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Rdbuf binary options

First, are you sure that you understand buffering? The rules for buffering can be a little odd, but they aren't any different from those of C. Maybe that's why they can be a bit odd. Many people think that writing a newline to an output stream automatically flushes the output buffer. All of that is system-dependent. The "newline-buffer-flushing only occurring on terminals" thing is mostly true on Unix systems, though. Some people also believe that sending endl down an output stream only writes a newline.

This is incorrect; after a newline is written, the buffer is also flushed. You could make the code prettier by moving the single newline to the start of the quoted text on the thing line, for example. On the other hand, there are times when writing to a file should be like writing to standard error; no buffering should be done because the data needs to appear quickly a prime example is a log file for security-related information.

Since all aspects of buffering are handled by a streambuf-derived member, it is necessary to get at that member with rdbuf. Then the public version of setbuf can be called. A great deal of this is implementation-dependent. For example, streambuf does not specify any actions for its own setbuf -ish functions; the classes derived from streambuf each define behavior that "makes sense" for that class: an argument of 0,0 turns off buffering for filebuf but has undefined behavior for its sibling stringbuf , and specifying anything other than 0,0 has varying effects.

Other user-defined class derived from streambuf can do whatever they want. Kernel buffers, disk buffers, and the like will also have an effect. Inspecting and changing those are system-dependent. This isn't going to try and be a complete tutorial on reading and writing binary files because "binary" covers a lot of ground , but we will try and clear up a couple of misconceptions and common errors.

First, ios::binary has exactly one defined effect, no more and no less. There are other things that normal mode does, but that's the most obvious. Why not? Because ifstream and ofstream exist for the purpose of formatting , not reading and writing. This may or may not be what you want, see below. Notice how all the problems here are due to the inappropriate use of formatting functions and classes to perform something which requires that formatting not be done?

The overloaded bitshift operators have a well-defined meaning formatting , and this breaks it. How to go about using streambufs is a bit beyond the scope of this document at least for now , but while streambufs go a long way, they still leave a couple of things up to you, the programmer. As an example, byte ordering is completely between you and the operating system, and you have to handle it yourself.

Deriving a streambuf or filebuf class from the standard ones, one that is specific to your data types or an abstraction thereof is probably a good idea, and lots of examples exist in journals and on Usenet. Using the standard filebufs directly either by declaring your own or by using the pointer returned from an fstream's rdbuf is certainly feasible as well. One area that causes problems is trying to do bit-by-bit operations with filebufs.

If you're trying to read or write a few bits at a time, you're going about it the wrong way. Another area of problems is opening text files in binary mode. Generally, binary mode is intended for binary files, and opening text files in binary mode means that you now have to deal with all of those end-of-line and end-of-file problems that we mentioned before.

An instructive thread from comp. You'll have to sort through some flames every couple of paragraphs, but the points made are good ones. An example of their use is in the Received Wisdom section for Chapter 21 Strings , describing how to format strings. The quick definition is: they are siblings of ifstream and ofstream, and they do for std::string what their siblings do for files.

Need to format a string before passing the string to a function? You've read a string as input and need to parse it? Have a stringstream and need to get a copy of the string inside? Just call the str member function. If you are a user of the strstream classes, you need to update your code. You don't have to explicitly append ends to terminate the C-style character array, you don't have to mess with "freezing" functions, and you don't have to manage the memory yourself.

The rules for buffering can be a little odd, but they aren't any different from those of C. Maybe that's why they can be a bit odd. Many people think that writing a newline to an output stream automatically flushes the output buffer. All of that is system-dependent. The "newline-buffer-flushing only occurring on terminals" thing is mostly true on Unix systems, though.

Some people also believe that sending endl down an output stream only writes a newline. This is incorrect; after a newline is written, the buffer is also flushed. Perhaps this is the effect you want when writing to a screen -- get the text out as soon as possible, etc -- but the buffering is largely wasted when doing this to a file:. The proper thing to do in this case to just write the data out and let the libraries and the system worry about the buffering.

If you need a newline, just write a newline:. I have also joined the output statements into a single statement. You could make the code prettier by moving the single newline to the start of the quoted text on the last line, for example. If you do need to flush the buffer above, you can send an endl if you also need a newline, or just flush the buffer yourself:. On the other hand, there are times when writing to a file should be like writing to standard error; no buffering should be done because the data needs to appear quickly a prime example is a log file for security-related information.

Since all aspects of buffering are handled by a streambuf-derived member, it is necessary to get at that member with rdbuf. Then the public version of setbuf can be called. A great deal of this is implementation-dependent. For example, streambuf does not specify any actions for its own setbuf -ish functions; the classes derived from streambuf each define behavior that "makes sense" for that class: an argument of 0,0 turns off buffering for filebuf but does nothing at all for its siblings stringbuf and strstreambuf , and specifying anything other than 0,0 has varying effects.

User-defined classes derived from streambuf can do whatever they want. Kernel buffers, disk buffers, and the like will also have an effect. Inspecting and changing those are system-dependent. This isn't going to try and be a complete tutorial on reading and writing binary files because "binary" covers a lot of ground , but we will try and clear up a couple of misconceptions and common errors. First, ios::binary has exactly one defined effect, no more and no less.

There are other things that normal mode does, but that's the most obvious. Why not? Because ifstream and ofstream exist for the purpose of formatting , not reading and writing. This may or may not be what you want, see below. Notice how all the problems here are due to the inappropriate use of formatting functions and classes to perform something which requires that formatting not be done?

There are a seemingly infinite number of solutions, and a few are listed here:. How to go about using streambufs is a bit beyond the scope of this document at least for now , but while streambufs go a long way, they still leave a couple of things up to you, the programmer. As an example, byte ordering is completely between you and the operating system, and you have to handle it yourself. Deriving a streambuf or filebuf class from the standard ones, one that is specific to your data types or an abstraction thereof is probably a good idea, and lots of examples exist in journals and on Usenet.

Using the standard filebufs directly either by declaring your own or by using the pointer returned from an fstream's rdbuf is certainly feasible as well. One area that causes problems is trying to do bit-by-bit operations with filebufs. If you're trying to read or write a few bits at a time, you're going about it the wrong way. Another area of problems is opening text files in binary mode.

Generally, binary mode is intended for binary files, and opening text files in binary mode means that you now have to deal with all of those end-of-line and end-of-file problems that we mentioned before. An instructive thread from comp. You'll have to sort through some flames every couple of paragraphs, but the points made are good ones. An example of their use is in the Received Wisdom section for Chapter 21 Strings , describing how to format strings. The quick definition is: they are siblings of ifstream and ofstream, and they do for std::string what their siblings do for files.

Need to format a string before passing the string to a function? You've read a string as input and need to parse it? Have a stringstream and need to get a copy of the string inside? Just call the str member function. If you are a user of the strstream classes, you need to update your code. You don't have to explicitly append ends to terminate the C-style character array, you don't have to mess with "freezing" functions, and you don't have to manage the memory yourself. Both are published by Addison-Wesley, who isn't paying us a cent for saying that, honest.

It transforms everything sent through it to uppercase. This version assumes many things about the nature of the character type being used for more information, read the books or the newsgroups :. Try it yourself! More examples can be found in 3. Briefly, the problems of byte ordering and type sizes mean that the unformatted functions like ostream::put and istream::get cannot safely be used to communicate between arbitrary programs, or across a network, or from one invocation of a program to another invocation of the same program on a different platform, etc.

The entire Usenet thread is instructive, and took place under the subject heading "binary iostreams" on both comp. It sounds like a flame on C, but it isn't. Calm down. I'm just saying it to get your attention. For example:. Alert members of the audience will immediately notice that buffering is going to make a hash of the output unless special steps are taken.

This kind of thing is tricky to get right.

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Kernel buffers, disk buffers, and the like will also have an effect. Inspecting and changing those are system-dependent. This isn't going to try and be a complete tutorial on reading and writing binary files because "binary" covers a lot of ground , but we will try and clear up a couple of misconceptions and common errors.

First, ios::binary has exactly one defined effect, no more and no less. There are other things that normal mode does, but that's the most obvious. Why not? Because ifstream and ofstream exist for the purpose of formatting , not reading and writing. This may or may not be what you want, see below. Notice how all the problems here are due to the inappropriate use of formatting functions and classes to perform something which requires that formatting not be done?

There are a seemingly infinite number of solutions, and a few are listed here:. How to go about using streambufs is a bit beyond the scope of this document at least for now , but while streambufs go a long way, they still leave a couple of things up to you, the programmer. As an example, byte ordering is completely between you and the operating system, and you have to handle it yourself.

Deriving a streambuf or filebuf class from the standard ones, one that is specific to your data types or an abstraction thereof is probably a good idea, and lots of examples exist in journals and on Usenet. Using the standard filebufs directly either by declaring your own or by using the pointer returned from an fstream's rdbuf is certainly feasible as well.

One area that causes problems is trying to do bit-by-bit operations with filebufs. If you're trying to read or write a few bits at a time, you're going about it the wrong way. Another area of problems is opening text files in binary mode. Generally, binary mode is intended for binary files, and opening text files in binary mode means that you now have to deal with all of those end-of-line and end-of-file problems that we mentioned before.

An instructive thread from comp. You'll have to sort through some flames every couple of paragraphs, but the points made are good ones. An example of their use is in the Received Wisdom section for Chapter 21 Strings , describing how to format strings. The quick definition is: they are siblings of ifstream and ofstream, and they do for std::string what their siblings do for files. Need to format a string before passing the string to a function?

You've read a string as input and need to parse it? Have a stringstream and need to get a copy of the string inside? Just call the str member function. If you are a user of the strstream classes, you need to update your code. You don't have to explicitly append ends to terminate the C-style character array, you don't have to mess with "freezing" functions, and you don't have to manage the memory yourself.

Both are published by Addison-Wesley, who isn't paying us a cent for saying that, honest. It transforms everything sent through it to uppercase. This version assumes many things about the nature of the character type being used for more information, read the books or the newsgroups :. Try it yourself! More examples can be found in 3. Briefly, the problems of byte ordering and type sizes mean that the unformatted functions like ostream::put and istream::get cannot safely be used to communicate between arbitrary programs, or across a network, or from one invocation of a program to another invocation of the same program on a different platform, etc.

The entire Usenet thread is instructive, and took place under the subject heading "binary iostreams" on both comp. It sounds like a flame on C, but it isn't. Calm down. I'm just saying it to get your attention. For example:. Alert members of the audience will immediately notice that buffering is going to make a hash of the output unless special steps are taken.

This kind of thing is tricky to get right. The upside is that correctness is ensured. Some patches have been applied which improve the situation for 3. The right thing to do in this case is to call. For GCC 3. Note, by the way, that the synchronization requirement only applies to the standard streams cin , cout , cerr , clog , and their wide-character counterparts. File stream objects that you declare yourself have no such requirement and are fully buffered.

If you have not read them, please do so first. A generic locking mechanism is somewhat in place at the filebuf layer, but is not used in the current code. Providing locking at any higher level is akin to providing locking within containers, and is not done for the same reasons see the links above. We do no locking ourselves, but simply pass through to calls to fopen , fwrite , and so forth. So, for 3. You, the programmer, are always required to take care with multiple threads.

However, you still need to not do stupid things like calling fclose fs in one thread followed by an access of fs in another. For higher-level operations, such as manipulating the data contained in the stream formatting classes e. This is disabled by default, and in fact will not currently work due to other issues.

It will be revisited, however. The real situation is more complex than that The result is that there is no "layer" of C stdio to go through; the filebuf makes calls directly into the same functions used to implement fread , fwrite , and so forth, using internal data structures. And when I say "makes calls directly," I mean the function is literally replaced by a jump into an internal function. Whether or not you intend to share a stream buffer among streams depends on your application.

In any case, it is important that you realize the stream buffer is shared after a call to rdbuf ; in other words, you must monitor the lifetime of the stream buffer object and make sure it exceeds the lifetime of the stream. In our little example above, we use the standard output stream's buffer.

Since the standard streams are static objects, their stream buffers have longer lifetimes that most other objects, so we are safe. However, whenever you share a stream buffer among other stream objects, you must carefully consider the stream buffer's lifetime. The example above has another disadvantage we haven't considered yet, as shown in the following code:.

As we copy the standard output stream's entire internal data, we also copy its special behavior. For instance, the standard output stream is synchronized with the standard input stream. See Section 2. If our output file stream out is a copy of cout , it is forced to synchronize its output operations with all input operations from cin. This might not be desired, especially since synchronization is a time-consuming activity.

Here is a more efficient approach using only the stream buffer of the standard output stream:. As in the original example, out inserts through the standard output stream's buffer, but lacks the special properties of a standard stream. The effect is the same as in the previous solution, because the standard output stream cout is connected to the C standard input file stdout. This is the simplest of all solutions, because it doesn't involve reassigning or sharing stream buffers.

The output file stream's buffer is simply connected to the right file. However, this is a non-standard solution, and may decrease portability. If you do not want to deal with stream buffers at all, you can also use pointers or references to streams instead. Here is an example:. Working with pointers and references has a drawback: you have to create an output file stream object on the heap and, in principle, you have to worry about deleting the object again, which might lead you into other dire straits.

In summary, creating a copy of a stream is not trivial and should only be done if you really need a copy of a stream object. In many cases, it is more appropriate to use references or pointers to stream objects instead, or to share a stream buffer between two streams. Keep in mind: Never create a copy of a stream object when a reference or a pointer to the stream object would suffice, or when a shared stream buffer would solve the problem.

Despite the previous caveats, there are situations where sharing a stream buffer among streams is useful and intended. Let us focus on these in this section. Imagine you need different formatting for different kinds of output to the same stream.

Instead of switching the format settings between the different kinds of output, you can arrange for two separate streams to share a stream buffer. The streams would have different format settings, but write output to the same stream buffer. Note that file2 in the example above has to be an output stream rather than an output file stream.

This is because file streams do not allow you to switch the file stream buffer. Similarly, you can use separate streams that share a stream buffer in order to avoid locale switches. This is useful when you have to insert multilingual text into the same stream.

Again, there is a little snag. In Figure 16, note that a stream buffer has a locale object of its own, in addition to the stream's locale object. To recap, the stream delegates the handling of numeric entities to its locale's numeric facets. The stream buffer uses its locale's code conversion facet for character-wise transformation between the buffer content and characters transported to and from the external device.

Usually the stream's locale and the stream buffer's locale are identical. However, when you share a stream buffer between two streams with different locales, you must decide which locale the stream buffer will use. You can set the stream buffer's locale by calling the pubimbue function as follows:.

You can also use a shared stream buffer in order to have read and write access to a stream:. Naturally, it is easier and less error-prone to use bidirectional streams when you have to read and write to a file. The bidirectional equivalent to the example above would be:. Notice that there is a difference between the solutions that you can see by comparing Figure 17 and Figure An input and an output stream that share a stream buffer, as shown in Figure 17, can still have separate format settings, different locales, different exception masks, and so on.

In contrast, the bidirectional stream shown in Figure 18 can have only one format setting, one locale, and so on:. It seems clear that you cannot have different settings for input and output operations when you use a bidirectional stream. Still, it is advisable to use bidirectional file or string streams if you need to read and write to a file or string, instead of creating an input and an output stream that share a stream buffer. The bidirectional stream is easier to declare, and you do not have to worry about the stream buffer object's lifetime.

Please note: It's better to use one bidirectional file or string stream for reading and writing to a file or string, rather than two streams that share a stream buffer. The previous section showed how you can read the content of a file in its entirety by using the rdbuf function. Let us now explore a variation of that example. Imagine another file containing some sort of header information that needs to be analyzed before we start appending the file.

Instead of writing the current file content to the standard output stream, we want to process the content before we start adding to it. The easiest way to put the entire file content into a memory location for further processing is by creating a string stream and inserting the file's stream buffer into the string stream:. In cases where this procedure is insufficient, you should create a string that contains the header information and process the header by means of the string operations find , compare , etc.

If the header contains binary data instead of text, even a string will probably not suffice. Here you would want to see the header as a plain byte sequence, i. But note that a code conversion might already have been performed, depending on the locale attached to the file stream. In cases where you want to process binary data, you have to make sure that the attached locale has a non-converting code conversion facet:. A note on efficiency: If the header information is extensive, you will have to consider the number of copy operations performed in the previous example.

Figure 19 shows how these copies are made:. The content of the file is copied into the string stream's buffer when the pointer obtained through rdbuf is inserted to the string stream.

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