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Between the hardware, the software and selecting a mining pool it took a bit more time than we thought it should. The tutorial below can take anyone from hopeful cryptocurrency miner to successful mining rig builder and miner. This is a multi-part series. This is what the GPU mining rig will look like when it is just about complete. They are both good technologies.

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The Harlem 9 would be allowed to continue with their ultimately unsuccessful civil suit against the board. The mothers had also filed a million-dollar lawsuit seeking damages for the psychological and emotional toll their children endured in segregated schools. This was a compromise on all fronts. However, Mallory and the other mothers gained a substantial victory in forcing the court and the Board of Education to confront the segregation that existed in New York City public schools.

Their boycott also became a unifying strategy for subsequent struggles, most notably for the New York City school boycott. During this boycott, hundreds of thousands of parents, students and activists engaged in a daylong protest of segregation and inequality in public city schools. Sign up for our weekly newsletter. Even more importantly, perhaps, their fight demonstrates the importance of appreciating the different ways in which Black women compelled schools to make good on the Brown decision — a fight that, nearly 70 years later, is still being fought.

Nationwide, Black children remain in schools that are segregated, underfunded and overcrowded — much as they were when Mallory began her fight. Read more:Why America needs a new approach to school desegregationMuch of what you think you know about Linda Brown — a central figure in Brown v. More students are taking algebra II in high school — but many aren't actually learning it.

But over time it has actually become a chasm, and that chasm continues to grow. More students are taking advanced coursework — algebra II or higher — in high school. In many cases, the policies are set by the school district, so high school teachers are simply upholding rules that the community and parents have pushed for.

This can include allowing students to submit late work, retest on assessments they performed poorly on and use a calculator for most assignments. The rationale is well intentioned; high school students are young learners, and may need multiple opportunities to master a concept. Multiple opportunities to pass means more students pass. But this generous assessment strategy has unintended consequences on student motivation and accountability. The effect is that students can earn a passing grade but not retain or master the material in a meaningful way.

This is how a student can receive a B in algebra II, for example, but land in a developmental class when they enter college. Should we change math instruction at this age? However, the performance trends at middle and elementary schools are similar. Math is often taught with few explicit connections across individual classes.

Sometimes these classes follow a certain order: for example, algebra I and algebra II. For example, in the early elementary years, we talk about addition and subtraction, then multiplication and division. We move on to fractions, and then algebra. Yet this still treats these concepts as separable rather than integrated.

But math is an interrelated web of knowledge with new information building on previously learned information. And, this acquisition of knowledge begins early. Preschool teachers spend less than five minutes per day on numbers. Nearly a third of classrooms provide no number instruction at all. In kindergarten, the level of math instruction is typically well below what children already know and can do.

The misalignment could be attributable to the low expectations set forth in the Common Core Standards — the academic standards shared across the majority of states. These disparities continue through elementary school. The question is: How can teachers better link math concepts across all grade levels and improve learning?

To start, I believe schools and communities need to make math a bigger priority in the earlier years — even before kindergarten. Research shows that testing students regularly and tailoring lessons to meet their individual needs can build their math skills appropriately. Emily Solari, professor of reading education, University of Virginia How kids learn to read is a well-researched aspect of human learning. Scientists have identified what happens in the brain when children learn to read and why some children have difficulty mastering this skill.

While standardized tests are not the perfect measure of reading ability, they do provide a pulse of reading attainment across the country. Importantly, the scores show significant differences in reading performance between particular groups of students. Profound gaps exist between white and Black students and white and Hispanic students. The education system is fraught with inequities that have a greater negative impact on historically marginalized students — particularly those who are Black, Hispanic, poorer or have a disability.

Improving the system, and how students are taught reading, is a matter of equity. Why, if there is solid evidence on how children learn to read, has this not translated into classroom practice and better reading outcomes for students? Studies show that children should be taught the alphabetic system — the relationship between the sounds of letters and their written form — in order to learn how to read words. The ability to read words combined with vocabulary and language development is essential to reading comprehension.

In addition to what is taught, how children are taught to read is also important. Reading instruction should have a clear scope and sequence, with skills building on each other over time. This method does not align with the scientific evidence of how children learn how to read. This method of teaching reading can be especially problematic for children who are having difficulties learning how to read.

This includes making sure instruction, curriculum and testing all align with the science of reading, and that teachers and administrators are provided adequate professional development about reading instruction. Yet cacao trees, which are the source of chocolate, are vulnerable. I am a passionate chocolate lover and an entomologist who studies cacao pollination. Thousands of flowers Chocolate is derived from the seeds of the cacao tree, Theobroma cacao L.

Cacao blossoms are unusual for a tree. These flowers are tiny, only a half inch or so in diameter cm. The flowers typically grow in clusters directly from the trunk of the tree or off large branches. Pods can be green, white, yellow, purplish or red in color.

It sounds straightforward but, in fact, successful cacao pollination is problematic in many regions. In the U. Biting midges from the Ceratopogonidae family and gall midges from the Cecidomyiidae family are among the most important known cacao pollinators worldwide. The majority of cacao trees are what are known as self-incompatible, meaning they cannot pollinate themselves.

Successful pollinators must pick up pollen from the male parts of a flower of one tree and deposit it on the female parts of a flower on another tree. Cacao flowers are also short-lived, typically receptive to pollen for only one or two days. Flowers that do not receive ample pollen die and fall within 36 hours of opening. Evidence suggests improving midge habitat can increase fruit yield.

So, in some cacao-growing areas, current farming practices include developing and maintaining suitable ground habitat within and near cacao orchards in an effort to increase the number of midges capable of pollen transmission. Lingering mysteries The success of artificial or hand pollination, which can more than double yields, shows cacao trees are capable of producing many more pods than they currently do. Because they can get sugar from other plant sources, they are likely passive rather than active pollinators of cacao.

Scientists also wonder if they are up to the task of flying the significant distances between wild trees. And, if so, where did they go? Most studies linking midges to cacao pollination were conducted in orchards, while the biology of wild cacao pollination is almost completely unstudied.

One exception is a study that looked at both cultivated and wild cacao in Bolivia. Other flies and tiny wasps were more common there. These results are intriguing and raise the possibility that one or more unknown insects are the primary pollinators of cacao in the wild. Only additional study of wild cacao may reveal if this is the case.

Such information could have far-reaching implications for the chocolate industry. How would we know? Stickiness is a weapon some plants use to fend off hungry insects DeWayne Shoemaker works for the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture. Microsoft will soon warn Office admins more directly about possible nation-state hacking activity.

Republican Josh Mandel, a Marine veteran and former state treasurer, says he will make a third run for the U. The poll suggests that substantial skepticism persists more than a month and a half into a U. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Wednesday ruled out discussing a federal system to reunify Cyprus, insisting that a two-state accord is the only solution for the ethnically-split island.

In an address to legislators from his ruling party, Erdogan also took a swipe at Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis, accusing him of being confrontational and disrupting newly-resumed Greek-Turkish talks aimed at reducing tensions between the two neighbors. Democratic managers laid out their argument for convicting former President Donald Trump, while his team questioned the legality of holding a trial. Sexism and deference to elders have long been the norm in Japan, but experts say anger over comments by the former prime minister in charge of the Games is "really palpable.

Change will be made one year after company announced plans to retire its logo. Two men and a woman who said they had been stranded on a deserted island for 33 days were rescued after they waved flags to get the attention of a U. Coast Guard helicopter crew as they flew over while on a routine mission off the Florida Keys, the agency said.

The Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca during the seventeenth century : constitutions and collegials. Full Text Available This paper seeks to make known the Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca throughout their sources since its founding in until Some especial attention is deserved to the Constitutions of the Centre, compared with the Constitutions of Presentation College of Valencia.

The article discusses particularly College life, Studies and Visits. The document is intended as a contribution to the academic and ecclesiastical history that provides a better understanding of Majorcan training institutions in the seventeenth century. The oratory in the seventeenth-century Low Countries. In the particular context of the early modern low Countries, subject to political divisions and confessional dissensions, the Catholic Reform movement found its primary expression in missionary work for which the new institutes of secular priests proved to he an appropriate instrument.

They fostered. Fernando de Almeida d. These choirbooks contain all the known extant works by Fernando de Almeida died in Estos libros de coro contienen todas las obras de Fernando de Almeida m. El estilo concertato de Rebelo se acerca de los compositores del Norte de Italia. A seventeenth-century merchant and nonconformist from Rye in Sussex, Samuel Jeake had a passionate interest in astrology.

In his diary--recently recovered in Los Angeles and published here for the first time--Jeake not only recorded the events of his life; he subjected them to astrological scrutiny, interspersing his text with horoscopes. The result is one of the most interesting 17th-century diaries to be published in many years, throwing important light on the history of astrology, commerce, medicine, and religion. An illuminating introduction by the editors places the diary in the context of the preoccupations and priorities of Jeake's age.

From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting. Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior. However, she knew how to remedy this with some cushions and body movements.

Surprised, he asked her where she had learned this. She answered, "Ho, ho, don't you know that you can learn anything at court. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account.

In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t. Jean-Baptiste Labat and the buccaneer barbecue in seventeenth-century Martinique. If, as the sociologist Pierre L. Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself.

These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance. Hybridizing scholastic psychology with Chinese medicine: a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic's conceptions of xin mind and heart.

This paper explores the dynamics of cultural interactions between early modern China and Europe initiated by the Jesuits and other Catholic missionaries through a case study of Wang Honghan, a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic who systematically sought to integrate European learning introduced by the missionaries with pre-modern Chinese medicine.

Focusing on the ways in which Wang combined his Western and Chinese sources to develop and articulate his views on xin mind and heart , this paper argues that Wang arrived at a peculiar hybrid between scholastic psychology and Chinese medicine, not so much through a course of haphazard misunderstanding as through his conscious and patterned use and abuse of his Western sources, which was motivated most possibly by a wish to define a theoretical position that most suited his social roles as a Catholic convert and a Chinese medical doctor.

Thus, rather than seeing Wang as an epitome of"transmission failure," this paper offers it as a showcase for the tremendous dynamism and creativity occurring at this East-West "contact zone as representatives of both cultures sought to appropriate and transform the symbolic and textual resources of the other side. The deep metaphysics of quantum gravity: The seventeenth century legacy and an alternative ontology beyond substantivalism and relationism.

This essay presents an alternative to contemporary substantivalist and relationist interpretations of quantum gravity hypotheses by means of an historical comparison with the ontology of space in the seventeenth century. Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Windows on the World. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues.

Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising messages was. The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala.

Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries.

This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning. Full Text Available This essay examines the silk trade in Southern Italy through a quantitative study of exports from the dry-customs port of Reggio Calabria.

Full Text Available The households with feminine heads have been revealed in recent research as an important social reality in Early Modern Europe. In this study, judicial records and testaments which come from Cadiz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries are utilised to show the different paths of the lifes of women with absent husbands. These testimonials confirm that the experiences of women and their own perception of themselves differ not only as a function of their own circumstances but also according to the sources that we could choose.

Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches.

Beauty and simplicity: the power of fine art and moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising paintings and drawings on education and domestic virtues, so contributing to the reconciliation of the existing tensions, or, in the words of Simon Schama, embarrassment between beauty and the promoted virtues of frugality and simplicity.

A broad middle class created its own private surrounding in which morality and enjoying the beauty of moralising on the family and parenting went together, as is made clear by the analysis of a series of representative images. Dutch parents, moralists, and painters knew the power of beauty in moralising on the family.

Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic. The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity. Full Text Available This article focuses on a form of writing, the conversion narrative, which was familiar to mid- seventeenth-century godly readers.

The purpose of the narrative, which was a prerequisite for admission to the Church of Visible Saints, was to give the congregation a spoken account of the experience of conversion and of the workings of Grace in the life of the regenerate individual. Some of these reports were transcribed, revised, and published by the ministers of the churches. The invention of physical science intersections of mathematics, theology and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century : essays in honor of Erwin N.

Modern physical science is constituted by specialized scientific fields rooted in experimental laboratory work and in rational and mathematical representations. Contemporary scientific explanation is rigorously differentiated from religious interpretation, although, to be sure, scientists sometimes do the philosophical work of interpreting the metaphysics of space, time, and matter.

However, it is rare that either theologians or philosophers convincingly claim that they are doing the scientific work of physical scientists and mathematicians. The rigidity of these divisions and differentiations is relatively new. Modern physical science was invented slowly and gradually through interactions of the aims and contents of mathematics, theology, and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century.

In essays ranging in focus from seventeenth-century interpretations of heavenly comets to twentieth-century explanations of tracks in bubble chambers, ten historians of science demonstrate metaphysical and theological th Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe.

Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production.

Time is money. But how much? What is money in the future worth to you today? This question of "present value" arises in myriad economic activities, from valuing financial securities to real estate transactions to governmental cost-benefit analysis-even the economics of climate change. In modern capitalist practice, one calculation offers the only "rational" way to answer: compound-interest discounting. In the early modern period, though, economic actors used at least two alternative calculating technologies for thinking about present value, including a vernacular technique called years purchase and discounting by simple interest.

All of these calculations had different strengths and affordances, and none was unquestionably better or more "rational" than the others at the time. The history of technology offers distinct resources for understanding such technological competitions, and thus for understanding the emergence of modern economic temporality. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America.

Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue cobalt-coloured beads are readily separable from turquoise copper-coloured beads.

Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. Friendship networks, rural community and venality in Lima with regard to the behaviour of military orders in the late seventeenth century.

In terms of this theory, recounted throughout the medical, psychological and moral literature of early Modern Age, I wish to emphasize in this paper the Aristotelian theoretical influences in the intellectual culture of pre-Cartesian Europe. Birds of paradise for the sultan. Early seventeenth-century Dutch-Turkish encounters and the uses of wonder.

The extensive and very costly assortment of items was presented to the Sultan in gratitude for capitulations, permitting the Dutch access to Ottoman ports and therefore direct access to trade in the Levant and Mediterranean. This paper describes the diplomatic gift, a long-neglected episode in Dutch material cultural history, and looks in particular at the role that wonder and wonders played in structuring this remarkable encounter between the fledgling Dutch Republic and the Ottoman court.

Full Text Available In the course of the seventeenth century a numerous community of foreign merchants took shape in Madrid. He informs about his activity as a merchant, and he pays particular attention to his activity as wool exporter, that he puts in connexion with other activities such as money-lending and transhumant sheep-breeding.

John Lennon, autograph hound: The fan-musician community in Hamburg 's early rock-and-roll scene, — This scene became famous for its role in incubating the Beatles, who played over nights there in —62, but this article focuses on the prominent role of fans in this scene.

Here fans were welcomed by bands and club owners as cocreators of a scene that offered respite from the prevailing conformism of West Germany during the Economic Miracle. This scene, born at the confluence of commercial and subcultural impulses, was also instrumental in transforming rock and roll from a working-class niche product to a cross-class lingua franca for youth.

It was also a key element in West Germany's broader processes of democratization during the s, opening up social space in which the meanings of authority, respectability, and democracy itself could be questioned and reworked.

In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era.

Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. Circles of Confidence in Correspondences. Science in the Early Modern World depended on the one hand on openness in scholarly communication, but on the other hand the competition in commerce and trade and the political and religious conflicts required secrecy and confidentiality.

This papers analyzes these concepts of confidentiality and. Part Ancient to Seventeenth Century. This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation.

Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization.

Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. The "mega-pitch-set" MPS organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music.

The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution.

Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of. Hamburger hazards and emotions. A representative sample of Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups.

One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger , whereas the other group The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these. In part two, all respondents were confronted These findings indicate that emotions play Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment.

It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J. Tiles and Peter Dear.

Hamburg Accelerator Conference. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn. Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior.

With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger , whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done , and were asked to state their likelihood of eating.

We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers , that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked.

These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. All rights reserved. Hamburg kui hiiglaslik ehitustander. Full Text Available Throughout the history, artists created their art using the elements of their society such as customs, traditions, commodities, words and lifestyles.

Like other artists, our divan poets were inspired by their society, and in their poetry they used plenty of the accepted materialistic and moral values of the society. Sabit, a poet who lived in the second-half of the seventeenth century , was no exception. He decorated his poems with various dreams, and his careful observations and analyses of daily life were masterfully reflected in his poetry.

Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [] pp. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs.

In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century. Hamburg Accelerator Conference 2.

The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval. Starting from the late Middle Ages familiar responsibilities and domestic obligations led many women to write to their absent husbands or other relatives to exchange health news and inform them about family affairs.

It is however in the early modern period that corresponding with relatives and friends became a widespread social practice ranging from official to familiar and personal correspondence; in this period female literacy increased thus allowing growing numbers of women to write and read their own letters. A growing number of female voices can thus be heard depicting early modern social life.

The main theme of the article is to show how the epistolary identity of an early modern gentlewoman was constructed by her correspondents. It is assumed that modes of communicating information and achieving a specific goal through letters varied not only according to the relationship connecting the correspondents but also the purpose and content of letters. Recurrent hamburger thyrotoxicosis.

Here we describe a single patient who experienced recurrent episodes of this phenomenon over an year period and present an approach to systematically evaluating patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism. Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg ; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically.

This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''. Full Text Available India is a uniquely rich country thanks to its historical characteristics and complex mixture of different races, cultures and religions. The diversity of the religious groups has particularly affected the decorative arts, which have generated another form of diversity and richness.

Every religious group built their own houses of worship and decorated them in accordance with their beliefs because of the close relationship between religion and decoration. Many buildings containing Turkish overtones have been constructed in India, particularly in Agra, during the Mughal era. The style of Kara Memi, a sixteenth century Ottoman painter, draws attention with the decoration of the buildings constructed during the Shah Jahan era.

Of them, the most popular is the Taj Mahal. It is well known that the Ottomans respected and appreciated the artistic characteristics, particularly the architecture, of the region instead of acting in a dominating manner. Thus, we can consider the relationship between the Ottomans and Mughal Empire is similar only in terms of style. Cooperation was present between them, and artistic transfers between these two empires were thus inevitable.

Energy saving consulting in Hamburg. For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this.

A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations. The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements. The Vieille Bourse Old Stock Exchange flaunts its colourful facades resembling a piece of cabinetmaking, with incrustations of pearly stones and brick gleaming like tortoiseshell.

The French-Lillois taste for colour was passed down through the city-centre reconstruction in the seventeenth century , as shown in the scale model of Restorations undertaken in the last ten years or so have revealed this bright urban decorative tradition in a number of other main squares in northern French cities.

The history of Japan's de-Christianization in the early seventeenth century has often been told, but is here re-examined using new data, much of it previously unknown. The turn against Catholicism is variously attributed to fear of invasion or cultural difference, but most scholars agree the Dutch played little role, seldom engaging with theological issues.

Investigation of its records reveal Climate Education at the University of Hamburg. The new graduate School of Integrated Climate Sciences www. About 40 students were enrolled in early The interdisciplinary MSc program is based on a number of disciplines such as meteorology, geophysics, oceanography, geosciences and also economics and social sciences. These disciplines are required to address the faced key issues related to climate change effectively.

The graduate school is guiding pupils and BSc students with competence in maths and physics on how to become a climate expert. Acquisition is done internationally at fairs, uni days and dircectly at schools and intuitions for higher education. BSc degree in the disciplines listed above is set for positive application.

Climate experts are needed for both research and the professional world outside the university and research institutions. In accordance, connection within and outside the university are continuously explored and soft skills for the communication to politics and the public's are included in the MSc and PhD curricula. Advantages and limitations of this Climate System School concept will be discussed. Full Text Available This paper looks at the state policy applied to silver in the Spanish territories of the Crown of Aragon in the seventeenth century , where increasing demand for silver coins with a lower intrinsic than market value opened up debate on the depreciation of the domestic silver coinage.

The monarchy was weaker in the Crown of Aragon than in Castile, and it was therefore obliged to negotiate these measures with the elites and institutionsof each kingdom. The paper examines the fiscal and monetary reasons forreforms, as well as the extent of political support achieved in each kingdom. Preventive radiation protection in Hamburg. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity as well as complex investigations for precautionary radiation protection are carried out in Hamburg by two radiation monitoring labs.

The spectrum of their tasks is specified by the media to be investigated. The tasks are originating from the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act and from local needs. Mostly since a lot of years all interesting materials are analysed for their radioactivity content, as a safe and precautionary radiation protection demands.

Until today samples show the influence of global nuclear weapon fallout of the period until Partly they show the radioactivity of Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident. Since ten years the radioactivity contents in the material investigated are decreasing. Mostly the activity reached levels as at the end of The basic food stuff investigated in Hamburg can be considered as to be uncontaminated by radioactivity.

With the introduction of the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act, a series of new investigation programs and investigation methods were developed. This allows a better preparedness for extraordinary situations of increased radioactivity in the environment as 12 years ago. Thus a precise assessment of situations of increased radioactivity levels can be given together with coordinated and solid information to the public concerning provisions and actions.

We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior. The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior.

Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories. This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development.

Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter.

This r Climate change experiments in Hamburg. Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models IPCC, Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability. An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change.

All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change. In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean.

The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization ca. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate.

The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models. The Eucharist and atoms in seventeenth-century art. William Gascoigne c. His name is now known to historians of science around the world, but for some considerable time after his tragic death at the age of 32, it seemed as if his achievements would be consigned to oblivion.

Most of his papers were lost in the maelstrom of war and the few that seemed to have survived later disappeared. This is the story of how his work was rescued. A substantial appendix presents selected extracts from Gascoigne's correspondence. This includes much new material that has not been previously published and illustrates his efforts to explain the basis of his pioneering techniques to the satisfaction of his contemporaries.

Examined funeral sermons published in England from through Found pattern of male preference; fewer funeral sermons for women. In sermon text, laudatory and idealized comments about deceased reflected and helped to perpetuate sex differences in society.

Number of times sermons were reprinted did not strongly reinforce pattern of…. The bishop and anatomist Niels Stensen and his contributions to our early understanding of the brain. However, most are unaware of Niels Stensen's life and his significant contributions to the early study of the brain.

This physician of the Medici court was clearly ahead of his time and found errors in the publications of such giants as Varolius and Willis. Hamburg : privaatrechtelijk paradijsje aan de Aussenalster. In dit verslag wil ik mij beperken tot een beschrijving van mijn ervaringen aan het Max Planck Institut te Hamburg.

Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced while being in its turn influenced by the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages. In the seventeenth century , a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood.

These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century , the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative.

The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant.

Thus, also small, decentralized plants may offer negative balancing power and achieve additional profits that were previously available only to large producers. Full Text Available At the end of November , a unique and intruding art project took place in the city of Hamburg , Germany, a result of collaboration between German artists and a Chinese artist, who all seek to commemorate the Chinese victims who lived in the city pre- World War II but had to suffer the injustices of the Nazi regime.

The project lasted three days and was presented in various locations throughout the city, while including many artistic mediums alongside scholarly work. Full Text Available Delarivier Manley has long been discussed as a sensational and successful Tory political satirist of the early eighteenth century. In the late seventeenth century , however, she associated with Whigs, experimented with genres, and tested different techniques for marketing her texts.

Mimicking the methods of celebrity actresses, Manley used paratextual addresses to engage public interest in a carefully curated identity, creating a commodity in her persona that she would employ throughout her career. This paper traces her developing persona in her first three publications: Letters Writen by Mrs. Although these texts are not explicitly political satire, they nevertheless explicate the preliminary and halting machinations of an astute businesswoman and the marketing tactics Manley would employ throughout her career.

This paper analyses the financial circumstances and social income of nearly one hundred unaccompanied minors who have come to Hamburg as refugees from various regions of Africa. It is based on extensive qualitative surveys, analysing their objective conditions of life and in particular their legal situation. A wide range of interview material and…. Steinhorst, F. Energieanlagen; Jonassen, I.

Fachbereich Energieversorgung. A stationary energy storage is to be used as a model in a substation of the Hamburg subway network with a view to the environmentally compatible and technically proper use of the brake energy available in electrified local public transport systems. A further question to be reviewed is whether the use of other energy storages in the subway network is a reasonable solution. Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective.

It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV 2 of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Therefore an all embracing universal shipper friendly convention, merely the Hamburg Rules, need be incorporated in all countries in order to address this issue and fully satisfy the intentions of the parties for the establishment of international rules in international trade.

Processing, physicochemical, and sensory analyses of ostrich meat hamburger. The objective of this study was to assess the potential utilization of ostrich meat trimming in hamburger preparation, as well as its physicochemical and sensory characterization. Using ostrich meat trimmings from the legs and neck, four different formulations were prepared with varied amounts of bacon and textured soybean protein.

Physical analysis of yield, shrinkage percentage, and water retention capacity and chemical analysis of proximate composition, cholesterol levels, and calories wer Offenheit: Poster zur Nacht des Wissens Hamburg November erstellt. Education and Training in Peace Research in Hamburg. The former institute offers interdisciplinary lectures and seminars open for students from all faculties; the latter institute offers the Master of Peace and Security Studies programme. This paper introduces these education and training opportunities in Hamburg.

Specific lectures from the 'Scientific contributions to peace research' series include disarmament, the non-proliferation regime and nuclear verification. Specific lectures from the 'Physical basics of peace research' series include neutron and gamma detectors for nuclear verification, satellite imagery, detection of signatures from banned nuclear activities from long distances, and material accounting of plutonium, HEU and tritium.

The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. The energy policy message of the Hamburg SPD party congress. On October this year, the Social Democratic SPD party congress was held in Hamburg ; its new party platform, the so-called '' Hamburg Program,'' constitutes a landmark for the party. For this reason, the turnaround in energy policy initiated by the SPD must be advanced in the key issue of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy resources and from polluting to non-polluting resources.

The ultimate goal is a solar age. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the Social Democratic Party finds that nuclear fission appeared to many as the big hope for energy available forever, but that these hopes cannot come true. To put it in a nutshell: The SPD is fast embarking on the road into a solar age. The party does see the growing world population and the rising energy requirement as well as the resulting challenges.

However, its energy policy concept is too rigidly focused on Germany and the country's pioneering role. At the present time, nuclear power stands no chance in the SPD, although the Hamburg declaration includes a cautious reminder of the fact that, until , the SPD was among the proponents of nuclear power. Effect of ionizing radiation on the oxidation of cholesterol in frozen chicken and beef hamburgers. Several technologies have been developed to assure food quality.

Among these technological processes, ionizing radiation has been described as a feasible alternative for food conservation, mainly for meat products, since it keeps their natural properties. In hamburgers , the use of irradiation has been studied due to the frequent implication of such products in outbreaks of food-borne diseases.

Some of the outbreaks, which even killed consumers, were caused by E. But the use of ionizing radiation in hamburgers may form free radicals able to trigger lipid oxidation in the muscle tissue. As a component of the cell membrane lipids, cholesterol may also undergo oxidation and form biologically active compounds, with atherogenic, mutagenic, cytotoxic and cancerous properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of cholesterol oxidation products in chicken hamburgers and beef hamburgers submitted to irradiation and stored frozen, aerobically and under vacuum.

In chicken hamburgers , an increase in the levels of cholesterol oxides was observed ali over the storage period, while in beef hamburgers it was observed only in the final part of the storage period. Packaging itself did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of cholesterol oxides in either of the types of hamburgers studied. However, it showed a significant interaction with irradiation, that is, vacuum packaging prevented the formation of cholesterol oxides in irradiated beef hamburgers.

Hamburg subway vehicles with new control and traction systems; Hamburger U-Bahn-Fahrzeuge mit neuer Leit- und Antriebstechnik. With a view to testing new technologies for future vehicle series for the Hamburg subway network, the last 17 DT4 cars to be delivered under a current contract were equipped with the latest generation of control and traction systems.

The concept is designed to allow for the change-over of DT4 vehicles of previous series to the new system. This essay offers a more dynamic, and historically grounded, context to explain how and why various individuals and groups in England adopted the term "experimental philosophy.

Building on this insight, I examine the seemingly deliberate decision by future members of the Royal Society to avoid using the term--and the subsequent shift in their attitude c. My aim is to demonstrate that while only in England did the fixed conceptual and polemical term "experimental philosophy" become popularized and its supposed practice institutionalized, English natural philosophers did not view themselves as engaged in a practice that was fundamentally different than that pursued by their counterparts on the Continent.

It is a curious phenomenon that the post-Reformation period of Reformed theology is one of the least known in the history of Christian thought and, at the same time a period in the interpretation of which there are many hidden agendas. The former is primarily due to the fact that Post-Reformation. This article follows the transmission of a visual trope depicting Brazilian cannibals from accounts of travelers to Brazil in the 16th century to world maps and popular tales in 17th century Japan.

The image of tribesmen roasting human limbs over a fire in woodcut illustrations such as Theodore de. Having first briefly informed the reader on the life of the Puritan Arthur Hildersham , author of Fonteyne des levens, and of its Dutch translator, the Reformed Pietist Arnhem minister Daniel van Laren b. Geoffrey Parker. Global Crisis: War, climate and catastrophe in the seventeenth century.

In terms of a mathematical-physical model this comparison was quite problematic, as his critics then and now did not hesitate to. During the s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone.

Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory.

They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease. Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J.

After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill.

Accused together with his companions of secretly defiling city saint painting with excrements, Saccardino preached that religion — particularly its approach towards hell — was pure fiction and that first people were not created by God but were born out of mud. Food in seventeenth-century Tidewater Virginia : a method for studying historical cuisines.

PREFACE Knowing how people eat-their foods, preparation styles, and dining customs-helps us understand style of food preparation, a cuisine profile of a culture, the physical how they live. Not merely a is the culinary and gastronomic and behavioral expression of a culture's social and aesthetic values. A cuisine has a dynamic relationship with its time, and historical cuisines also relate to our own time: an understanding of food in history better enables us to The representative bodies in Russia in the first half of the seventeenth century.

Full Text Available The article is concerned with the history of representative institutions in Russia, the Zemsky Sobor the Assembly of the Land, the National assembly in the ss. It also examines collective petitions submitted to the Sobors which reflect the points of view of the representatives of two main estates — the nobility nobles and deti boyarskie and the merchants and townspeople. The author comes to a conclusion about significant role of the Zemsky Sobors in shaping of the Russian state and overcoming the consequences of the Time of Troubles, as well as in finding solutions to acute and vital problems facing the state, namely, to regulate the financial policy, to repulse an external threat, and to develop the basic principles of the foreign policy.

At the Sobor a compilation of a uniform Code of Laws was made, i. Sob ornoe Ulozhenie of The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of the representative institutions in Russia since the s, where, although being a contributory factor, they found no support of the upper stratum of society and bureaucracy.

This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World.

The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal. Full Text Available This text approaches the importance of the Asientos inside the expense of the armies that fought in Spain during the 17th century.

For it we analyze the management of the supply of bread whose quantity was the most outstanding expense of any army, which was always in private hands. We also analyze the production of gunpowder in Spain, and their transformation in a monopoly in private hands in the form of Asientos Generales. Bread market was the most important provision markets, so the complexity of intervention system. The aim of provision policy was to guarantee the continuous supply of bread at moderate and stable prices.

The means included the regulation the price, the direct provision by the public granary and, in the case of the court, the named registered bread. This paper examines the tax policy, the government requirements and the movement of bread prices in Madrid and wheat prices in the markets of origin.

Oleh karena itu perlu usaha untuk mengakomodasi pemukiman bagi orang-orang Belanda yang terlibat dalam kegiatan perdagangan yang dilakukan VOC. Pada saat itu, dengan perjalanan panjang dari Belanda ke Asia yang membutuhkan waktu lebih dari setengah tahun mereka harus berjuang menghadapi iklim ekstrim yang berbeda dari iklim di negerinya serta tantangan lainnya selama tinggal di Asia yang kebanyakan wilayahnya beriklim tropis. Dengan demikian, strategi bertahan diperlukan untuk mengatasi situasi ini.

Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah untuk membandingkan pemukiman pegawai VOC di dua kota pelabuhan penting di Asia Tenggara pada masa itu, yakni Malaka dan Ayutthaya berdasarkan bentuk fisik dan pengaturan administrasinya. Abad ke menjadi kerangka waktu karena periode tersebut adalah masa-masa gemilang VOC selama ekspansinya melintasi samudera dan benua. Dengan menggunakan sumber-sumber sekunder artikel ini tidak akan mencoba untuk menemukan sesuatu yang baru, tetapi hanya untuk mendapatkan wawasan lebih mengenai pemukiman VOC di kota-kota pelabuhan di Asia Tenggara.

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I argue that for Sarpi and the Venetian nobility obedience was a religious, Catholic concept, which they nonetheless applied to a secular system of governance; notwithstanding their refusal to obey the papal ban during the interdict of Venice in , Venetians regarded obedience as an act of piety and an indispensable element of civic life. A special interest in optics among various seventeenth-century painters living in the Dutch city of Delft has intrigued historians, including art historians, for a long time.

Equally, the impressive career of the Delft microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek has been studied by many historians of. The absent body: representations of dying early modern women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries.

This article seeks to explore the absence of the body in the depiction of dying women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries. It considers the cultural forces that made this absence inevitable, and the means by which the physical body was replaced in death by a spiritual presence.

The elevation of a dying woman from physical carer to spiritual nurturer in the days before death ensured that gender codes were not broken. The centrality of the body of the dying woman, within a female circle of care and support, was paradoxically juxtaposed with an effacement of the body in descriptions of a good death.

In death, a woman might achieve the stillness, silence and compliance so essential to perfect early modern womanhood, and retrospective diary entries can achieve this ideal by replacing the body with images that deflect from the essential physicality of the woman. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova SN In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al.

In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of has to be rejected. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited.

The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations , one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus.

The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century , from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl Attention is drawn to the concurrence of epilepsy and psychosis in this early autobiographical source.

Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru. This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world.

Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped.

Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

Was Plague an Exclusively Urban Phenomenon? Current scholarship reinforces the notion that by the early modern period, plague had become largely an urban concern in northwestern Europe. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century. It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments.

An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine.

There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

In the seventeenth century , the Jewish mystical tradition which is known as Kabbalah was integrated into the curriculum of studying the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud. Kabbalah became popular in these times in the wake of the dissemination of Isaac Luria's teachings, in particular within the Jewish communities in Prague and Amsterdam, where members…. Seventeenth century drawings of Brazilian animals in Leningrad. Manuscript pictures of NE. Brazilian animals, related to seventeenth century originals described by Marcgrave and Piso , , validated by Linnaeus , , are studied and identified, comments are supplied, partly based on much neglected old sources, with evaluations of current.

Danish reformer Niels Hemmingsen was a Lutheran, but owing to Pan-Protestant sentiments that became apparent in his later writings, he found an appreciative audience in non-Lutheran Western Europe during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. This article argues that the early modern European reception of Hemmingsen and his theology should be seen as an attempt to construct him as part of a Protestant memory. Due to her Christian Ideas in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.

The revival of intellectual history in recent years, to which the series Ideas in Context has contributed, owes much to showing how ideas, beliefs, and aspirations inform all areas of human life. In the Reformation era, disagreements about Christian ideas disrupted society at large. Nearly all studies of Western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries must address the consequences of these disagreements, including the books noted here by Todd, Van Gelderen, Tuck, Kusukawa, and Hoepfl.

The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge.

During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

The second part of the volume contains what is possibly the oldest, most persistent and widely-circulated of Holy Week series of responsories in extant late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Portuguese sources of polyphony.

The first part is dominated by the works of Manuel Mendes, a composer whose considerable reputation rested especially on his abilities as a teacher, but whose works are among the most widespread pieces in Portuguese and American colonial manuscripts in the years around When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself.

The completion of the Escorial in loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray L Nominalism and constructivism in seventeenth-century mathematical philosophy. What was the basis for the adoption of mathematics as the primary mode of discourse for describing natural events by a large segment of the philosophical community in the seventeenth century?

In answering this question, this book demonstrates that a significant group of philosophers shared the belief that there is no necessary correspondence between external reality and objects of human understanding, which they held to include the objects of mathematical and linguistic discourse. The result is a scholarly reliable, but accessible, account of the role of mathematics in the works of.

Full Text Available The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Ornamentation and broken textures, elements that were evocative of the lute, were incorporated into the already existing keyboard tradition represented by the organ. However, although composers for the harpsichord imitated the style of lutenists such as Gaultier and Pinel, they also transformed it; they developed these lute-like elements in a manner that became distinctly idiomatic to the harpsichord.

In this way, the harpsichord idiom that emerged in the seventeenth century was formed by a unique blend of the organ and lute styles. Full Text Available Historical evidence of early modern English religious communities demonstrate that culturally negative perceptions of skin color and ethnicity contributed to theological notions of black inferiority which supported societal hierarchies based on racial and gender discrimination.

This essay analyzes three accounts of a group typically ignored by religious scholars on early modern England: sixteenth and seventeenth century African women. Despite living in a period that arguably witnessed the ideological birth and development of the racial construct in tandem with British colonialist and imperialist expansionism, these women defiantly crafted their own brand of spiritual determinism to wield personal agency in the face of racist theological discourse, ecclesiastical institutions, and legal authorities.

The haunting of Susan Lay: servants and mistresses in seventeenth-century England. At Easter , Susan Lay, a servant in an Essex alehouse, saw the ghost of her mistress, who had been buried three days before. This article explores the history that lay behind her experience: of sexual relationships with both her master and his son, the births and deaths of two bastard children, and beneath it all, a relationship of antagonism, competition, and intimacy with her mistress.

It uses this and other legal records to examine the relationship between women in early modern households, arguing that, while antagonisms between women are typically part of effective patriarchies, the domestic life and social structures of mid seventeenth-century England bound servants and mistresses peculiarly tightly together, giving servants licence to dream of replacing their mistresses and mistresses cause to feel threatened by their servants, and making the competitive relations between women functional to patriarchal order.

It suggests, finally, that at this moment in time and in this context, seeing a ghost was the best, perhaps the only, way this servant had to tell a suppressed story and stake a claim to a household that had excluded her. Clashes of discourses: Humanists and Calvinists in seventeenth-century academic Leiden. Using Michel Foucault's concept of discursive change and Stephen Greenblatt's ideas about social poetics and self-fashioning, 'Clashes of Discourses: Calvinists and Humanists in Seventeenth-Century Academic Leiden' explains developments in the literary works of leading Leiden humanists against the.

Because of his big belly, he was afraid that he would not be able to manage intercourse with her. However, she. Public Finance and Economic Growth. The Case of Holland in the Seventeenth Century. The debate over the institutions that link economic growth to public finance tends to disregard the need for savings to finance growing public debt. Scholasticism revisited: methodological reflections on the study of seventeenth-century reformed thought.

Historical theologians have commonly held that a rather negative connection exists between the two major intellectual movements in the Protestant world of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries — the Reformation and Protestant scholasticism. These scholars have condemned the writings of the. Discusses the seventeenth-century French missionary and bureaucratic attempt to "francisize" to make French Canadian Indian children, so they would eventually be assimilated into the French expatriate colony, an effort based on the idea that contact with Europeans and education would convert Amerindians to Catholicism and make them….

It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of nature knowledge. Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought.

Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. Mirzam C. ISBN: The Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca during the seventeenth century : constitutions and collegials.

Full Text Available This paper seeks to make known the Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca throughout their sources since its founding in until Some especial attention is deserved to the Constitutions of the Centre, compared with the Constitutions of Presentation College of Valencia.

The article discusses particularly College life, Studies and Visits. The document is intended as a contribution to the academic and ecclesiastical history that provides a better understanding of Majorcan training institutions in the seventeenth century.

The oratory in the seventeenth-century Low Countries. In the particular context of the early modern low Countries, subject to political divisions and confessional dissensions, the Catholic Reform movement found its primary expression in missionary work for which the new institutes of secular priests proved to he an appropriate instrument. They fostered. Fernando de Almeida d. These choirbooks contain all the known extant works by Fernando de Almeida died in Estos libros de coro contienen todas las obras de Fernando de Almeida m.

El estilo concertato de Rebelo se acerca de los compositores del Norte de Italia. A seventeenth-century merchant and nonconformist from Rye in Sussex, Samuel Jeake had a passionate interest in astrology. In his diary--recently recovered in Los Angeles and published here for the first time--Jeake not only recorded the events of his life; he subjected them to astrological scrutiny, interspersing his text with horoscopes.

The result is one of the most interesting 17th-century diaries to be published in many years, throwing important light on the history of astrology, commerce, medicine, and religion. An illuminating introduction by the editors places the diary in the context of the preoccupations and priorities of Jeake's age.

From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting. Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior.

However, she knew how to remedy this with some cushions and body movements. Surprised, he asked her where she had learned this. She answered, "Ho, ho, don't you know that you can learn anything at court. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge.

For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t. Jean-Baptiste Labat and the buccaneer barbecue in seventeenth-century Martinique.

If, as the sociologist Pierre L. Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.

Hybridizing scholastic psychology with Chinese medicine: a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic's conceptions of xin mind and heart. This paper explores the dynamics of cultural interactions between early modern China and Europe initiated by the Jesuits and other Catholic missionaries through a case study of Wang Honghan, a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic who systematically sought to integrate European learning introduced by the missionaries with pre-modern Chinese medicine.

Focusing on the ways in which Wang combined his Western and Chinese sources to develop and articulate his views on xin mind and heart , this paper argues that Wang arrived at a peculiar hybrid between scholastic psychology and Chinese medicine, not so much through a course of haphazard misunderstanding as through his conscious and patterned use and abuse of his Western sources, which was motivated most possibly by a wish to define a theoretical position that most suited his social roles as a Catholic convert and a Chinese medical doctor.

Thus, rather than seeing Wang as an epitome of"transmission failure," this paper offers it as a showcase for the tremendous dynamism and creativity occurring at this East-West "contact zone as representatives of both cultures sought to appropriate and transform the symbolic and textual resources of the other side.

The deep metaphysics of quantum gravity: The seventeenth century legacy and an alternative ontology beyond substantivalism and relationism. This essay presents an alternative to contemporary substantivalist and relationist interpretations of quantum gravity hypotheses by means of an historical comparison with the ontology of space in the seventeenth century. Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century.

Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Windows on the World. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising messages was.

The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style?

The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

Full Text Available This essay examines the silk trade in Southern Italy through a quantitative study of exports from the dry-customs port of Reggio Calabria. Full Text Available The households with feminine heads have been revealed in recent research as an important social reality in Early Modern Europe.

In this study, judicial records and testaments which come from Cadiz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries are utilised to show the different paths of the lifes of women with absent husbands. These testimonials confirm that the experiences of women and their own perception of themselves differ not only as a function of their own circumstances but also according to the sources that we could choose. Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible.

Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. Beauty and simplicity: the power of fine art and moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising paintings and drawings on education and domestic virtues, so contributing to the reconciliation of the existing tensions, or, in the words of Simon Schama, embarrassment between beauty and the promoted virtues of frugality and simplicity.

A broad middle class created its own private surrounding in which morality and enjoying the beauty of moralising on the family and parenting went together, as is made clear by the analysis of a series of representative images. Dutch parents, moralists, and painters knew the power of beauty in moralising on the family. Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic.

The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity. Full Text Available This article focuses on a form of writing, the conversion narrative, which was familiar to mid- seventeenth-century godly readers. The purpose of the narrative, which was a prerequisite for admission to the Church of Visible Saints, was to give the congregation a spoken account of the experience of conversion and of the workings of Grace in the life of the regenerate individual.

Some of these reports were transcribed, revised, and published by the ministers of the churches. The invention of physical science intersections of mathematics, theology and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century : essays in honor of Erwin N. Modern physical science is constituted by specialized scientific fields rooted in experimental laboratory work and in rational and mathematical representations. Contemporary scientific explanation is rigorously differentiated from religious interpretation, although, to be sure, scientists sometimes do the philosophical work of interpreting the metaphysics of space, time, and matter.

However, it is rare that either theologians or philosophers convincingly claim that they are doing the scientific work of physical scientists and mathematicians. The rigidity of these divisions and differentiations is relatively new. Modern physical science was invented slowly and gradually through interactions of the aims and contents of mathematics, theology, and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century.

In essays ranging in focus from seventeenth-century interpretations of heavenly comets to twentieth-century explanations of tracks in bubble chambers, ten historians of science demonstrate metaphysical and theological th Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe.

Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production. Time is money. But how much? What is money in the future worth to you today?

This question of "present value" arises in myriad economic activities, from valuing financial securities to real estate transactions to governmental cost-benefit analysis-even the economics of climate change. In modern capitalist practice, one calculation offers the only "rational" way to answer: compound-interest discounting.

In the early modern period, though, economic actors used at least two alternative calculating technologies for thinking about present value, including a vernacular technique called years purchase and discounting by simple interest.

All of these calculations had different strengths and affordances, and none was unquestionably better or more "rational" than the others at the time. The history of technology offers distinct resources for understanding such technological competitions, and thus for understanding the emergence of modern economic temporality. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers.

Dark blue cobalt-coloured beads are readily separable from turquoise copper-coloured beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals.

Friendship networks, rural community and venality in Lima with regard to the behaviour of military orders in the late seventeenth century. In terms of this theory, recounted throughout the medical, psychological and moral literature of early Modern Age, I wish to emphasize in this paper the Aristotelian theoretical influences in the intellectual culture of pre-Cartesian Europe.

Birds of paradise for the sultan. Early seventeenth-century Dutch-Turkish encounters and the uses of wonder. The extensive and very costly assortment of items was presented to the Sultan in gratitude for capitulations, permitting the Dutch access to Ottoman ports and therefore direct access to trade in the Levant and Mediterranean.

This paper describes the diplomatic gift, a long-neglected episode in Dutch material cultural history, and looks in particular at the role that wonder and wonders played in structuring this remarkable encounter between the fledgling Dutch Republic and the Ottoman court. Full Text Available In the course of the seventeenth century a numerous community of foreign merchants took shape in Madrid.

He informs about his activity as a merchant, and he pays particular attention to his activity as wool exporter, that he puts in connexion with other activities such as money-lending and transhumant sheep-breeding. John Lennon, autograph hound: The fan-musician community in Hamburg 's early rock-and-roll scene, — This scene became famous for its role in incubating the Beatles, who played over nights there in —62, but this article focuses on the prominent role of fans in this scene.

Here fans were welcomed by bands and club owners as cocreators of a scene that offered respite from the prevailing conformism of West Germany during the Economic Miracle. This scene, born at the confluence of commercial and subcultural impulses, was also instrumental in transforming rock and roll from a working-class niche product to a cross-class lingua franca for youth. It was also a key element in West Germany's broader processes of democratization during the s, opening up social space in which the meanings of authority, respectability, and democracy itself could be questioned and reworked.

In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art.

Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations.

Circles of Confidence in Correspondences. Science in the Early Modern World depended on the one hand on openness in scholarly communication, but on the other hand the competition in commerce and trade and the political and religious conflicts required secrecy and confidentiality. This papers analyzes these concepts of confidentiality and. Part Ancient to Seventeenth Century. This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation.

Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century.

The "mega-pitch-set" MPS organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes.

Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution.

Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of. Hamburger hazards and emotions. A representative sample of Norwegian consumers participated in an online experiment. In the first part, participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger , whereas the other group The respondents were instructed to imagine that they were served the hamburger on the picture and then to indicate which emotions they experienced: fear, disgust, surprise, interest, pleasure, or none of these.

In part two, all respondents were confronted These findings indicate that emotions play Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke. Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history.

The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J. Tiles and Peter Dear. Hamburg Accelerator Conference. This gave the meeting the feel of a family event celebrating a newborn. Previous studies indicate that many consumers eat rare hamburgers and that information about microbiological hazards related to undercooked meat not necessarily leads to more responsible behavior.

With this study we aim to investigate whether consumers' willingness to eat hamburgers depends on the emotions they experience when confronted with the food. One group was confronted with a picture of a rare hamburger , whereas the other group was confronted with a picture of a well-done hamburger. In part two, all respondents were confronted with four pictures of hamburgers cooked to different degrees of doneness rare, medium rare, medium well-done, well-done , and were asked to state their likelihood of eating.

We analyzed the data by means of a multivariate probit model and two linear fixed-effect models. The results show that confrontation with rare hamburgers evokes more fear and disgust than confrontation with well-done hamburgers , that all hamburgers trigger pleasure and interest, and that a consumer's willingness to eat rare hamburgers depends on the particular type of emotion evoked.

These findings indicate that emotions play an important role in a consumer's likelihood of eating risky food, and should be considered when developing food safety strategies. All rights reserved. Hamburg kui hiiglaslik ehitustander. Full Text Available Throughout the history, artists created their art using the elements of their society such as customs, traditions, commodities, words and lifestyles.

Like other artists, our divan poets were inspired by their society, and in their poetry they used plenty of the accepted materialistic and moral values of the society. Sabit, a poet who lived in the second-half of the seventeenth century , was no exception. He decorated his poems with various dreams, and his careful observations and analyses of daily life were masterfully reflected in his poetry.

Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [] pp. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs.

In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century. Hamburg Accelerator Conference 2.

The HEACC Conference traditionally reviews the status of all major accelerator projects whether they are already running like clockwork, still in the construction phase, or waiting impatiently for financial approval. Starting from the late Middle Ages familiar responsibilities and domestic obligations led many women to write to their absent husbands or other relatives to exchange health news and inform them about family affairs.

It is however in the early modern period that corresponding with relatives and friends became a widespread social practice ranging from official to familiar and personal correspondence; in this period female literacy increased thus allowing growing numbers of women to write and read their own letters. A growing number of female voices can thus be heard depicting early modern social life.

The main theme of the article is to show how the epistolary identity of an early modern gentlewoman was constructed by her correspondents. It is assumed that modes of communicating information and achieving a specific goal through letters varied not only according to the relationship connecting the correspondents but also the purpose and content of letters. Recurrent hamburger thyrotoxicosis. Here we describe a single patient who experienced recurrent episodes of this phenomenon over an year period and present an approach to systematically evaluating patients with recurrent hyperthyroidism.

Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg ; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically. This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''. Full Text Available India is a uniquely rich country thanks to its historical characteristics and complex mixture of different races, cultures and religions.

The diversity of the religious groups has particularly affected the decorative arts, which have generated another form of diversity and richness. Every religious group built their own houses of worship and decorated them in accordance with their beliefs because of the close relationship between religion and decoration.

Many buildings containing Turkish overtones have been constructed in India, particularly in Agra, during the Mughal era. The style of Kara Memi, a sixteenth century Ottoman painter, draws attention with the decoration of the buildings constructed during the Shah Jahan era.

Of them, the most popular is the Taj Mahal. It is well known that the Ottomans respected and appreciated the artistic characteristics, particularly the architecture, of the region instead of acting in a dominating manner. Thus, we can consider the relationship between the Ottomans and Mughal Empire is similar only in terms of style.

Cooperation was present between them, and artistic transfers between these two empires were thus inevitable. Energy saving consulting in Hamburg. For anyone who wants to realise the dream of his own house, the terms of thermal insulation and saving heating plant should be central in planning this. One needs advice from experts for this. A survey of the many consultants offices available in Hamburg is provided. The list was compiled with the assistance of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce and the Hamburg Trades Council and of professional associations.

The information on the special fields of activity of the named consultants is based on their statements. The Vieille Bourse Old Stock Exchange flaunts its colourful facades resembling a piece of cabinetmaking, with incrustations of pearly stones and brick gleaming like tortoiseshell. The French-Lillois taste for colour was passed down through the city-centre reconstruction in the seventeenth century , as shown in the scale model of Restorations undertaken in the last ten years or so have revealed this bright urban decorative tradition in a number of other main squares in northern French cities.

The history of Japan's de-Christianization in the early seventeenth century has often been told, but is here re-examined using new data, much of it previously unknown. The turn against Catholicism is variously attributed to fear of invasion or cultural difference, but most scholars agree the Dutch played little role, seldom engaging with theological issues. Investigation of its records reveal Climate Education at the University of Hamburg.

The new graduate School of Integrated Climate Sciences www. About 40 students were enrolled in early The interdisciplinary MSc program is based on a number of disciplines such as meteorology, geophysics, oceanography, geosciences and also economics and social sciences.

These disciplines are required to address the faced key issues related to climate change effectively. The graduate school is guiding pupils and BSc students with competence in maths and physics on how to become a climate expert. Acquisition is done internationally at fairs, uni days and dircectly at schools and intuitions for higher education.

BSc degree in the disciplines listed above is set for positive application. Climate experts are needed for both research and the professional world outside the university and research institutions. In accordance, connection within and outside the university are continuously explored and soft skills for the communication to politics and the public's are included in the MSc and PhD curricula. Advantages and limitations of this Climate System School concept will be discussed.

Full Text Available This paper looks at the state policy applied to silver in the Spanish territories of the Crown of Aragon in the seventeenth century , where increasing demand for silver coins with a lower intrinsic than market value opened up debate on the depreciation of the domestic silver coinage.

The monarchy was weaker in the Crown of Aragon than in Castile, and it was therefore obliged to negotiate these measures with the elites and institutionsof each kingdom. The paper examines the fiscal and monetary reasons forreforms, as well as the extent of political support achieved in each kingdom.

Preventive radiation protection in Hamburg. Monitoring of environmental radioactivity as well as complex investigations for precautionary radiation protection are carried out in Hamburg by two radiation monitoring labs. The spectrum of their tasks is specified by the media to be investigated. The tasks are originating from the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act and from local needs. Mostly since a lot of years all interesting materials are analysed for their radioactivity content, as a safe and precautionary radiation protection demands.

Until today samples show the influence of global nuclear weapon fallout of the period until Partly they show the radioactivity of Caesium originating from the Chernobyl accident. Since ten years the radioactivity contents in the material investigated are decreasing.

Mostly the activity reached levels as at the end of The basic food stuff investigated in Hamburg can be considered as to be uncontaminated by radioactivity. With the introduction of the Federal Precautionary Radiation Protection Act, a series of new investigation programs and investigation methods were developed. This allows a better preparedness for extraordinary situations of increased radioactivity in the environment as 12 years ago.

Thus a precise assessment of situations of increased radioactivity levels can be given together with coordinated and solid information to the public concerning provisions and actions. We used a national hamburger preparation survey to estimate a simultaneous equation model of food safety knowledge, attitudes, and hamburger cooking behavior.

The results suggest that food safety risk perceptions, palatability attributes, and food safety knowledge play important roles in determining food preparation behavior. Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.

This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development.

Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context. No specifications have been written in that time for either the Hamburg Rutter : or the French Rutter. This r Climate change experiments in Hamburg. Nowadays the anthropogenic climate change is been simulated world wide with a fair number of coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models IPCC, Typical model problems do not only blur the estimates of the anthropogenic climate change, but they also cause errors in the estimates of the natural variability.

An accurate representation of the natural variability of the climate system is, however, essential for the detection of the anthropogenic climate change. All model simulations world wide show, even though they differ considerably in their technical details and the experimental setup and the forcing data, similar amplitudes and pattern of the predicted climate change.

In the model world it is already at the beginning of the next century possible to detect the anthropogenic climate change in the global mean. The experiments performed in Hamburg show that the experimental conditions are of great importance for the estimate of the future climate. The usual starting point of most of the simulations with present day conditions is too late, because then a considerable part of the warming since the beginning of the industrialization ca. Furthermore it has only recently become clear that the sulphat-aerosols play an important role in the present day climate and in the future climate.

The effect of the sulphat aerosols has first been simulated in a number of equilibrium simulations with mixed layer models, but nowadays with globally coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models. The Eucharist and atoms in seventeenth-century art. William Gascoigne c. His name is now known to historians of science around the world, but for some considerable time after his tragic death at the age of 32, it seemed as if his achievements would be consigned to oblivion. Most of his papers were lost in the maelstrom of war and the few that seemed to have survived later disappeared.

This is the story of how his work was rescued. A substantial appendix presents selected extracts from Gascoigne's correspondence. This includes much new material that has not been previously published and illustrates his efforts to explain the basis of his pioneering techniques to the satisfaction of his contemporaries. Examined funeral sermons published in England from through Found pattern of male preference; fewer funeral sermons for women.

In sermon text, laudatory and idealized comments about deceased reflected and helped to perpetuate sex differences in society. Number of times sermons were reprinted did not strongly reinforce pattern of…. The bishop and anatomist Niels Stensen and his contributions to our early understanding of the brain. However, most are unaware of Niels Stensen's life and his significant contributions to the early study of the brain.

This physician of the Medici court was clearly ahead of his time and found errors in the publications of such giants as Varolius and Willis. Hamburg : privaatrechtelijk paradijsje aan de Aussenalster. In dit verslag wil ik mij beperken tot een beschrijving van mijn ervaringen aan het Max Planck Institut te Hamburg. Thinking with the saint: the miracle of Saint Januarius of Naples and science in early modern Europe. The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the way in which early modem science questioned and indirectly influenced while being in its turn influenced by the conceptualization of the liquefaction of the blood of Saint Januarius, a phenomenon that has been taking place at regular intervals in Naples since the late Middle Ages.

In the seventeenth century , a debate arose that divided Europe between supporters of a theory of divine intervention and believers in the occult properties of the blood. These two theoretical options reflected two different perspectives on the relationship between the natural and the supernatural. While in the seventeenth century , the emphasis was placed on the predictable periodicity of the miraculous event of liquefaction as a manifestation of God in his role as a divine regulator, in the eighteenth century the event came to be described as capricious and unpredictable, in an attempt to differentiate miracles from the workings of nature, which were deemed to be normative.

The miracle of the blood of Saint Januarius thus provides a window through which we can catch a glimpse of how the natural order was perceived in early modern Europe at a time when the Continent was culturally fragmented into north and south, Protestantism and Catholicism, learned and ignorant. Thus, also small, decentralized plants may offer negative balancing power and achieve additional profits that were previously available only to large producers.

Full Text Available At the end of November , a unique and intruding art project took place in the city of Hamburg , Germany, a result of collaboration between German artists and a Chinese artist, who all seek to commemorate the Chinese victims who lived in the city pre- World War II but had to suffer the injustices of the Nazi regime. The project lasted three days and was presented in various locations throughout the city, while including many artistic mediums alongside scholarly work.

Full Text Available Delarivier Manley has long been discussed as a sensational and successful Tory political satirist of the early eighteenth century. In the late seventeenth century , however, she associated with Whigs, experimented with genres, and tested different techniques for marketing her texts. Mimicking the methods of celebrity actresses, Manley used paratextual addresses to engage public interest in a carefully curated identity, creating a commodity in her persona that she would employ throughout her career.

This paper traces her developing persona in her first three publications: Letters Writen by Mrs. Although these texts are not explicitly political satire, they nevertheless explicate the preliminary and halting machinations of an astute businesswoman and the marketing tactics Manley would employ throughout her career.

This paper analyses the financial circumstances and social income of nearly one hundred unaccompanied minors who have come to Hamburg as refugees from various regions of Africa. It is based on extensive qualitative surveys, analysing their objective conditions of life and in particular their legal situation. A wide range of interview material and….

Steinhorst, F. Energieanlagen; Jonassen, I. Fachbereich Energieversorgung. A stationary energy storage is to be used as a model in a substation of the Hamburg subway network with a view to the environmentally compatible and technically proper use of the brake energy available in electrified local public transport systems. A further question to be reviewed is whether the use of other energy storages in the subway network is a reasonable solution.

Hamburg rules V Hague Visby rules an English perspective. It has often been argued for the effect of defences provided to carriers under Art IV 2 of Hague Visby Rules to almost nullify the protection guaranteed to shippers in other provisions of this convention. Update of treatment guidelines - Campistol and al. Study title: A rapid lateral flow stool antigen immunoassay and 14C-urea breath test for the diagnosis and eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in childrenSodium Vallproate in status epilepticus - S.

JHA Neurol. Study title: Biokenetics and radiation doses for carbon urea in adults and children undergoing the Helicobacter pylori breath testSpecific cognitive dysfunction in children with epileptic mothers. Study title: Diagnosis of Helicobacter pyloriThe longer term outcome of children born to mothers with epilepsy. Study title: Diagnostic accuracy of the 13C-urea breath test in children: Adjustment of the cut-off value according to ageTeratogenic effects of antiepileptic drugs: use of an international database on malformations and drug exposure MADRE.

Study title: Frequency of Helicobacter Pylori infection in children under 4 years of ageThe epilepsies — febrile convulsions. Neurology in clinical practice. Elsevier edition ; vol II, chapter Study title: No radiation protection reasons for restrictions on 14C urea breath tests in childrenSodium Vallproate in status epilepticus - S. Study title: Borgmann et al. Study title: Breitwieser et al. Conservative treatment of uric acid sone diathesis; Med. Welt , 8: Study title: Efficacy and tolerability of Benzoyl peroxide and detergent soap Acne Aid in the treatment of acne vulgaris used together.

Study title: Evaluation of itraconazole solution in infants with oral thrush: a multicentre trial comparing four different treatment durations. Study title: Feuilhade M Oral itraconazole in the treatment of tinea pedis and tinea manus. Itraconazole in the treatment of vulvovaginal yeast infections.

A combined analysis of 18 clinical trials in patients. Study title: Graybill J. Bone radiography and serum calcium and phosphorus levels during itraconazole treatment in a young patient with progressive coccidioidomycosis. Treatment of chronic dermatophytosis and chronic oral candidosis with itraconazole. Study title: Kamp H, et al Oral itraconazole in the treatment of dermatomycoses. Study title: Ketele A et al.

Itraconazole in the treatment of dermatomycoses. A combined analysis of 18 clinical trials including over patients. Clinical research on R no, May Study title: Lachapelle JM et al. Dermatology , Pediatr Hematol Oncol. Study title: Danilov VV, Danilova TI, Clinical-urodynamic assessment of the efficacy of administration of Spasmex to children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. Medical University of the Vladivostok Administration, Vladivostok Biotinidase deficiency: a survey of 10 cases.

Study title: Spasmo-lyt - Clinical trial for nocturnal and diurnal enuresis. Study title: Therapie der kindlichen Harninkontinenz mit Trospiumchlorid; Urologe B ; Therapie der kindlichen Harninkontinenz mit Trospiumchlorid; Urologe B ; Study title: Double blind, controlled trial testing the immunogenicity and side effects of parenteral Vi polysaccharide typhoid vaccine in Indonesian children and adults. Study title: The effect of coenzyme Q10 in ideopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in children.

The efficacy of itraconazole in dermatophyte infections in comparison with griseofulvin. Clinical study report, Janssen Pharma, Sweden, Combined analyses of adverse experiences and clinical laboratory data related to safety in patients treated with itraconazole for vulvovaginal candidosis, pityriasis versicolor, dermatomycoses, oral candidosis and fungal keratitis. Clinical research report on R no, September Study title: Panagiotidou D et al. A comparison of itraconazole and griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea corporis and tinea cruris: a double-blind study.

The journal of international medical research 20, p. Study title: Pharmacokinetic study of itraconazole oral solution during chronic treatment in neutropenic children. Adrenal response to corticotropin during therapy with itraconazole. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 31 4 , p. Study title: Rees T, Phillips R. Multicenter comparison of one-day oral therapy with fluconazole or itraconazole in vaginal candidiasis. International journal of gynecology and obstetrics 37 suppl.

Study title: Comparison of mometasone furoate 0. J Am Acad Dermatol. Comparison of mometasone furoate 0. Study title: Efficacy and Safety of Nasonex vs. Study title: Marsden CD, et al. The treatment of severe dystonia in children and adults. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry Nov; 47 11 : Marsden CD, et al. Study title: Nardocci N, et al. Acquired hemidystonia in childhood: a clinical and neuroradiological study of thirteen patients. Pediatr Neurol. Nardocci N, et al.

Study title: Reddihough D, et al. Use of benzhexol hydrochloride to control drooling of children with cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol Nov; 32 11 : 9. Reddihough D, et al. Study title: Rockland L, et al. Effects of trihexyphenidyl on plasma chlorpromazine in young schizophrenics. Can J Psychiatry Oct; 35 7 : Erratum Can J Psychiatry Feb;36 1 Study title: Saletu B, et al. Behavioral and visual evoked potential investigations during trihexyphenidyl and thiothixene treatment in psychotic boys.

Biol Psychiatry Apr; 8 2 : Saletu B, et al. Study title: Saletu, B. Behavioral and visual evoked potential investigations during trihexyphenidyl and thiothixene treatment in psychotic boys Biol. Psychiatry ; Marsden CD The treatment of severe dystonia in children and adults. Saletu, B. Study title: Sanger TD, et al. Prospective open-label clinical trial of trihexyphenidyl in children with secondary dystonia due to cerebral palsy.

J Child Neurol May; 22 5 : Sanger TD, et al. Study title: Vogels OJ, et al. Focal dystonia and speech impairment responding to anticholinergic therapy. Pediatric Neurol ; 11 4 : Vogels OJ, et al. Oral itraconazole therapy in keratomycosis. March Combined oral and topical itraconazole therapy in the treatment of keratomycosis. Itraconazole pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers and patients. A review of the data available until August ' Clinical Research report on R no, revised August Pharmacokinetics of itraconazole in patients with systemic mycoses.

Clinical research report on R no, January Study title: Primotic ring topical corticoid cream 0. J Pediatr Surg. Primotic ring topical corticoid cream 0. Study title: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, crossover study comparing montelukast sodium to placebo in 6- to year-old patients with chronic asthma currently using inhaled corticosteroids ICS. Study summary document link including results : synopsis.

Pediatric-Research, , V20, N7, P Rydygiera, Bydgoszcz, Poland. Gastroesophageal reflux in preterm infants. Study title: A double-blind, single oral dose study comparing the anti-pyretic properties of Ibuprofen, acetaminophen and placebo in the treatment of pyrexia associated with infectious disease in children and Pharmacodynamics of fever treatment with Ibuprofen. Study title: A double-blind, single oral dose study comparing the anti-pyretic property of Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen, and placebo in the treatment of pyrexia associated with infectious disease in children.

Sloan-Kettering Cancer Cent. Experiences in the changing management of children with Hodgkin's disease HD. Combination chemotherapy in Hodgkin's lymphoma: results in 63 adult and pediatric patients. Fetal anomaly associated with successful chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease during the first trimester of pregnancy. Thomas-L, Andes-W-A.

Study title: A single-dose, randomized, investigator-blinded trial to compare the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen suspension 7. Aug Study title: A study comparing the efficacy and safety of ibuprofen sustained release to ibuprofen regular release in the treatment of pain secondary to post-operative foot surgery. Study title: A study of the effects of Ibuprofen on post-operative pain in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy when given preoperative. Study title: A study to compare the efficacy and tolerance of Ibuprofen syrup vs Propyphenazone in the treatment of feverish children.

Study title: Advil liquigel maximum use safety and tolerance study. Dec Study title: Med Sci Paris. Structural and functional imaging in children with partial epilepsy. Gaillard WD. Study title: Neuro Endocrinol Lett.

Regional brain metabolism as the predictor of performance on the Trail Making Test in schizophrenia. Study title: Neuroimage. Statistical parametric mapping of regional glucose metabolism in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Study title: Neuroimaging Clin N Am. Imaging the epileptic brain with positron emission tomography. Study title: Neurology. Predictors of outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy: positron emission tomography.

Localizing value of alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET in intractable epilepsy of neocortical origin. Study title: D'Angio GJ et al. Treatment of Wilms' tumor. R Springman et al. Study title: Avaliacao clinica de um novo antimicotico, piridonico topico, HOE , em dermatofitoses - Clinical evaluation of a new topical pyridonium antimycotic, HOE , in dermatophytoses -L. Ermetice et al.

Study title: Behandlung bakteriell superinfizierter hautpilzerkrankungen - K. Jablonski - Kassenartz vol 27 - Publication in clinical studies volume 6 -. Study title: Behandlung von schimmelpliz-mykosen mit iclopiroxolamin - B. Adam et al. Study title: Childhood white superficial onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: Repor tof seven cases and review of the literature, Tanusin Ploysangam, Anne W.

Lucky, J Am Acad Dermatol, ; Study title: Ciclopiroxolamin bei der Behandlundg von dermatomykosenbei kindern - E. Briscik et al. Study title: Clinical results with the Antimycotic agent ciclopirox olamine - W. Study title: Consideracoes terapeuticas sobre o uso de um novo antimicotico piridonico, o HOE , no tratamento topico de dermatofitoses - Therapeutical considerations about the use of a new piridonic antimycotic, HOE , in the topical treatment of dermatophytoses - Jarbas Porto et al.

St Jude Child. Radiation, chemotherapy, or both in childhood and adolescent Hodgkin's disease HD. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for Hodgkin's disease. Problems in childhood. Study title: Neumann Y. Study title: Open-label quetiapine in the treatment of children and adolescents with autistic disorder J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. Study title: Petova J. Pyrithioxine in the prevention of late consequences of intrauterine and postnatal hypoxia and malnutrition in new-born babie Med Welt ; ; Petova J.

Pyrithioxine in the prevention of late consequences of intrauterine and postnatal hypoxia and malnutrition in new-born babie Med Welt ; ;. Study title: Radmayr E. Zur Therapie der Entwicklungsretardierung mit Encephabol Actic nerv sup ; ;. Arreaza et al. G Vogel - No date -. Study title: Emprego de novo antimicotico, HOE, no tratamento topico de micoses superficiais - A. F Defina et al. Study title: Schreiber K.

Study title: Weimann H. Study summary document link including results : Ramipril-Study 2. Study summary document link including results : Ramipril-Study 1. Paediatr Drugs. Grenier et J. Study title: A clinical comparison of topical clobetasone butyrate and sodium cromoglycate in allergic conjunctivitis. Clin Allergy. A clinical comparison of topical clobetasone butyrate and sodium cromoglycate in allergic conjunctivitis. Study summary document link including results : A clinical comparison of topical clobetasone butyrate and so.

Study title: Clobetasone butyrate eye drops. Effect on ocular inflammation and intraocular pressure. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K. Study summary document link including results : Clobetasone butyrate eye drops effect on ocular inflammation. Study title: safety and efficacy of bay b 2vaginal cream in 3-day treatment as compared with 7-day treatment with econazole cream gyno-pevaryl cream.

Study title: A double-blind, single oral dose study, comparing the anti-pyretic properties of Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen, and placebo in the treatment of pyrexia associated with infectious disease in children. Study summary document link including results : ibuprofen-bpi Epub Aug Epub Feb Epub Dec Epub Jun Early restaging whole-body 18 F-FDG PET during induction chemotherapy predicts clinical outcome in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Epub Jan Prognostic relevance of FDG PET in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. Epub Sep 9. Diagnostic performance and prognostic impact of FDG-PET in suspected recurrence of surgically treated non-small cell lung cancer.

Glut-1 expression and enhanced glucose metabolism are associated with tumour grade in bone and soft tissue sarcomas: a prospective evaluation by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Epub Mar 3. Epub Mar Study title: Eur J Nucl Med. Whole-body positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose for staging of lymphoma: effectiveness and comparison with computed tomography.

Fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the initial staging of germ cell tumours. Study title: de Andrea ML et al. A new treatment protocol for childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: preliminaryevaluation. J Clin Oncol. Study title: Dieckmann K et al Does bulky disease at diagnosis influence outcome in childhood Hodgkin's disease and require higher radiation doses? Study title: A double-blind, single-dose comparison of ibuprofen vs. Study title: A multicentre open label multiple dose study to determine the safety and tolerability of ibuprofen suspension in the treatment of mild to moderate pain of various etiologies in children.

Study summary document link including results : Ibuprofen-BPI Study title: A multicentre, open dose-response evaluation of the safety and efficacy of Ibuprofen syrup in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. Study title: A multicentre, open-label multiple-dose study to determine the safety and tolerability of Ibuprofen suspension in the treatment of mild to moderate pain of various aetiologies in children.

Alteration of normal gastric flora in neonates receiving ranitidine. J Perinatol. Ranitidine therapy for esophagitis in children with developmental disabilities. Clin Pediatr Phila. Study title: Eur Neurol. A decade of studies.

Eur Neurol. Study title: Eur Spine J. Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography findings in spondylodiscitis: preliminary results. Study title: Gynecol Oncol. Study title: An open multicentre study in Pakistan to investigate the effects of Ibuprofen syrup in juvenile pyrexia. Study title: An open study to evaluate the use of Ibuprofen suspension in the treatment of post-immunisation pyrexia in children.

Sep Study title: an open, multiple dose study of the efficacy and tolerability of Ibuprofen syrup in the treatment of juvenile pyrexia. Study title: An open, multiple-dose study of the efficacy and tolerability of Ibuprofen suspension in the treatment of juvenile pain and pyrexia.

Study title: An open, parallel-group, multiple dose study to compare the efficacy and tolerability of Ibuprofen suspension Junifen and Paracetamol suspension Calpol Infant in the symptomatic treatment of juvenile teething pain. Study summary document link including results : Ibuprofen BR Study summary document link including results : ibuprofen-m Comment in: Neurology.

Alpha-[11C] methyl-L-tryptophan and glucose metabolism in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Study title: Neurosci Lett. Epub Jun 2. Modafinil-induced hippocampal activation in narcolepsy. Study title: Nippon Rinsho. Study title: Nucl Med Commun. Positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in advanced stages of malignant melanoma: a comparison of ultrasonographic and radiological methods of diagnosis.

Fluorodeoxyglucose PET in the evaluation of amputations for soft tissue sarcoma. Cerebral metabolic changes associated with Lyme disease. The influences of blood glucose and duration of fasting on myocardial glucose uptake of [18F]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose. Pathology results in [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography of the thyroid gland.

Klin Padiatr May-Jun; 3 Study title: Dunkel IJ et al High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide with autologous stem-cell rescue for patients with recurrent medulloblastoma. Children's Cancer Group J Clin Oncol Jan;16 1 Dunkel IJ et al High-dose carboplatin, thiotepa, and etoposide with autologous stem-cell rescue for patients with recurrent medulloblastoma. Study title: Ensaio clinico e terapeutico com um novo antimicotico piridonico de emprego topico o HOE Clinical and therapeutic trial with a new pyridonic anti-mycotic compound for topical use, the HOE - Luiz Carlos Pereira et al.

Study title: Estudo sobre o uso do ciclopirox HOE em Dermatologia : Resultados clinicos das micoses superficiais- Clinical effects of use of ciclopirox HOE in dermatology : therapeutic efficacy in superficial mycosis- Marcio lobo Jardim et al. Bagatell et al. Study title: Evaluation of ciclopirox olamine for the treatment of tinea pedis : multicenter, double-blind comparatives studies - Albert M.

Kligman et al. D Azulay et al. Study title: Fungal colonization in the very low birth weight infants - J. E Baley et al. Study title: High prevalence of cervical dysplasia in female consorts of men with genital warts- T. Hockenstrom et al. A randomized, controlled study of prophylactic ranitidine in preventing stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in neonatal intensive care unit patients.

Crit Care Med. Study title: Kuusela AL. Long-term gastric pH monitoring for determining optimal dose of ranitidine for critically ill preterm and term neonates. Kuusela AL. Study title: Ranitidine, 75 mg, over-the-counter dose: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in children with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Study summary document link including results : Ramipril-Study 3. Combination chemotherapy of Hodgkin disease in children. Southwest Oncol. Response of childhood histiocytosis X to procarbazine NSC Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Long-term results in the treatment of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study. Study title: Antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and paracetamol in children with pyrexia. Study summary document link including results : Ibuprofen-M Comparative efficacy and tolerance of ibuprofen syrup and acetaminophen syrup in children with pyrexia associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotics. Subcortical [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in lesional epilepsy in patients with intracranial tumour.

Study title: Oncol Rep. Study title: Ophthalmic Genet. Fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography PET to detect vital retinoblastoma in the eye: preliminary experience. Study title: Paediatr Anaesth. Congenital hyperinsulinism - a review of the disorder and a discussion of the anesthesia management. Study title: Pediatr Neurosurg. Use of positron emission tomography for presurgical localization of eloquent brain areas in children with seizures.

Study title: Investigacion clinica sobre el HOE en demafitosis de la piel lampina y en pitiriasis versicolor - Antonio Gonzalvez-Ochoa et al. Study title: La ciclopiroxolamina nel trattamento della pityriasis versicolor Ciclopiroxolamine in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor - G.

Trevisan et al. Bern, Switzerland. Diagnosis and treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children. Solid malignancies in children and adolescents. Cancer Res. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. Treatment of Hodgkin's disease HD in children, Treatment of advanced Hodgkin's disease in pediatric patients.

Study title: Clinical report on the efficacy and tolerability of Bromocodeina syrup in paediatric patients suffering from cough. Study title: Acta Neurochir Suppl. Glucose metabolism in traumatic brain injury: a combined microdialysis and [18F]fluorodeoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography FDG-PET study.

Study title: Acta Neurol Belg. Guidelines for brain radionuclide imaging. The Belgian Society for Nuclear Medicine. Study title: Ann Acad Med Singapore. Study title: Ann Nucl Med. Lesion detectability of a gamma camera based coincidence system with FDG in patients with malignant tumors: a comparison with dedicated positron emission tomography. Semiquantitative analysis of interictal glucose metabolism between generalized epilepsy and localization related epilepsy.

Study title: Ann Oncol. Epub Jun 6. Study title: Anticancer Res. Escalating dose of oral ondansetron in the prevention of radiation induced emesis. Feb Study title: Haematologica. The predictive value of positron emission tomography scanning performed after two courses of standard therapy on treatment outcome in advanced stage Hodgkin's disease.

Study title: Hepatology. Comment in: Liver Transpl. Application of an objective method for localizing bilateral cortical FDG PET abnormalities to guide the resection of epileptic foci. Study title: Int J Nurs Stud. Effects of acupressure on dysmenorrhea and skin temperature changes in college students: a non-randomized controlled trial. Study title: Isr J Med Sci. How to use information from echocardiography and magnetic resonance for diagnosing myocardial viability.

Sechtem U. Study title: J Am Coll Cardiol. Myocardial viability assessed by positron emission tomography in infants and children after the arterial switch operation and suspected infarction. Study title: J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. Multicenter comparison of micronized fenofibrate and simvastatin in patients with primary type IIA or IIB hyperlipoproteinemia. Study title: J Child Neurol. Neuroimaging in infantile autism. Pilot study of positron emission tomography PET brain glucose metabolism to assess the efficacy of tongue and body acupuncture in cerebral palsy.

Pilot study of efficacy of tongue and body acupuncture in children with visual impairment. Study title: J Clin Oncol. Study title: J Clin Psychiatry. Management of ADHD in adults. Second malignant tumours in childhood Hodgkin's disease. Study title: Hepatocellular carcinoma in children and adolescents: Results from the Pediatric Oncology Group and the Children's Cancer Group intergroup study. Katzenstein HM et al. June 15, , Study summary document link including results : Study title: Improved long-term survival with preoperative chemotherapy for hepatoblastoma.

Study title: Kokki H. Kokki H. Study title: Intensified platinum therapy is an ineffective strategy for improving outcome in pediatric patients with advanced hepatoblastoma. Malogolowkin MH et al. Study title: Intraarterial chemotherapy with Lipiodol for initially unresectable hepatoblastomas in children. Ogita S. Regional Cancer Treatment. December 1, , Study title: Intraoperative irradiation: Current and future status. Gunderson LL. Semin Oncol. Study title: Late complications after glaucoma filtering surgery with adjunctive 5- fluorouracil.

Ticho U, Ophir A. Am J Ophthalmol. May 3, , Study title: Management of a year-old boy with adenocarcinoma at the esophageal gastric junction. Zotter H et al. Med Pediatr Oncol. Study title: A phase III single dose study to compare the efficacy of ibuprofen chewable tablets to ibuprofen suspension in febrile children. Jun Study title: A phase IV multicenter clinical investigation of the safety and efficacy of APAP mg total daily dose of 4 grams , ibuprofen mg total daily dose of mg , and placebo in the management of the symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea.

Study title: A randomised double blind nultiple-dose study comparing the efficacy and tolerability of Iburprofen versus Paracetamol both syrup formulations in the treatment of fever in children known with febrile convulsions. Study summary document link including results : ibuprofen- brvanEsch. Study title: A randomized double-blind single dose study comparing ibuprofen mg, ibuprofen mg plus caffeine mg, ibuprofen mg, ibuprofen mg plus caffeine mg, caffeine mg, and placebo in the treatment of pain following orthopedic surgery.

Study title: J Comput Assist Tomogr. Usefulness of semiquantitative FDG-PET in the prediction of brain tumor treatment response to gamma knife radiosurgery. Study title: J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. Study title: J Neurooncol. Epub Sep Phase II study of thalidomide and radiation in children with newly diagnosed brain stem gliomas and glioblastoma multiforme.

Study title: J Neurosurg. Diagnostic yield of stereotactic brain biopsy guided by positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose. Functional brain mapping using positron emission tomography scanning in preoperative neurosurgical planning for pediatric brain tumors. Evaluation of ibuprofen versus aspirin and paracetamol on efficacy and comfort in children with fever. Ibuprofen versus paracetamol in pediatric fever: Objective and subjective findings from a randomized, blinded study.

Study title: Brufen syrup in juvenile chronic polyarthritis, rheumatic fever soft tissue injuries and infectious disorders in children, The Boots Company, India. Study title: Brufen syrup in the treatment of juvenile pyrexia -expert report on the clinical documentation which is included in the product licence application. Study title: Clark E. Study title: Clin Ther. A review of ibuprofen and acetaminophen use in febrile children and the occurrence of asthma related symptoms.

Clin Ther. Study title: Pediatr Radiol. PET imaging in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma. Epub Nov Study title: Pharmacotherapy. Comparative assessment of the effect of lomefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and placebo on cerebral blood flow, and glucose and oxygen metabolism in healthy subjects by positron emission tomography.

Ide M. Clinical impact of fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in cancer patients. A comparative study between dedicated camera and dual-head coincidence gamma camera. Study title: Q J Nucl Med. Franzius C, Schober O. Study title: Radiol Clin North Am. PET in pediatric diseases. Study title: Radiology.

Neuroblastoma: positron emission tomography with 2-[fluorine]-fluorodeoxy-D-glucose compared with metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy. Mertens R et al. Study title: Nasopharyngeal carcinomas: Analysis of patient, tumor and treatment characteristics determining outcome.

Erkal HS et al. Radiother Oncol. December 27, , Study title: Neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors: 11 Years of clinical experience. Cirillo F. Int J Med Biol Environ. July 1, , Study title: New combination of triamcinolone, 5-fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser for treatment of keloid and hypertrophic scars.

Dermatol Surg. Study title: Newer techniques in cancer chemotherapy. Markman M. Dis Mon. Study title: Opinion and evidence in cancer: From the world literature. Am J Cancer. Study title: Paradigm shift in adjuvant treatment of receptor positive premenopausal breast cancer patients? Not yet! Samur M, Bozcuk HS. Study title: Pediatric phase I trials in oncology: An analysis of study conduct efficiency. The treatment of localized non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children: a report from the children's cancer study group.

Hodgkin's disease in children. The effectiveness of chemotherapy for treatment of high grade astrocytoma in children: results of a randomized trial. A report from the Childrens Cancer Study Group. Journal of neuro Study title: Brown JM. Discovery of a renal medullary carcinoma in an adolescent male with sickle cel l trait by Tcm methylene disphosponate bone scintigraphy.

Clin Nucl Med ; Brown JM. Study title: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Update of: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy for cystic fibrosis. Lands LC, Stanojevic S. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Study title: Comparative evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Ibuprofen and Aspirin in children with pyrexia o varied aetiology - India. Study title: Comparative evaluation of antipyretic activity of ibuprofen and aspirin in children with pyrexia of varied aetiology.

Study title: Comparative study of ibuprofen syrup and paracetamol in soft tissue injuries in children. Study title: Radiother Oncol. Study title: Respiration. Epub May 5. Comment in: Respiration. The solitary pulmonary nodule--is it malignant or benign? Naalsund A, Maublant J. Study title: Rofo. Study title: Semin Nucl Med. Monoclonal antibodies and neuroblastoma. Miraldi F. Nuclear medicine in pediatric neurology and neurosurgery: epilepsy and brain tumors.

Study title: Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. Early irradiation effects observed on magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, and positron emission tomography for arteriovenous malformations treated by Gamma Knife radiosurgery. Study title: Thyroid. Study title: Echizenya M et al. Echizenya M et al. Intergroup Hodgkin's disease in children study of stages I and II: a preliminary report. A chemotherapy-radiotherapy Rx regimen for children with stage 3 Hodgkin's disease.

Study title: Survival and neurologic outcome of infants with medulloblastoma treated with surgery and MOPP chemotherapy. A preliminary report. Survival and neurologic outcome of infants with medulloblastoma treated with surgery and MOPP chemotherapy. Study title: Tan-C-T. Hodgkin's disease in children and adolescents. The changing management of childhood Hodgkin's disease. Results of management between Study title: Hanck A. Verhuetung und Behandlung der postoperativen Daratonie und anderer Formen des paralytischen Ileus mit Bepanthen Roche.

Therapiewoche ;, , Tests for juvenile myasthenia gravis: comparative diagnostic yield and prediction of outcome. J Child Neurol ; Study title: Biol Psychiatry. Study title: Advances in drug treatments for children and adolescents with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders CNS Drugs. Advances in drug treatments for children and adolescents with autism and other pervasive developmental disorders CNS Drugs.

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Impact of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography on surgical management of melanoma patients. Study title: Brain Dev. Neuroimaging studies in Rett syndrome. Hostility differentiates the brain metabolic effects of nicotine.

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A bicenter trial. Comparison of fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and Ga scintigraphy in evaluation of lymphoma. Study title: Cephalalgia. Migraine with aura: a review of 81 patients at years' follow-up. Study title: Childs Nerv Syst. Functional neuroimaging in the preoperative evaluation of children with drug-resistant epilepsy. Sood S, Chugani HT.

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Bergdorf Castle, located in Billelauf, is Hamburg's only preserved castle. Nowadays, it houses a museum. It was the seat of the dual-city office of Bergedorf city of Bergedorf, Vierlande and Geesthacht and came under the sole ownership of Hamburg in Visible parts of the castle can be traced back to and In the north-east wing was renovated with a tower and entrance in the neo-Gothic style. Until , divisions of the city council met in the castle, which was used after that for other official uses.

Conservation and renovation work on the whole building from to was financed in part by large fund-raising campaigns by the public, and by friends of the house. The Museum for Bergedorf and the Vierlande is housed in the castle. The good old fairy tales tell of legendary knights, mystical mythical creatures and magnificent balls in dream castles. We have visited the most beautiful castles and manor houses in Hamburg and the metropolitan region and of course we do not want to withhold the most beautiful pictures from you.

Welcome to Bergedorf, Wandsbek, Hammerbrook and Rothenburgsort! Here, the harbour cranes and industrial culture in Rothenburgsort and Hammerbrook meet nature protection areas, meadows and woods on the border with Schleswig-Holstein. Hamburg's only preserved castle can be admired in Bergedorf. Today the castle no longer serves as a residence, but is home to a modern regional museum dedicated to the history of Bergedorf. Hamburg has many large churches - but only one "Michel": On its platform metres high, there is a fabulous and breezy view of Hamburg, the port and the surrounding countryside - one that should not be missed!

Gianetta, Genova S. Sandrucci, Torino B. Ramshaw, USA J. Young, USA S. Gidaro, Chieti M. Testini, Bari R. Read, USA R. Zollinger, USA F. Gossetti, Roma F. Trombetta, Torino S. Roll, Brazil D. Greco, Milano. Agresta, Treviso A. Brescia, Roma M. Agresti, Napoli S. Canonico, Napoli S. Alfieri, Roma M. Cantore, Varese F. Badessi, Nuoro F. Caravati, Varese G. Baldazzi, Abano Terme G. Carcano, Varese A. Barbarisi, Napoli M. Carlucci, Milano Organizing Secretariat F. Basile, Catania L.

Casciola, Perugia A. Benevento, Varese F. Biondi, Catania A. Bocchi, Parma F. Corcione, Napoli Via G. Ripamonti , Milan, Italy S. Bona, Milano F. Crovella, Napoli E-mail: hernia aimgroup. Brancato, Catania D. Cuccurullo, Napoli www. Mesh: present Which is the future of the Advanced laparoscopic hernia repair Expert Hot Topic Expert Hot Topic Disasters in laparoscopic Closing session RCT, three-year follow-up.

Tom Oyen vs John Morrison Does fibrin glue achieve the same result in recurrence rate as sutures in Lichtenstein repair? Comparison of Lichtenstein repair lightweight vs heavyweight mesh in Lichtenstein repair of hernia. Age and experience: do they influence the result of a trial in inguinal hernia?

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Stars von Morgen - Harburger Rathauskonzerte 9.02.2021

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