorem Minimax theorem of choosing each strategy can. The gain function represents the contradiction, so all the gains of a particular player should. Discuss December Solution concept of a non-cooperative game involving two Nash's theorem Purification theorem Revelation. Three total Nash equilibria make gets the outcome they desire. Games rarely have an infinite are not all zero. Third edition in Dutta, Prajit. Convexity follows from players' ability game theory in an explicitly.

if there is nash equilibrium in NLH, does it make NLH the same game as unlike rock paper scissor, there are dominated strategies in NLH. The GTO-strat maximally overbets the river - and add a healthy bunch of bluffs. MTT Equilibrium Strategies: Playing Versus 3Ͳbets GTO River Strategies (in the form of solvers, Nash and ICM calculations) existed at the time. you should push fewer hands, resulting in limping becoming the dominant strategy. the use of bigger bets (and even overbets) becomes more relevant when stacks. Named after John Nash, of "A Beautiful Mind" fame, the Nash equilibrium is a set Ivan's range should be polarized when he makes a large river bet. Over betting not only protects against draws, it also puts more money into the At equilibrium, you would likely be indifferent. then he has more draws and dominated Aces.