The Act required bodies of convicted murderers to be either publicly dissected or gibbeted. The gibbet was placed at crossroads of highways and waterways as a warning to others who meant to break the law. Also called hanging in chains , gibbeting was formally abolished in England in Surprisingly, the need of medical schools for bodies upon which to perform anatomy lessons curbed the use of gibbets.
A rotting body held no worth in those cases. Women criminals were not gibbetted because the medical schools were interested in the workings of the female body, and so those women who were condemned were not sentenced to gibbeting. The medical schools were permitted 50 bodies per year through these measures. Grave robbers and restorationists made a living in bodies. At the time, a person could drive through a village with a dead and naked body in the wagon, without breaking a law.
It was all quite convoluted. Prior to that, it was a rare, notorious, horrifying punishment, which gathered quite the crowd to witness the spectacle of a gibbet being erected. According to Rebel Circus , a blacksmith designed and constructed the gibbet to fit the size of the person. The gibbet cages were designed so the rotting body stayed together, holding the shape of the person.
If a person had dared to attempt to help a person in a gibbet, their efforts would be futile. The gibbets were covered in sharp studs to keep people from attempting to touch them. They were left up for years at a time.
They became landmarks, and a few even had streets named after them. There were many different designs and variations of the gibbet. Some kept the condemned in place by impaling the back of his head on a spike, but that was later stopped because it allowed for the condemned to die too quickly. There are 16 gibbets remaining in England, the majority of which can be viewed in museums.
The practice peaked in the s. They remained in place for decades sometimes, as the corpses inside were eaten by bugs and birds and turned into skeletons. Steps were taken to prevent people from removing them; the posts were often 30 feet or higher.
One was studded with 12, nails to keep it from being torn down. They became landscape features; gibbeted criminals lent their names to roads like Parr and became boundary markers. Some were heavy, some were very loose, some were adjustable. One had a notch where a nose would go. In some cases, the gibbet held only the torso, allowing the arms and legs to dangle outside its confines.
After a gibbet was removed or fell down from wear the gibbet and its components were sometimes turned into souvenirs, such as a post that was carved up into tobacco bowls. Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse provides us information on building the gibbet, the cost of the project, the locations chosen for the gibbet, the gibbets that have lasted the longest as landmarks , ant the end of the practice for those of you seeking more facts.
Notable among these was the gibbet, which punished criminals in not only life but also death. Gibbeting was the practice of locking criminals in human-shaped cages and hanging them up for display in public areas as a warning to others. The gibbet itself refers the wooden structure from which the cage was hung. In most cases, criminals were executed prior to being gibbeted.
However, criminals were occasionally gibbeted alive and left to die of exposure and starvation. Although gibbeting originated in medieval times, the height of its popularity in England was in the s. The method lost popularity even after a law declared that the bodies of convicted murderers had to be either publicly dissected or gibbeted. The victims of gibbeting were always men; since female corpses were in high demand from surgeons and anatomists, female criminals were always dissected rather than gibbeted.
Oddly enough, the gibbeting of a criminal was considered to be a great spectacle. Happy crowds would gather to see it, sometimes amounting to tens of thousands of people. Obviously, gibbeting was the subject of much macabre fascination. While witnessing a gibbeting was quite enjoyable to many, living near a gibbet was gross and unpleasant.
Furthermore, gibbets spooked people by creaking and clanking eerily. The wind added to their eeriness by making them twist and sway. People who lived near gibbets would have to put up with their stench and eeriness as birds and bugs ate their corpses. Hence, gibbets often stood for years. Authorities made gibbeted bodies difficult to remove by hanging them from foot-tall posts. Sometimes, they made the posts even taller. On one occasion, they even studded a post with 12, nails to keep it from being torn down.
Blacksmiths who were tasked with making gibbet cages often had a hard time doing so, since they often had no prior knowledge of the structures.
Primarily for what happened to his body after his death, and the years it spent on display as it mouldered, rotted and fell to pieces. Spence Broughton was executed on the gallows outside York Castle on 14 April He had been imprisoned for 6 months before his life ended at the end of a rope. Broughton had abandoned his wife and three children to spend his time gambling, but not before financially ruining his once-comfortable family. Born in Horbling near Falkingham, Lincolnshire, Broughton was a tall, well-made man.
Broughton at last secured a separation. Broughton particularly favoured cockfighting, races, and games of chance including E O tables a game of chance related to roulette. He lost huge sums, and when personal and family funds ran dry, Broughton turned to theft to support his dissolute habits.
In the company of John Oxley and Thomas Shaw, Broughton planned and carried out robberies of mail coaches. Shaw provided information and funds, Oxley converted bills found in the mail into cash, and Broughton took the lead in carrying out the thefts. This was the most successful of their efforts. As before, the boy carrying the mail was taken off the road into a field and tied to a post there. The malefactors were apprehended when on enquiring with the bankers, the bills were found to have been stolen from the Cambridge Mail, and Oxley was identified, pursued and taken in London.
Shaw was not long in following. The three were held in gaol and closely questioned. Oxley escaped from gaol in October , and in the end, only Broughton stood trial. Executed on 14 April, the body was then taken from York to Attercliffe Common and in the small hours of Monday 16 April , suspended on a gibbet near the Arrow Inn. Certainly, Broughton was not the only highwayman gibbeted for his crimes.
Though distinctly unbloody, the nature of his transgression threatened the security of property and movement of finance, which sat at the heart of the capitalist values on which the nation was built, and so warranted severe punishment in the eyes of the law. The public fascination with the image of the dashing highwayman during this period and since was also a risk to public order. Harsh punishment held the possibility of bursting the bubble of public approbation of such robbers.
Instead, within hours of the erection of the gibbet post and before the body in its iron cage had been brought by cart to be hung up, the site of the gibbet of Spence Broughton attracted hundreds of people keen to see the spectacle. This is perhaps no surprise as newspapers noted the unusually high attendance at the execution.
His assistance was rewarded by the incredible number of customers brought to the Arrow in the weeks and months that followed, drawn to witness the gibbet. Many remarked they never saw so many people in their lives, and wondered where they came from, for it beat Sheffield fair, and seemed as if they never would give over coming.
The Noose and Gibbet Inn, Sheffield, exploits its proximity to the place where Spence Broughton was gibbeted with a wholly inauthentic recreated gibbet Tom Maskill. We know that no women were gibbeted in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain. Invariably, women convicted of murder were punished with hanging and dissection or, in the event that the murder was categorised as petty treason the killing of a male superior such as a master, father, or husband , up to the end of the eighteenth century by strangulation then by burning at the stake.
Whatever the reasons, the result is clear: under the Murder Act, no women were hung in chains. In the eighteenth century, Britain engaged in active and energetic colonisation of places and peoples around the globe. Less than two decades before the American Revolution, the British were involved in a contest with another and much more established colonial force in the eastern part of North America.
The Canadiens, as the inhabitants were known, were an agricultural people who lived according to the seigneurial system of land tenure and feudal agricultural practice. Before the British conquest, the French king kept tight controls on Nouvelle France, including prohibiting the establishment of a domestic press in order to head off the possibility of the rise or spread of rebellious ideas or actions. For the years between conquest and the advent of civil government under the British, the colony operated under military law and General James Murray served as Governor.
His was the highest authority in the province and he had responsibility for confirming all sentences passed by courts martial. During this interim period, a death occurred, a court martial followed, and a woman was convicted of murder.
Her name was Marie-Josephte Corriveau and her legend is inseparable from the cage in which her corpse was displayed two hundred and fifty years ago. First married in to Charles Boucher, also a farmer, she had three children before her husband died in She married again in July to another farmer, one Louis Dodier. It appeared that he died at some point in the night as a result of several severe wounds to the face and head.
Whether the fatal wounds had been caused by a horse, or a sharp instrument was a matter of some debate. The day before the incident, Joseph Corriveau had complained about his son-in-law during a visit to the local priest and it was said that Marie-Josephte had asked her father to beat her husband. We have access to the detail of the initial court martial, at which Joseph Corriveau was tried for murder and Marie-Josephte was tried as an accomplice, thanks to the preservation work of J.
The first trial began on 29 March and ended on 9 April. The conclusion was that Joseph Corriveau was convicted of murder and sentenced to execution, and that Marie-Josephte was found guilty of being an accomplice to the crime and sentenced to public whippings and to be branded. However, shortly afterward, Joseph made a confession. He avowed that it was actually his daughter who had committed the crime.
A second court martial was convened. Joseph was proclaimed innocent, and once she had made a confession, Marie-Josephte was convicted of the murder of her husband. She was sentenced to death by hanging and to additional post-mortem punishment in line with the terms of the Murder Act. Shortly after, the corpse was encased in a purpose-built cage that followed the general form of cages constructed in Britain.
The body of Mary-Josephte was gibbeted for five weeks at a crossroads in St. In , workers digging behind the church of Saint-Joseph-of-Bellechasse as part of renovation efforts discovered an iron body-shaped cage still containing a few bones. It was recognised immediately as the gibbet cage of Marie-Josephte Corriveau.
It is reported that the cage was presented by David P. Kimball to the Essex Institute in Salem, Massachusetts in where it was kept in their collections of scientific and historical materials until the early twenty-first century. But what made this artefact so special and so significant? In the years after her death and post-mortem punishment, the story of Marie-Josephte grew, twisted and transformed.
In the vilification that followed her punishment, she became not only a notorious murderess, but also a sorceress and a malignant spirit set on tormenting the living. In the context of our research, Marie-Josephte is remarkable not only for what her story became, that potent legend of La Corriveau, but for the way her post-mortem punishment stands in such stark contrast to that meted out to convicted female murderers in Britain.
So, why was Marie-Josephte Corriveau tried, convicted and punished in this way? That she was tried by a court martial instead of a civil process was recognised as an error by Governor Murray, who nonetheless noted that in the absence of other established structures during the interim period between formal French and British rule, he had followed a precedent set in a similar situation in Montreal two years earlier. However, if she was sentenced under British law, why was she not sentenced to burning, as would have been the appropriate punishment for a woman convicted of petty treason—and being found guilty of murdering her husband, Marie-Josephte would certainly have met the criteria for this specific crime.
But if, as it seems, she was sentenced according to the Murder Act, why not anatomisation and dissection as would have been the norm had she been in Britain? It is likely few facilities existed for such a course of action, which may have impacted the decision. However, there is also the issue of when the murder and punishment took place with relation to the political situation.
Both occurred before the instigation of civil rule by the British in what had been Nouvelle France, and the punishment of Canadienne French Settler Marie-Josephte by a British court martial suggests an effort by British authorities to use the post-mortem punishment of convicted murderers as an example to others who may have sought to instigate unrest or challenge British rule.
It is possible that in her case, the analogy between treason and petty treason meant that husband-murder stood in for political insurrection, thus making such a harsh and ostentatious punishment seem appropriate. We know that the British carried gibbeting as a post-mortem punishment as part of its colonising efforts not only to Canada, but also to America, Australia, New Zealand and India.
When used to punish white British overseas subjects, gibbeting followed the form used by the civil authorities in Britain. However, the use of the gibbet to punish enslaved African people—men and women—particularly in the plantation colonies, was much more brutal and violent.
In Antigua, six enslaved African individuals were gibbeted following an uprising in They were gibbeted alive and condemned to hang in chains to die of thirst, hunger and exposure. These enslaved African individuals were captured as ringleaders of the violent St Mary Rebellion against the white planter class and were gibbeted alive at one of the thoroughfares of the capital. Yet Marie-Josephte Corriveau remains the only white woman we know of hung in chains under the Murder Act. For other subjects whose bodies were gibbeted in the British world, infamy is likely a more appropriate way to refer to their posthumous and in some cases, long enduring renown than the status of legend rightfully accorded to Marie-Josephte Corriveau.
In Britain, ghost stories around gibbets are surprisingly rare, and certainly none approaches the recognition and notoriety of La Corriveau as she continues to be known in literature, legend and contemporary renderings. But more appropriately, we argue, that name refers to the union of a woman accused and convicted of a crime and the cage that played a key role in her post-mortem punishment. Indeed, without the gibbet, Marie-Josephte Corriveau would never have been transformed into the legendary voracious man-murderer, malignant spirit and tragic dark figure still known today.
We are not the first, nor will we be the last to tell the stories of Jobling, Broughton, and Corriveau. Our tellings are intimately related to the context in which these stories are told here: in relationship with our focus on the criminal corpse in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain.
As John Lutz has said, all historical sources are partial, in both senses of the word. We tell these stories here, together and assembled in this way, to move from historical summary to more individual detail, and to try to create a view into the historical use of the gibbet that may allow us to connect our own ideas, assumptions, and feelings with an event and experience that is otherwise alien.
Both gibbets have been curated, restored and replaced to enable their continued function as local landmarks. The gibbet is also with us in more fanciful forms. Birdcage style gibbet Halloween decorations are sold in both the United Kingdom and North America, and similar versions can be found in various macabre entertainments, such as the popular London Dungeon experience.
In these contemporary forms, the gibbet has been safely contained in museum spaces, made campy displays for macabre holidays, or has even been converted into voluntary erotic indulgence by some with a sexual taste for punishment, but in all cases the gibbet retains its entertainment value and dark fascination for those not subjected to its historical and actual ends.
See, Tarlow, S. In eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Britain, gibbeting was a punishment used by civil and military authorities, and the practice shows some variation between these two groups. Gibbeting by the civil authorities differed in terms of gibbet technology.
See, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves [film], dir. Pratchett mentions gibbets in at least three Discworld novels. It is worth mentioning that in the Discworld, gibbets are constructed and function in a much more historically accurate manner than in most other fictional contexts. Their reception also follows historical example.
See, Willow [film], dir. This is discussed further below in the context of the social discourse around gibbeting. This differentiation draws on the work of Ellul, J. For a discussion of the criteria by which gibbets were selected, see for example, Tarlow, S. This previously underexploited source of evidence was discovered by Richard Ward, and examined in, Ward, R.
For a list of existing gibbet cages in Britain, see, Tarlow, S. We should note that not all of these cages date from the period of the Murder Act, but all were used by the civil authorities not the Admiralty , except possibly for the one owned by Winchester Museums. The small sample size makes consideration of cages from beyond the period considered in this chapter necessary.
This primary source investigation is unprecedented in this area. See for example the case of Spence Broughton at the end of this chapter. See, Andrews, W. Sleath, S. One of the most well-known sources to make this claim is Hartshorne, A. London Chronicle , August 5—8, , issue As Peter King has found, no female murderers were gibbeted during the life of the Murder Act, and none of the fifty-five individuals convicted of property crimes and sentenced to hang in chains during the same period were women.
See, Naish, C. In , an act of Parliament authorised the transportation of British convicts to any colony designated by the Crown. This gave rise to transportation of English and Irish convicts in particular, to places like Bermuda where they were used for projects in support of imperial expansion. See also Markus, T. See for example, Rusche, G. See, Vaughan, B. See, Fielding, S. See, Ridley, D. Marshall, A. From database British newspapers — See, Pelham, C.
See for example, Hindle, R. Hester, G. See, King, P. As King explains, throughout the eighteenth century, this punishment involved death before burning. This was also a punishment meted out against female coiners. Burning of women declined as a practice in eighteenth-century Britain, and was formally abolished in This battle was part of the larger French and Indian War — between England and France in North America, which in turn was part of the larger, global Seven Years War between those two imperial powers during the same period.
The Essex Institute was succeeded by the Peabody Essex Museum in , and the institution is considered one of the oldest continually operating museums in the United States. See, Luc Lacoursiere, C. For more information see, Trudel, M. Eighty-eight enslaved African people were put to death by the Antigua planters. Of these, 5 were broken on the wheel, 6 gibbeted alive, and 77 burned alive. Burnard, T. Institute of Jamaica, The Gleaner , 7 October, The Library Company of Philadelphia.
See, Lutz, J. The images or other third party material in this book are included in the book's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the book's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.
Following a public outcry, it was taken off the books in Though nearly years have since passed, representations of hanging in chains arise often in Britain and North America. Whether in popular film and television or Halloween decorations, gibbets seem to be more common in the imagination of entertainment media than they ever were in real life.
Undeniably, the gibbet is still with us, and continues to loom large in popular imagination. Open image in new window. It involved suspending the corpse of a convicted murderer between earth and sky, thereby exiling the criminal body to a liminal space, and leaving it there for up to several decades until there was little, if anything, left.
For the condemned, sentencing made them aware that their body would be denied proper burial, and would be exposed, subject to public scorn, and would visibly decay, drop and be devoured by animals and insects.
The criminal body might be further subjected to the ignominy of being stolen or carried off—at times, piece by piece—as decay allowed bones to fall through the gibbet cage onto the ground. In other cases, decay left an assemblage of bony body parts in the cage from which they could not be easily extracted especially skulls, the only bones which were unlikely to fit through the cage without assistance 7 Fig.
Key to site selection was the need for both security and accessibility. Like hangings, gibbetings and the gibbet itself drew large crowds. It was not unusual for thousands, and sometimes tens of thousands, of people to visit new gibbets, and they remained sites of interest and visitation so long as the gibbet stood. Limited access combined with large crowds risked property damage, riots, and other dangers of large-scale disorder.
In addition to allowing sufficient space to accommodate the curious and carnivalesque crowd, the site needed to help ensure the visibility of the gibbet. High places such as hills or locations next to major travel routes or at crossroads were all sites that accomplished this goal. Locations such as on commons, wasteland or open heath also allowed large crowds to gather safely.
Officials were sometimes petitioned to relocate gibbets located near the homes or properties of prominent individuals, requiring additional work and expense. The gibbets of Abraham Tull and William Hawkins in Berkshire were taken down and buried at the request of a well-to-do local lady. Women criminals were not gibbetted because the medical schools were interested in the workings of the female body, and so those women who were condemned were not sentenced to gibbeting.
The medical schools were permitted 50 bodies per year through these measures. Grave robbers and restorationists made a living in bodies. At the time, a person could drive through a village with a dead and naked body in the wagon, without breaking a law. It was all quite convoluted. Prior to that, it was a rare, notorious, horrifying punishment, which gathered quite the crowd to witness the spectacle of a gibbet being erected.
According to Rebel Circus , a blacksmith designed and constructed the gibbet to fit the size of the person. The gibbet cages were designed so the rotting body stayed together, holding the shape of the person. If a person had dared to attempt to help a person in a gibbet, their efforts would be futile. The gibbets were covered in sharp studs to keep people from attempting to touch them.
They were left up for years at a time. They became landmarks, and a few even had streets named after them. There were many different designs and variations of the gibbet. Some kept the condemned in place by impaling the back of his head on a spike, but that was later stopped because it allowed for the condemned to die too quickly. There are 16 gibbets remaining in England, the majority of which can be viewed in museums. The practice peaked in the s. They remained in place for decades sometimes, as the corpses inside were eaten by bugs and birds and turned into skeletons.
Steps were taken to prevent people from removing them; the posts were often 30 feet or higher. One was studded with 12, nails to keep it from being torn down. They became landscape features; gibbeted criminals lent their names to roads like Parr and became boundary markers.
Some were heavy, some were very loose, some were adjustable. One had a notch where a nose would go. In some cases, the gibbet held only the torso, allowing the arms and legs to dangle outside its confines. After a gibbet was removed or fell down from wear the gibbet and its components were sometimes turned into souvenirs, such as a post that was carved up into tobacco bowls.
Harnessing the Power of the Criminal Corpse provides us information on building the gibbet, the cost of the project, the locations chosen for the gibbet, the gibbets that have lasted the longest as landmarks , ant the end of the practice for those of you seeking more facts. Spooky Isles gives us the story of the last person to be gibbetted. This punishment took place in Baslow, near historic Chatsworth House in Derbyshire.
Atlas Obscura. Criminal Corpses. Rebel Circus.
I had heard that some bodies were tarred to ensure shelf-life. How early is the practice, do you know? I rewrote it for a collection that is hopefully coming out some time this year. Thanks for you comments Jim, and really glad you enjoyed the article. The author cites an example of gibbeting from recorded by Matthew Paris, in which one man was gibbeted alive, the other dead.
Fascinating if macabre piece. Am I correct in saying that the touch of a newly executed felon was valued for medical purposes? Similarly, were so-called Hands-of-Glory likely to be made from such dead criminals? Thanks for reading, and for your comments. Yes the touch of freshly hanged specifically male corpses was thought to cure a variety of skin ailments, usually localised swellings such as tumours or goiters, a practice which peaked in the latter half of the eighteenth century. This might then be used alongside a candle made from the fat of a hanged man, with the intention of stunning anyone who saw it, rendering them motionless.
I found it particularly interesting that you mention the differences in reaction to gibbet cages in terms of placement. I was wondering, do you think the crowds that hoarded to see these spectacles played a part in the popular culture of violence, encapsulated by Rosalind Crone, that emerged during this period?
Where gibbets were placed in a more urban context they were still on the peripheries i. This nearness to the hustle of city life may have made them slightly less threatening yes, whilst still keeping them at a safe distance.
Though I would be interested to explore this idea further — thanks! Interesting article but smugglers were not executed for smuggling. If they failed to pay the fine they were imprisoned. Of course if they violently resisted the Revenue men then they laid themselves opened themselves to facing trial for capital offences. If this was not the case then many port towns would have been decimated from smugglers being executed. Many thanks for the correction, Tony.
Yes it seems that smuggling was listed alongside other offences e. Email will not be published. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. It's only fair to share New Scholarship on the Press Gang — Part 2 of 2. Jim August 11, at pm. I rewrote it for a collection that is hopefully coming out some time this year Reply. Lockwood August 18, at pm. Mayank August 22, at am. Thanks for the link,never knew this,interesting. Thank you Mayank, glad you got the link okay!
Grace October 29, at pm. Furthermore, gibbets spooked people by creaking and clanking eerily. The wind added to their eeriness by making them twist and sway. People who lived near gibbets would have to put up with their stench and eeriness as birds and bugs ate their corpses. Hence, gibbets often stood for years. Authorities made gibbeted bodies difficult to remove by hanging them from foot-tall posts.
Sometimes, they made the posts even taller. On one occasion, they even studded a post with 12, nails to keep it from being torn down. Blacksmiths who were tasked with making gibbet cages often had a hard time doing so, since they often had no prior knowledge of the structures. They were also expensive to make. Authorities at the time felt that the key to stopping crime was making its punishment as appalling as possible.
They argued that appalling punishments like gibbeting showed would-be criminals that breaking the law was far from worthwhile. Authorities saw gibbeting as a way to prevent not only murder but also lesser crimes. They gibbeted people for robbing the mail, piracy, and smuggling. However, despite the appalling nature of gibbeting, crime in England failed to decline while the practice was in use.
This is perhaps part of the reason why it fell out of favor and was formally abolished in Although gibbeting is a thing of the past, remnants of the practice can be found throughout England. Over a dozen gibbet cages remain in the country, most of which are in small museums. Furthermore, many criminals lent their names to the places where they were gibbeted.
The names of these places serve as reminders of the disturbing punishment that the country once embraced. After learning about gibbeting, read the last words of 23 notorious criminals before they were executed.