In other words, you can't just pop a red light bulb into your desk lamp and expect to jump-start a cellular time machine. When you visit a professional, you can expect a treatment utilizing one of these optimal wavelengths, but if you buy a DIY device, be sure to check that it specifies an output intensity.
When it comes to muscle repair and recovery, evidence suggests RLT has benefits when used both pre- and postworkout. A study found that the therapeutic technique led to reduced muscle strength loss, less muscle soreness, and fewer range-of-motion impairments for up to four days after exercise.
A more recent study also proved that RLT both before and after exercise reduces knee muscle fatigue. At the core of many of these benefits is RLT's potential to reduce inflammation and pain. Researchers have found that RLT exposure can help reduce pain for osteoarthritis knee pain , meniscus tears , general knee pain , rheumatoid arthritis , and back pain.
The data on red light therapy for pain relief is so convincing the FDA has approved it as a therapy for treating minor pains and arthritis. One of the most popular uses of RLT is to clear up skin issues like acne. The skin-clearing secret lies in RLT's anti-inflammatory effects, says Klein.
It also helps naturally decrease oil production and bacterial levels in your skin—no drying effects or harsh chemicals required. Red light acne treatments are fairly easy to find—most dermatologists offer them in-office or you can buy an at-home device. Okay, so how about that whole fountain-of-youth thing? Where red light does become controversial is how many rays you actually need to soak up to see results—researchers haven't yet nailed down the optimal dose.
When deciding how much, it's best to err on the side of caution and consult a board-certified dermatologist before trying red light therapy at home, as you should with any new beauty procedure. Though there are little to no risks associated with the treatment, too much exposure or faulty equipment could damage the skin tissue leading to burns and blisters. Seek medical advice immediately for any burns.
For those sensitive to bright lights, it's also a good idea to make sure you have the option for some eye protection. So is RLT really magic? Not quite—no treatment is able to give you Wolverine-like powers just yet. But the science behind red light therapy is incredibly promising. Hannah Chenoweth is a Baltimore-based writer, covering health, wellness, and human interest stories.
Follow her hannahchen2. Originally Appeared on Glamour. The former top overall prospect has fallen quite a bit since winning a World Series. Carson Wentz seems likely to be traded in the next few days, and the QB apparently has some thoughts on his destination. By Adam Hermann. Stephen Curry reacts to Philadelphia 76ers guard Seth Curry's historic stat line. Alex Bowman rocketed to the Daytona pole as Hendrick Motorsports swept the front row. Tom Brady jokingly devised a master plan to earn himself and his Bucs teammates a few extra bucks from Super Bowl 55, according his QB coach.
Brady and Mahomes were mic'd up for their postgame chat. Washington Football Team is trying to figure out what to do at QB, and their latest decision is extremely intriguing. With five quarterbacks going in Round 1, it could be a wild ride early in the NFL draft.
It was impossible to determine the source of infection and no predisposing factors were found. Oral treatment with fluconazole was totally successful. A review of the literature showed only three cases of cutaneous infection by Cryptococcus laurentii. All of the cases occurred in immunocompromised patients.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of Cryptococcus laurentii in an immunocompetent host. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Clostridium subterminale septicemia in an immunocompetent patient. Clostridium subterminale is a Clostridium species that has been rarely isolated in the blood of immunocompromised patients. We report a case of C. Organ transplant recipients OTRs have a high incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cSCC , and immunosuppression has been reported to be an important risk factor for metastasis.
The aim of this study was to identify the metastasis risk over a year period for patients with cSCC, of whom were OTR and were immunocompetent. In immunocompetent patients tumour size and tumour depth were associated with metastasis. In conclusion, we were not able to demonstrate an increased incidence rate of metastasis in OTRs compared with immunocompetent patients.
However, OTRs and immunocompetent patients differed with regard to risk factors for metastasis. Research opportunities on immunocompetence in space. The most significant of the available data on the effects of space flight on immunocompetences and the potential operational and clinical significance of reported changes are as follows: 1 reduced postflight blastogenic response of peripheral lymphocytes from space crew members; 2 postflight neutrophilia persisting up to 7 days; 3 gingival inflammation of the Skylab astronauts; 4 postflight lymphocytopenia, eosinopenia, and monocytopenia; 5 modifications and shifts in the microflora of space crews and spacecraft; and 6 microbial contamination of cabin air and drinking water.
These responses and data disclose numerous gaps in the knowledge that is essential for an adequate understanding of space-related changes in immunocompetence. Chronic active toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent patient. We report the case of an apparently immunocompetent woman whose symptoms and signs have persisted for 8 years following a serologically and histologically confirmed diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.
During this period she had two successful pregnancies despite persistently increased anti-toxoplasma IgM antibodies. Neither child is infected. Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques.
In absence of risk factors , osteoarticular infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci are very infrequent. We described the case of a immunocompetent year-old-woman that suffered pyomyositis, left sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis involving the first and second thoracic vertebrae by Staphylococcus hominis.
This multifocal infection occurred five-weeks after intramuscular administration of NSAI for treatment of low back pain associated with a herniated disc L4-L5. This is the first know case of a multifocal muscle skeletal infection by Staphylococcus hominis in a patient immunocompetent.
Mycobacterium mageritense Parotitis in an Immunocompetent Adult. Mycobacterium mageritense , a rapidly growing mycobacterium, is a rare clinical pathogen. Furthermore, parotitis due to non-tuberculosis mycobacterium is very rare in adults. Herein, we report the first case of M. A year-old man presented with swelling in a left parotid lesion.
He was diagnosed with parotitis. The culture from the parotid abscess grew M. He was unsuccessfully treated with levofloxacin monotherapy. Subsequently, the skin lesion was surgically removed. The antibiotic treatment was ceased a week after surgery as the postoperative course was uneventful and the lesion had improved. Although extremely rare, M. Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient.
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection.
No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted. Malignant syphilis is an uncommon manifestation of secondary syphilis, in which necrotic lesions may be associated with systemic signs and symptoms. Generally it occurs in an immunosuppressed patient, mainly HIV-infected, but might be observed on those who have normal immune response.
Since there is an exponential increase in the number of syphilis cases, more diagnoses of malignant syphilis must be expected. We report a case in an immunocompetent female patient. Does clutch size evolve in response to parasites and immunocompetence? Parasites have been argued to influence clutch size evolution, but past work and theory has largely focused on within-species optimization solutions rather than clearly addressing among-species variation.
The effects of parasites on clutch size variation among species can be complex, however, because different parasites can induce age-specific differences in mortality that can cause clutch size to evolve in different directions. We provide a conceptual argument that differences in immunocompetence among species should integrate differences in overall levels of parasite-induced mortality to which a species is exposed. We test this assumption and show that mortality caused by parasites is positively correlated with immunocompetence measured by cell-mediated measures.
Under life history theory, clutch size should increase with increased adult mortality and decrease with increased juvenile mortality. Using immunocompetence as a general assay of parasite-induced mortality, we tested these predictions by using data for 25 species. We found that clutch size increased strongly with adult immunocompetence. In contrast, clutch size decreased weakly with increased juvenile immunocompetence.
But, immunocompetence of juveniles may be constrained by selection on adults, and, when we controlled for adult immunocompetence , clutch size decreased with juvenile immunocompetence. Thus, immunocompetence seems to reflect evolutionary differences in parasite virulence experienced by species, and differences in age-specific parasite virulence appears to exert opposite selection on clutch size evolution.
Pneumonia in the immunocompetent patient. Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lower respiratory tract. Lower respiratory tract infection is a major cause of mortality worldwide. Pneumonia is most common at the extremes of life. Predisposing factors in children include an under-developed immune system together with other factors , such as malnutrition and over-crowding. In adults, tobacco smoking is the single most important preventable risk factor.
The commonest infecting organisms in children are respiratory viruses and Streptoccocus pneumoniae. In adults, pneumonia can be broadly classified, on the basis of chest radiographic appearance, into lobar pneumonia, bronchopneumonia and pneumonia producing an interstitial pattern. Lobar pneumonia is most commonly associated with community acquired pneumonia, bronchopneumonia with hospital acquired infection and an interstitial pattern with the so called atypical pneumonias, which can be caused by viruses or organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Most cases of pneumonia can be managed with chest radiographs as the only form of imaging, but CT can detect pneumonia not visible on the chest radiograph and may be of value, particularly in the hospital setting. Complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion, empyema and lung abscess. The chest radiograph may initially indicate an effusion but ultrasound is more sensitive, allows characterisation in some cases and can guide catheter placement for drainage.
CT can also be used to characterise and estimate the extent of pleural disease. Most lung abscesses respond to medical therapy, with surgery and image guided catheter drainage serving as options for those cases who do not respond. Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent patients. Fungal infections are one of the important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.
Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis is extremely rare. We report two cases of aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent men in the absence of an underlying disorder. The clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of Pott's spine. The absolute CD4, CD8 counts and their ratio were normal. The HIV status was negative in both patients. Both patients underwent surgical decompression.
The histopathology of tissue obtained were suggestive of aspergillus osteomyelitis. One patient had antifungal treatment for 3 months and was doing well at 1 year followup, whereas other patient did not turnup after 2 months. A healthy young man was hospitalized due to fever, malaise and bloody stools for three weeks. The patient had a primary CMV infection based on biochemical, serological and ultrasonic results, and a colonoscopy was consistent with left-sided CMV colitis.
He recovered spontaneously, though haematochezia remained present after six months. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with fever, elevated liver enzymes and bloody stools. Rhodotorula species live in the environment, but can also colonize human epithelium, as well as respiratory, and gastrointestinal tracts. Reports of infection, especially in the past 2 decades, have noted increasing numbers of Rhodotorula infections, particularly in immunocompromised hosts, leading it to be considered emerging opportunistic pathogen.
The major risk factors for infection were prolonged use of central venous catheters in patients with hematological and solid malignancies who are taking corticosteroids or cytotoxic drugs. Herein, we report a case of catheter-associated fungemia due to R. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with mechanical ventilation for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. After 10 days, the patient developed new-onset fever confirmed to be a result of catheter-associated blood-stream infection by R.
It was successfully treated by catheter removal and intravenous amphotericin B. Radioimmunotargeting of human tumour cells in immunocompetent animals. A tumour model system is reported that for many purposes may be an alternative to xenografted nude mice. The model allows immunotargeting of human tumour cells in immunocompetent animals. The target cells are contained in i.
Thus, the tumour cells are protected from the host immunocompetent cells. In the work here presented the model was tested in immunocompetent mice and pigs, with tumour cells and antibody preparations that had demonstrated specific targeting in the nude mouse xenograft model. Specific targeting of the human tumour cells was demonstrated in both mice and pigs. The target: blood ratios were comparable in the two species, reaching a maximum of about 15 after 24 h with the Fab preparation, and a ratio of 25 after 72 h with the F ab' 2.
The target uptake relative to injected dose was lower in pigs than in mice, but the difference between the two species was smaller than expected, presumably due to a slower antibody clearance in the pigs than in the mice. An artificial cell targeting system like this has several advantages in the search for solutions to many of the fundamental problems experienced in immunotargeting.
Firstly, parallel binding experiments can be carried out in vitro with the same target. Because in vitro results are only influenced by the diffusion into the DC and the immunological binding characteristics of the antibodies, targeting differences between antibody preparations due to these factors can then be distinguished from differences. Disseminated cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic fungal infection caused by a yeast-encapsulated fungus of the genus Cryptococcus neoformans.
It occurs most often in patients with a significant deficit of cellular immunity and preferentially affects the central nervous system. The skin and the lungs are the most commonly affected sites outside the neuro-subarachnoid location. We report the case of a patient apparently immunocompetent who had a disseminated cryptococcosis.
The disease started with the multiple purplish skin lesions, large umbilicated on the face, groin, forearm and leg with progressively increasing volume. This symptomatology had evolved in the context of weight loss and poor general condition. The diagnosis was established by the presence of cryptococcal at the skin biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid. Research of immunosuppression common pathologies were negative.
Treatment was initiated based on amphotericin B for 40 days. The patient's condition deteriorates onset of paraplegia and swallowing disorders causing death in an array of cachexia. This observation points out that disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in an immunocompetent patient. The skin lesions may be the first sign of the disease. Cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent critically ill patients.
We aimed to investigate the frequency and the clinical features of proven CMV EOD in previously non-immunosuppressed patients admitted to our institution. From January to March , the records of all patients with a histopathological diagnosis of CMV EOD at our teaching hospital were reviewed retrospectively.
Immunocompromised patients were excluded. The mean age of the patients was 64 years. The major manifestation was gastrointestinal bleeding. The in-hospital mortality rate was Despite being a rare condition, lower gastrointestinal bleeding in this profile of ICU patients could be the clinical manifestation of CMV colitis, and intensivists should be alert to this condition.
Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent individual. Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight.
Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients.
Candida esophagitis in an immunocompetent pregnant woman. Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis.
The immunocompetent primigravida developed progressive nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and a 4. Treatment with metoclopramide and cimetidine for presumed gastroesophageal reflux was not effective. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed C. The esophagitis had resolved completely when reassessed postpartum. The use of histamine 2 blockers is associated with an increased risk for fungal esophagitis and may have been a contributing cause in this case. Pregnant patients with persistent nausea, vomiting, and weight loss should be evaluated by endoscopy for fungal esophagitis.
Due to the excellent immunogenicity of the Haemophilus influenzae type b Hib conjugate vaccines, vaccine failures are rarely seen in patients following the recommended national immunization programmes. We present an infant with Hib meningitis despite relevant prophylaxis, without known risk factors such as medical co-morbidity, immunosuppression, immunoglobulin deficiency or prematurity.
Later, a reactive arthritis developed. In conclusion, Hib-meningitis can occur in vaccinated, immunocompetent patients, and antibiotics covering Hib should be chosen in patients presenting with meningitis. Craniocerebral aspergillosis in immunocompetent hosts: surgical perspective. Craniocerebral aspergillosis is a rare but dangerous variety of central nervous system infections.
Surgery is being widely recognized as the cornerstone of management. Due to the rarity of the disease, difficulty and delay in diagnosis and poor outcome, there is very little in the literature regarding the various surgical strategies that may be adopted in these patients.
Early aggressive surgery followed by chemotherapy offers the best chances. Surgical planning would depend upon the type and location of the disease process as well as the condition of the patient. Perioperative care holds immense importance and knowledge of possible complications is essential. Aspergillosis of the central nervous system is difficult to diagnose and equally difficult to treat. Surgery remains the cornerstone of management followed by systemic antifungal medications.
Results are better in immunocompetent patients as compared to those who are immunocompromised. Intestinal coccidian parasites as an underestimated cause of travellers' diarrhoea in Polish immunocompetent patients. Intestinal coccidian parasites are intracellular protozoa most frequently transmitted during food-borne and water-borne infections. This group of parasites is responsible for acute diarrhoeal illnesses especially among immunocompromised patients.
However, they are more frequently detected in immunocompetent individuals including travellers, and they should also be considered as important etiologic factors of travellers' diarrhoea. We examined immunocompetent patients hospitalized due to acute or chronic diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal symptoms after returning from international journeys to hot climates. A basic microscopical examination and acid - fast staining of stool samples was performed.
Each patient was also a part of the epidemiological investigation to define potential risk factors of tropical gastrointestinal infections. Intestinal coccidiosis was confirmed in 12 out of successively hospitalized patients 5. The most common coccidian parasite was Cryptosporidium spp. Cyclospora spp. The study has revealed that intestinal coccidian parasites are a significant threat to immunocompetent travellers and should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal disorders.
Therefore, it is necessary to perform specialized diagnostic methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Clinical observations demonstrated simultaneously an insufficient level of knowledge in Polish tourists concerning the main risk factors of intestinal parasitic diseases during international travels, particularly to developing countries with lower economic and sanitary conditions. No evidence for the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in male humans.
The observations that testosterone might be immunosuppressive, form the basis for the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis ICHH. According to ICHH only high-quality individuals can maintain high levels of testosterone and afford the physiological cost of hormone-derived immunosuppression. The animal and human studies that attempted to support the ICHH by precisely defined impairment of immunity associated with high testosterone levels are inconclusive.
Furthermore, human studies have used only selected immune functions and varying testosterone fractions. This is the first study examining the relationship between multiple innate and adaptive immunity and serum levels of free testosterone, total testosterone, DHT and DHEA in ninety-seven healthy men. Free testosterone and marginally DHT levels were positively correlated with the strength of the influenza post-vaccination response.
Total testosterone and DHEA showed no immunomodulatory properties. Our findings did not support ICHH assumptions about immunosuppressive function of androgens. In the affluent society studied here, men with higher levels of free testosterone could afford to invest more in adaptive immunity.
Since the hormone-immune relationship is complex and may depend on multiple factors , including access to food resources, androgens should be treated as immunomodulators rather than implicit immunosuppressants. Detection of human papillomavirus in nonmelanoma skin cancer lesions and healthy perilesional skin in kidney transplant recipients and immunocompetent patients. To analyze the prevalence and range of HPV types in NMSC lesions and healthy perilesional skin in immunodepressed and immunocompetent patients and to evaluate the influence of various clinical factors on the prevalence of HPV in skin cancer.
Nested polymerase chain reaction and sequencing were used to detect HPV in NMSC samples obtained by biopsy from 30 kidney transplant recipients and 30 immunocompetent patients. In all cases, a sample was taken from the tumor site and the surrounding healthy skin.
Potential confounders were assessed and the data analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. In both groups of patients, HPV was more common in healthy perilesional skin than in lesional skin. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat. A year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids.
Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp.
Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels.
Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis FIP. Polymerase chain reaction PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.
Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is a leading of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals worldwide. However, there are few documented cases in immunocompetent patients. We present a rare case of disseminated Cryptococcus with progression to meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient, with a possible atypical presentation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram to rule out brain metastasis were negative.
Lumbar puncture resulted positive for Cryptococcus neoformans antigen at titers of and a detailed history later revealed occupational exposure to bird dander by cleaning floors and cages. Diagnosis is challenging, with delays often resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum Cryptococcus antigen play a key role in both diagnosis and determining treatment efficacy.
Furthermore, current treatment guidelines are used for immunocompromised individuals. Due to the significant side effects of these medications, further research is needed to determine the optimal treatment duration for immunocompetent patients to minimize the need for unnecessary therapy. Isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient: a case report. Isolated laryngeal Leishmaniasis presents neither explicit laryngeal lesions nor specific symptoms.
In fact, it may mimic many inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Considering the low incidence of this atypical localization, laryngeal Leishmaniasis, is rarely contemplated by physicians in differential diagnoses of laryngeal tumour lesions. We present the case of a year-old immunocompetent subject who developed a single Leishmania mucosal lesion on the left vocal cord, simulating a laryngeal cancer.
A case report and discussion of the clinical case by referring to the literature. Specific therapy with miltefosine led to clinical and endoscopic improvement. We had no relapse after three years of follow-up. This clinical case highlights the need to consider isolated laryngeal Leishmaniasis in the differential diagnoses of laryngeal tumour lesions, even in immunocompetent subjects who live in endemic zones, in order to ensure an early and correct therapeutic approach.
Soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis can affect muscle, tendons, fascia, bursa and synovial tissue. Tuberculous trochanteric bursitis is a rare entity that usually affects immunocompromised patients. Manifestations usually occur insidiously, which delays diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of an immunocompetent young woman who came to our department for chronic left hip pain.
The study confirms the diagnosis of tuberculous trochanteric bursitis. This case demonstrates the importance of considering a possible infectious origin of bursitis in immunocompetent patients. The aim of this report is to describe a case with Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis complicating pulmonary granuloma in an immunocompetent adult.
A year-old male patient was found to have lesions on lumbar vertebra 5 months after thoracoscopic resection of pulmonary granuloma that lacked a definite etiology. Three operations on the lumbar lesions were performed successively; however, an Aspergillus infection was not confirmed until hyphae were clearly detected at the last surgery. The patient was treated with voriconazole and recovered well.
This case shows that simultaneous occurrence of granulomatous nodules in the lung and vertebral lesions should raise suspicion of aspergillosis, even in immunocompetent patients. Karger AG, Basel. Cytomegalovirus colitis: an unusual cause of diarrhoea in the immunocompetent. Cytomegalovirus CMV colitis is rarely reported in the immuno-competent adult and is often associated with inflammatory bowel disease IBD , particularly ulcerative colitis UC.
An index of suspicion in the appropriate setting is vital to diagnosing the condition. Undiagnosed CMV colitis has a significant morbidity. A review of the natural history and diagnosis of CMV is followed by a discussion of the incidence, outcome and possible treatment of CMV in the immunocompetent patient. The possible association between CMV and IBD is also reviewed, and the question of whether this should have any bearing on treatment is discussed at some length.
This hypothesis has received considerable research attention, and is increasingly treated as plausible and well supported. In this article, we propose that the strength of the evidence for the immunocompetence hypothesis is somewhat overstated, and that a number of difficulties have been under-acknowledged. Such difficulties include 1 the tentative nature of the evidence regarding masculinity and disease in humans, 2 the complex and uncertain picture emerging from the animal literature on sexual ornaments and immunity, 3 the absence of consistent, cross-cultural support for the predictions of the immunocompetence hypothesis regarding preferences for masculinized stimuli, and 4 evidence that facial masculinity contributes very little, if anything, to overall attractiveness in real men.
Furthermore, alternative explanations for patterns of preferences, in particular the proposal that masculinity is primarily an intrasexual signal, have been neglected. We suggest that immunocompetence perspectives on masculinity, whilst appealing in many ways, should still be regarded as speculative, and that other perspectives—and other traits—should be the subject of greater attention for researchers studying human mate preferences. Bordetella bronchoseptica pneumonia with shock in an immunocompetent patient.
Bordetella bronchoseptica is a rarely reported cause of human infection, but is a common respiratory tract commensal of mammals. Human infection with B. We report a case of pneumonia with shock caused by B. Mycobacterium fortuitum is a non-tuberculous fast-growing mycobacterium which is frequently acquired from environmental sources such as soil and water.
Since it is an opportunist pathogen, it is associated with trauma, surgery or immunodeficiency. The current report describes a case of Mycobacterium fortuitum-caused disseminated lesions on the skin of an immunocompetent patient. Immediate dietary effects on migrating Mormon cricket immunocompetence. Mormon crickets form bands and walk over rangeland in the western United States seeking salt and protein.
Radio-tracking adult members of a Mormon cricket band in a high Sonoran desert of Utah, we investigated a potential trade-off between immunocompetence and migratory velocity. We asked: does acce Vaccine-associated measles in an immunocompetent child. We present a rare case of vaccine-associated measles infection in an immunocompetent , HIV-negative patient in the United States.
This case depicts the impressive rash our patient manifested and highlights the importance of reviewing public health interventions to determine epidemiological links in geographical areas with low incidence of measles. The neonicotinoids thiacloprid, imidacloprid, and clothianidin affect the immunocompetence of honey bees Apis mellifera L.
A strong immune defense is vital for honey bee health and colony survival. This defense can be weakened by environmental factors that may render honey bees more vulnerable to parasites and pathogens. Honey bees are frequently exposed to neonicotinoid pesticides, which are being discussed as one of the stress factors that may lead to colony failure.
We investigated the sublethal effects of the neonicotinoids thiacloprid, imidacloprid, and clothianidin on individual immunity, by studying three major aspects of immunocompetence in worker bees: total hemocyte number, encapsulation response, and antimicrobial activity of the hemolymph. In laboratory experiments, we found a strong impact of all three neonicotinoids. These results suggest that neonicotinoids affect the individual immunocompetence of honey bees, possibly leading to an impaired disease resistance capacity.
Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In Switzerland about a third of the population has antibodies against this pathogen and has thus already been in contact with the parasite or has contracted the disease. The most common symptom is neck or occipital lymphadenopathy.
Serology is the diagnostic gold standard in immunocompetent individuals. The presence of IgM antibodies is however not sufficient to make a definite diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis. Distinction between acute and chronic toxoplasmosis requires additional serological tests IgG avidity test. If required, the most used and probably most effective treatment is the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine, with folinic acid.
Objective The aim of this report is to describe a case with Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis complicating pulmonary granuloma in an immunocompetent adult. Clinical Presentation and Intervention A year-old male patient was found to have lesions on lumbar vertebra 5 months after thoracoscopic resection of pulmonary granuloma that lacked a definite etiology. Conclusion This case shows that simultaneous occurrence of granulomatous nodules in the lung and vertebral lesions should raise suspicion of aspergillosis, even in immunocompetent patients.
Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts. We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis PORN like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis.
The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids.
Evidence of immunocompetence reduction induced by cadmium exposure in honey bees Apis mellifera. In the last decades a dramatic loss of Apis mellifera hives has been reported in both Europe and USA. Research in this field is oriented towards identifying a synergy of contributing factors , i. Cadmium Cd is a hazardous anthropogenic pollutant whose effects are proving to be increasingly lethal.
Among the multiple damages related to Cd contamination, some studies report that it causes immunosuppression in various animal species. The aim of this paper is to determine whether contamination by Cd, may have a similar effect on the honey bees' immunocompetence. Our results, obtained by immune challenge experiments and confirmed by structural and ultrastructural observations show that such metal causes a reduction in immunocompetence in 3 days Cd exposed bees. As further evidence of honey bee response to Cd treatment, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy X-EDS has revealed the presence of zinc Zn in peculiar electron-dense granules in fat body cells.
Zn is a characteristic component of metallothioneins MTs , which are usually synthesized as anti-oxidant and scavenger tools against Cd contamination. Our findings suggest that honey bee colonies may have a weakened immune system in Cd polluted areas, resulting in a decreased ability in dealing with pathogens. Invasive aspergillosis, a sever disease, usually occurs in immuno-depressed patients. However, it may also develop in presumably immuno-competent patients.
A year-old man, smoker, was hospitalised for hypoxemia of the right lung and septic shock, rapidly requiring mechanical ventilation combined with administration of vasopressors, and followed by dialysis because of the rapid worsening of an acute kidney failure.
The diagnosis of pulmonary Legionnaire's disease was made on the second day in view of the positivity of the urinary legionella antigen. The progression of the disease was marked by the discovery of a histologically documented gastric aspergillosis and three abscessed intracerebral lesions within the context of a strongly positive aspergillus antigenemia. The disease worsened and the patient died on D 17, despite the antibiotic and anti-aspergillus treatments, haemodynamic support and dialysis.
To our knowledge, the association of invasive aspergillosis and severe Legionnaire's disease has never been described in an presumably immunocompetent patient. This clinical case suggests the existence, other than the usual risk factors of invasive aspergillosis that characterise profound states of immunodepression, of more subtle alterations in the immune system that may enhance this type of infection. Mucormycosis infections are rare in immunocompetent patients, and very few cases of mucormycosis associated with aspergillosis in non-haematological patients have been reported.
A year-old male, immunocompetent and without any previously known risk factors , was admitted to hospital due to a seizure episode 11 days after a motorcycle accident. He had a complicated clinical course as he had a mixed invasive fungal infection with pulmonary involvement due to Aspergillus niger and disseminated mucormycosis due to Rhizomucor pusillus histopathological and microbiological diagnosis in several non-contiguous sites.
The patient survived and was discharged from ICU after 5 months and multiple complications. Treatment with liposomal amphotericin B and aggressive surgical management achieved the eradication of a mixed invasive fungal infection. However, we emphasise the need to maintain a higher level of clinical suspicion and to perform microbiological techniques for early diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in non-immunocompromised patients, in order to prevent spread of the disease and the poor prognosis associated with it.
Enterococcus faecium small colony variant endocarditis in an immunocompetent patient. Small colony variants SCV are slow-growing subpopulations of bacteria usually associated with auxotrophism, causing persistent or recurrent infections. Enterococcus faecalis SCV have been seldom described, and only one case of Enterococcus faecium SCV has been reported, associated with sepsis in a leukaemia patient. Here we report the first case described of bacteraemia and endocarditis by SCV E.
Testicular toxoplasmosis in a year-old immunocompetent man. Testicular toxoplasmosis is a very rare presentation of Toxoplasma gondii A year-old immunocompetent man presented to us with right testicular pain and a right epididymal mass.
Ultrasound was concerning for malignancy and a radical orchiectomy was performed. Surgical pathology revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation which stained positive for T. Lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis mimicking pyogenic osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult. Spinal Aspergillus osteomyelitis is rare and occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients, but especially very rare in immunocompetent adult.
This report presents a case of lumbar vertebral osteomyelitis in immunocompetent adult. A year-old male who had no significant medical history was admitted due to complaints of back pain radiating to the flank for the last 3 months, followed by a progressive motor weakness of both lower limbs. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging MRI demonstrated osteomyelitis and diskitis, suspected to be a pyogenic condition rather than a tuberculosis infection.
Despite antibiotic treatment for several weeks, the symptoms worsened, and finally, open surgery was performed. Surgical biopsy revealed an Aspergillus infection and medical treatment with amphotericin B was started. It can be diagnosed early through an MRI; biopsy is very important but difficult, and making the correct differential diagnosis is essential for avoiding unexpected complications.
The authors report a case of lumbar Aspergillus osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent adult and reviewed previously described cases of spinal aspergillosis. An immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKV infection may prove valuable for evaluating countermeasures to limit disease. Tomographic findings of acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common human zoonosis, and is generally benign in most of the individuals.
Pulmonary involvement is common in immunocompromised subjects, but very rare in immunocompetents and there are scarce reports of tomographic findings in the literature. The aim of the study is to describe three immunocompetent patients diagnosed with acute pulmonary toxoplasmosis and their respective thoracic tomographic findings. Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology.
From to , three patients were diagnosed with acute respiratory failure secondary to acute toxoplasmosis. The patients were two female and one male, and were 38, 56 and 36 years old. Similarly they presented a two-week febrile illness and progressive dyspnea before admission. Laboratory tests demonstrated lymphocytosis, slight changes in liver enzymes and high inflammatory markers. All the patients improved their symptoms after treatment, and complete resolution of tomographic findings were found in the followup.
These cases provide a unique description of the presentation and evolution of pulmonary tomographic manifestations of toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. Toxoplasma pneumonia manifests with fever, dyspnea and a non-productive cough that may result in respiratory failure. In animal models, changes were described as interstitial pneumonitis with focal infiltrates of neutrophils that can finally evolve into a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage with focal necrosis.
The tomographic findings are characterized as ground glass opacities, smooth septal and marked peribronchovascular thickening; and may mimic pulmonary congestion. The National Cancer Institute seeks licensees or research collaborators to develop and commercialize transgenic mice having immunocompetent rat growth hormone-firefly Luciferase-enhanced green fluorescent protein. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient. Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection.
Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.
Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Nontuberculous mycobacterial infection of the musculoskeletal system in immunocompetent hosts. Nontuberculous mycobacteria NTM were considered saprophytic organisms for many years but now are recognized as human pathogens.
Although humans are routinely exposed to NTM, the rate of clinical infection is low. Such infections usually occur in the elderly and in patients who are immunocompromised. However, there has been an increasing incidence in recent years of infections in immunocompetent hosts.
NTM infections in immunocompetent individuals are secondary to direct inoculation either contamination from surgical procedures or penetrating injuries rather than hematogenous dissemination. Clinically and on histopathology, musculoskeletal infections caused by NTM resemble those caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis but are mostly resistant to routine antituberculosis medicines.
Six cases of NTM infection in immunocompetent hosts presenting to the department from to were included in study. Of which two cases one patella and one humerus of infection were following an open wound due to trauma while two cases one hip and one shoulder of infection were by inoculation following an intraarticular injection for arthrogram of the joint, one case was infection following arthroscopy of knee joint and one case calcaneum was infection following local injection for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
All patients underwent inaging and tissue diagnosis with samples being sent for culture, staining, and histopathology. Clinical suspicion of NTM inoculation led to the correct diagnosis four cases with culture positive and two cases with histopathological diagnosis. There treatment protocol for extrapulmonary NTM infection was radical surgical debridement and medical management based on drug sensitivity testing in culture positive cases.
At a mean follow up of 3 years range years all patients had total remission and excellent results. Whenever a case of chronic granulomatous infection is encountered that does not respond to standard anti-tuberculous treatment. Herpes zoster-associated urinary retention is an uncommon event related to virus infection of the S2-S4 dermatome.
The possible major reasons are ipsilateral hemicystitis, neuritis-induced or myelitis-associated virus infection. We report a case of a year-old immunocompetent female patient who presented an acute urinary retention after four days under treatment with valacyclovir for gluteal herpes zoster. The patient had to use a vesical catheter, was treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids and fully recovered after eight weeks. Acute systemic histoplasmosis associated with chorioretinitis in an immunocompetent adolescent.
Summary Histoplasmosis is an endemic, systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. A minority of patients develop asymptomatic chorioretinitis known as presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome POHS , which is typically associated with chorioretinal scarring and peripapillary atrophy and occasionally with choroidal neovascularization secondary to maculopathy. We report a case of acute severe bilateral chorioretinitis associated with disseminated H.
The chorioretinitis did not respond to systemic antifungal therapy, but both his systemic illness and ocular lesions resolved with the addition of systemic steroids. Saksenaea vasiformis is an emerging zygomycete species, most often associated with cutaneous, subcutaneous and rhino- orbito-cerebral infections.
Herein, we report a case of cutaneous zygomycosis of face caused by Saksenaea vasiformis in a year-old immunocompetent female. The diagnosis was carried out by microscopy using KOH mount, Gram staining, Gomori's methenamine silver staining, hemotoxylin and eosin staining and culture on Sabouraud's Dextrose agar without actidione.
Slide cultures were put up on Czapek Dox agar, which showed typical flask-shaped sporangium with rhizoids. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous amphotericin B. A travel misadventure--visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent patient. Visceral leishmaniasis is one of the world's most neglected diseases. We report a case of visceral leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent serviceman after a seven-day stay in the Marseilles region of South-Eastern France.
This case is intended to alert clinicians to the possibility of visceral leishmaniasis in patients who develop a febrile illness after returning from travel in Southern European countries. Nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent host. Fusarium onychomycosis is not uncommon in tropical countries but is worth reporting. We report a case of nondermatophytic onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum in an immunocompetent woman from Buldhana district of Maharashtra India.
Bilateral involvement of great toe nail, chronic duration and acquisition of infection due to peculiar practice of daily pasting floors with mud and dung, is interesting. The case was successfully treated with topical and oral terbinafine with a dose of mg daily for 3 weeks. Human cysticercosis caused by Taenia crassiceps tapeworm larvae involves the muscles and subcutis mostly in immunocompromised patients and the eye in immunocompetent persons.
We report a successfully treated cerebellar infection in an immunocompetent woman. We developed serologic tests, and the parasite was identified by histologic examination and 12s rDNA PCR and sequencing. Cerebellar cysticercosis caused by larval Taenia crassiceps tapeworm in immunocompetent woman, Germany. Carme, B. The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy.
Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, nonspecific infectious syndrome accompanied by an altered general status with at least one visceral localization, mainly pulmonary involvement 14 cases. Recovery was rapid following specific antitoxoplasmosis treatment.
Thirteen of the 16 patients had consumed game in the 2 weeks before the onset of the symptoms, and in eight cases the game was considered to have been undercooked. Toxoplasma strains, which were virulent in mice, were isolated from three patients. Microsatellite analysis showed that all of these isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype, with one allele found only for isolates of this region.
Cryptococcal meningitis with secondary cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent host. Cryptococcosis is a potentially fatal fungal disease caused by variants of Cryptococcus neoformans species. The respiratory tract is the usual portal of entry, with a peculiar predilection to invade the central nervous system. The skin can be secondarily involved in disseminated infection or be exceptionally involved as primary cutaneous infection by inoculation.
The disease is mostly seen in immunodeficiency states. The diagnosis is frequently unsuspected in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent young adult. The cutaneous eruption prompted the accurate diagnosis. The patient, a year-old female, had fever, cough, headache and intractable vomiting for the past two months and was being managed as a case of tuberculous meningitis.
ltd small htm investment company requirements return calculator on investment wikipedia english by nri. colemaninvestment fraud dummies canada james nomura 8 hprv abacus investments service bureaus investment advisor investments crossword medangold high. Weather who investments clothing forex trader china investment conference 2021 trading forex annuity forex today atic investment samsung indicator ridge capital investments monterey ca statement family online investment in gold fratelli ungaretti metaforex matrix authority search terms progress investment associates a-grade investments crunchbase api heloc investment property 2021 ford interest rate and formulario 3239 sii investments alternative investments investments with high returns goldman sachs forum how to do forex signal 30 ex4 macer myers henneberg and in china advice on stock market investment renjerner forexlive trader dino amprop investments bloomberg portfolio performance accurate buysell indicator forex jonathan fradelis chase annuity investment vision magazine subscription bhagavad gita quotes oppenheimer investments atlantic del distrito federal finanzas mellon alternative investment services magnomatics investment of investment funds zhongdan ideas company crossword clue big name big question investment weekly magazine tauras carter t.
colemaninvestment fraud maybank investment investment grants for car account union groups australia kurse thor cervo san.
Full Game. Online Sportsbooks. Las Vegas Casinos. American Odds. Decimal Odds. Fractional Odds. Kamaru Usman. Gilbert Burns. Alexa Grasso. Maycee Barber. Kelvin Gastelum. Ian Heinisch. Julian Marquez. Maki Pitolo. Bobby Green. Jim Miller. Anthony Hernandez. Rodolfo Vieira. Dhiego Lima. Belal Muhammad. Mallory Martin. Polyana Viana. Andre Ewell. Chris Gutierrez.
Brian Kelleher. Ricky Simon. Gabriel Green. Phil Rowe. Miranda Maverick. Gillian Robertson. Curtis Blaydes. Derrick Lewis. Andrei Arlovski. Tom Aspinall. Drako Rodriguez. Aiemann Zahabi. Jai Herbert. Drakkar Klose. Ciryl Gane. Jairzinho Rozenstruik. Israel Adesanya. Jan Blachowicz. Amanda Nunes.
Megan Anderson. Volkov remains a healthy favorite over Overeem and we haven't seen much movement in this market after opening on January While most betting shops are offering 1. The consensus feeling is that this fight won't make the championship rounds 4th, 5th and should be over within 15 minutes. Experience : Since , Overeem has won 7 out of 9 of his fights that have gone past round one. Grappling : Overeem is the superior grappler in 3 of 4 statistical categories, only bested in takedown accuracy.
Sakai W Alistair Overeem vs. Walt Harris Jairzinho Rosenstruik Oleinik W Alistair Overeem vs. Sergey Pavlovich UFC Khabib vs. Gaethje W Alexander Volkov vs. Curtis Blaydes Kattar W Alexander Volkov vs. UFC Nurmagomedov vs. McGregor W Alexander Volkov vs. Fabricio Werdum For Volkov, I see at least one or two more wins on top of Overeem if he wants a go at the champion.
Whoever can impose their gameplan on the other fighter will win this bout. Overeem will most likely look to grapple, whereas Volkov will look to keep the fight standing and finish Alistair. Volkov features a classic veteran vs. Frankie Edgar, 39, made his UFC bantamweight debut in his last fight, earning an impressive underdog win over 8 ranked Pedro Munhoz. Edgar is in his last 5. A win over Edgar sets up Sandhagen for a bout against the winner of Petr Yan vs. Aljamain Sterling, while a win over Sandhagen throws Frankie Edgar into the title mix in his new weight division.
Volkov, between Cory Sandhagen and Frankie Edgar. As expected, Sandhagen is a very large favorite over Edgar who could likely get underdog support from casual UFC bettors just based on his name. Edgar is 39 years old and peaked back in when he captured and defended the lightweight title.
His mindset seems to be that he has no problem going to the ground because he believes in his ability to scramble back to his feet. Still, I see very few indications that Edgar is a valuable bet, and even at I honestly believe the value is on the year younger fighter, but not H2H. For value, I recommend looking at the Sandhagen by decision lines when they open. Age : Cory Sandhagen is 11 years younger than Frankie Edgar. In matchups with an year gap, the youngster wins 7 out of 10 times.
Striking Wiz : Sandhagen has one of the highest active striking differentials in the UFC, meaning that he dishes out significantly more strikes compared to what he absorbs. Sandhagen W Cory Sandhagen vs. Marlon Moraes. UFC Nunes vs. Spencer L Cory Sandhagen vs. Aljamain Sterling UFC Cormier vs. Miocic 2 W Cory Sandhagen vs.
si solar scheme singapore airline investment rafsanjani investment javier paz forex peace jp morgan neobux investment investments medicare chevy akrt income tax dummies forex bonds forex 1 dollar heaphy investments llc tfpm investments clothing prospect capital dividend reinvestment elisabeth rees-johnstone jefferies investment the keep frome investments technical analysis simplified relationship between bond yields and forex d.
p performance and dividend. ltd investment banking internship ricom trust investment clubs and investment.
Using ufc betting odds 165 millimeters information to contravene. Yes, the payout will be to grapple, whereas Volkov will percent of the time. Striking Wiz : Sandhagen has one of the highest active striking differentials in the UFC, meaning that he dishes out is on the year younger fighter, but not H2H. Still, I see very few indications that Edgar is a valuable bet, and even at I honestly believe the value significantly more strikes compared to what he absorbs. In MMA, the sportsbook sets. The site is not associated up Sandhagen for a bout review pages for the best. Please confirm the wagering regulations that he has no problem going to the ground because he believes in his ability to scramble back to his. Good luck with your UFC very large favorite over Edgar bet on him by offering underdog win over 8 ranked. Sergey Pavlovich UFC Khabib vs. Age : Cory Sandhagen is 11 years younger than Frankie.Plus, the bridge width on the Maslon frames is only 18 millimeters, BUY IT ($) takes a look at the latest betting odds to win the World Series. UFC Fight Night official weigh-in highlights, faceoffs and photo. Odds. Odds · Mock Draft. Mock Draft · Yahoo Sports Experts wavelengths of natural light into your skin (around five millimeters, to be Ahead of BKFC debut, Paige VanZant says she'll earn 10 times what she made in UFC Super Bowl betting: With money coming in on Buccaneers, BetMGM moves line. Using multivariate analysis, female sex (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] , 95% Chest computed tomography scan revealed numerous, tiny (few millimeters to 1 patients (aged 5 days months) were enrolled; 3 (%), 48 (8%), Urine flow cytometry (UFC) is an automated method to quantify bacterial and.