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Further emboldened by some fellow history aficionados, including Drs. Jay M. Galst, Stanley B. Burns, and James G. Ravin, I serendipitously stumbled upon Laurie Levin, an author-anthropologist and chronicler of institutional histories, and her creative partner, Larry Zempel, graphic artist extraordinaire, who agreed to help me compose and assemble a modern history and family album of the infirmary. Sadly, Dr. Walsh passed away in , never seeing the fruition of our shared aspiration.

To honor his vision and inspiration, I have dedicated the book to his memory, for his mentorship and friendship, and for exemplifying the ideals of compassionate care, boundless curiosity, and leadership. This book also honors the thousands of men and women of the infirmary over the past years who have dedicated their lives to repair and enhance the lives of so many grateful patients.

We look forward to sharing this lusciously illustrated family volume of stories and facts, highlighting our first years. Rodgers, Dr. Edward Reynolds,. The year was and two young medical men, Dr. Edward Delafield, age 22, and Dr. Happy to be home, the arrivals were poised to begin the next phase of their medical careers. A medley. Commerce ruled and the thrum of business kept the docks, factories, shopkeepers, and workers buzzing.

Preceding spread: ships in New York Harbor, circa Opposite: the New York Harbor wharf, circa A belief that change for the better was possible drove their energetic endeavors. But so did the darker realities of New York City life. Absent a municipal sewage system, the fetid stench of human and animal waste hung in the dusty, ash-polluted air.

Decaying carcasses of dogs and cats often remained by the roadside for days or weeks, with no dependable trash collection to remove them. Rats ran largely unchecked. Less obvious at first glance were rising ethnic and racial tensions, rousing abolitionist meetings, persistent labor strikes, abhorrent working conditions, rampant social displacement, soaring crime rates, and abject destitution.

Organized efforts for the public good. But these, as well as other stopgap measures, did little to staunch the appalling lack of institutional health care. Right: a sooty back street in New York, circa Opposite: the New York Hospital, also circa NYEE resided in the building to the left.

At the time, most affluent New Yorkers in poor health received treatment and surgery at home. The indigent. Concurrently, in , he gathered a group of respected physicians at his stately city home at 1 East 17th Street and established the New York Society for the Relief of Widows and Orphans of Medical Men. In , this same forum ultimately gave rise to the Academy of Medicine, which named Delafield its first president.

Left: Charterhouse Square, Above: Dr. Edward Delafield, circa Right: Delafield in his 60s. As such, he stood at the side of President Ulysses S. Some, no doubt, attended the daily family prayers, which were. No one who knew him ever thought of taking a liberty with him— his stately manner would at once rebuke any undue familiarity.

New York Hospital, and Susannah R. In , at age 15, Rodgers entered Princeton University to read the clas-. Before leaving London in , Rodgers passed his examination and received a license from the Royal College of Surgeons. Eager to expand his professional knowledge even further, he spent the spring and summer months studying in Paris, and then he and Delafield briefly toured the Continent—presumably for enjoyment—before returning to New York together in October of the same year.

Immediately upon his November. Sadly, his brilliant career was cut short after a month long illness, variously described by disagreeing lemstad, the capital city. Later that fall, back in New York, Rodgers married Mary Ridgely Nicholson, with whom he had six children: two sons and four daughters. After Mary and one of his daughters died of tuberculosis, he married Emily Hosack, daughter of Dr.

Two more daughters were born from this union. Over the arc of his professional life, Rodgers never ceased to refine his technical skills, employ new approaches, and push the boundaries of successful surgical outcomes by tackling the most challenging. As the. Grim as these conditions were, it is unlikely they were top of mind for Delafield or Rodgers, who arrived home filled with optimism and ambitious plans.

Even in the best of times, the flow of advancing medical and scientific ideas from Europe to America was glacial. The Napoleonic Wars and the War of both disrupted whatever trickle there was. Moreover, the College trained generalists; subspecialties were yet to be recognized or formally practiced.

With little or no training or experience, most surgeons tended to shy away from highly technical and risky ocular procedures, given their high rates of infection and low rates of success. Not a day was wasted under the tutelage of Sir William Lawrence, Dr. Benjamin Travers, Dr. Why, Delafield and Rodgers asked, must these formerly industrious patients fall through the cracks?

The results were hardly surprising. Formerly, many had been productive men and women of meager means who simply could not afford competent medical advice and were too prideful or independent to apply for aid from a hospital or dispensary. But with civilian outbreaks growing and public health alarms rising, respectable British and French physicians began to take note.

Whereas the French were unconvinced the disease was contagious, British medical men believed otherwise and responded by establishing the Royal Infirmary for the Diseases of the Eye on Cork Street in ,. Apart from the ensuing military confrontations and. John Cunningham Saunders, mentee of the influential London surgeon Sir.

Top: the Moorfields crest. John Cunningham Saunders. Despite the elegant imprimatur, the institution continued to be widely known as Moorfields. By the end of the 19th century, Moorfields moved yet again into a newly constructed hospital building, its cornerstone laid by the Prince of Wales.

Barrie Jones, became a world-renowned ophthalmological center for clinical research, subspecialty clinics, microsurgery, and postgraduate education. Alan Bird, and the novel use of fluorescein dye later that decade. Left: Moorfields Eye Hospital today, built in And not least, an ophthalmic clinic would provide a venue where inquisitive surgeons could learn new techniques and treatments related to eye diseases, as well as provide a collection point for much-needed data on the emerging field of ophthalmology.

Undeterred, Delafield and Rodgers decided to take matters into their own hands and prove the worthiness of their ideas, pledging that before soliciting public assistance a second. That the first permanent eye hospital in the Western Hemisphere began in a two-room rented suite on the second floor.

The only trained surgeons on the staff, Delafield and Rodgers, saw patients back-to-back, prescribing treatments compounded by a handful of medical students enlisted from the College of Physicians and Surgeons who were trained in the apothecary arts. Securing outside funding was the logical solution. At the urging of Drs. A committee to draw up a set of institutional bylaws was formed, anchored by Colonel William Few, a cosigner of the U.

By April 21,. Two hundred members signed on and elected Colonel Few its first president. Should an individual or his duties prove unfit, formal consequences were to be imposed. By , the infirmary had relocated to Murray Street, across from Columbia College, on the corner of Broadway. A full-time apothecary was brought on staff to inventory and. Additionally, he took charge of bleeding, cupping, and applying leeches.

Although slightly larger than the former location, the space was still inadequate to accommodate the everincreasing patient load. Lacking beds, chagrined surgeons were left no other option but to immediately discharge patients, even those who had undergone the most serious operations.

Knowing full well that many patients lived in deplorable, overcrowded lodgings or on the streets, in conditions that severely compromised their full recovery, surgeons were convinced that offering patients beds would make all the difference in their recovery. An appeal to the New York Dispensary to join forces was also submitted. Each effort was fruitless. Wainwright, also an infirmary board member, made direct requests to their congregations for contributions.

The infirmary went so far as to hire a person to encourage solicitations, ignoring criticism from some quarters that benevolence fostered idleness. Countering this belief,. Many in the growing ophthalmological circles agreed. Compared to the Chatham and Murray facilities, the new space, in the Bloomingdale district, was. One such case was a Mr. Above: New York Hospital, map.

The prospects of success in her case are most flattering and indeed to a certain extent already realized. She can already hear and understand many words spoken in a tone but little above the usual one and has learned to speak in the same proportion. They allude to the diffusion on the subject of diseases of the eye, by instructing medical students in this very important branch of their profession.

By then, the number of medical students trained on-site had grown from the original 15 in to Following two brief relocations, at Broadway in and 96 Elm Street in , another. Not only because the site. How could an institution that returned the afflicted to productive lives and enhanced the public good by training up-and-coming surgeons…go unsupported? If other details about the Mercer Street location are lacking, such as its specific layout, dimensions, amenities, numbers of patient beds, and staffing, one conclusion is obvious.

And now, there was a mortgage to pay. Belt-tightening measures were put into effect. So much so that in , indigent patients who were unable to provide for themselves and required free beds were being turned away. The wondrous details of the fundus, once surmised, could now be actually visualized. In the same year, Donders published Anomalies of Accom-. In short order, five benefactors stepped forward with half of the matching sum and a flurry of contributions thereafter exceeded the balance.

A lecture room, without a gallery, was large enough to seat students. The upper three floors offered ample room for enough beds to accommodate 40 to 50 patients. The building was heated by two hot-air furnaces, supplemented by 20 stoves throughout; one was situated in the operating room. But even. Whatever water was required for the floors above was carried by hand. Delafield, at 62 years old, stood on the dais, his audience poised to receive his long-awaited commemorative address.

But it possesses little else; and until it is endowed with a fund sufficient to yield an annual income adequate to its support, its usefulness must be crippled and contracted. That this fund will be provided, its directors feel confident, and will not rest in their efforts until it is obtained. It is, indeed, a source of some mortification to them that although our infirmary was the first established in America, and in its wealthiest and most important city, two others which arose in consequence of its erection, have succeed in obtaining endowments far beyond ours.

It may even be likely that he intended to spike the appeal for philanthropy with a splash of guilt among in his respectful listeners. During the first year of occupancy in the 13th Street brownstone, service hours were expanded: Eye patients were seen every day of the week and ear patients three days a week, with clinical instruction by surgeons.

Fidelity, duty, and incessant labor guided Agnew throughout his life. In a laudatory eulogy delivered by Dr. Gaillard Thomas before the overflowing room of. Arthur, all this while maintaining one of the largest and most lucrative private practices in New York City. Cornelius Agnew. Left: the executive committee of the U. Sanitary Commission; Dr. Cornelius R.

Agnew and Prof. Wolcott Gibbs from left. Fortunate is it for the world that such good men are occasionally met with; not only for the good which they directly accomplish, but also for the beautiful and forcible examples which they offer for the imitation of others. Whereas there was, as of , a full-time house surgeon training in both ophthalmology and otology, and room to treat the surging number of indigent outpatients, budgetary constraints continued to exclude them from extended stays.

Jacob Hansen. Unfortunately, there were no simple answers and none to suggest that generosity alone could disarm the escalating need. Far more powerful forces were at work, reshaping the city and the republic. Between and , the foreign-born percentage of the United States nearly doubled and many settled in New York City. And not surprisingly, as the most populous city in the United States, the number of indigent and dispossessed rose accordingly.

William Thomas Green Morton became the first medical practitioner to publicly demonstrate the use of inhaled ether before rapt onlookers in a crowded operating theater of Massachusetts General Hospital. But the truth was the soporific had been employed informally and discussed in medical circles for years. Most notably, Dr. As more physicians and medical institutions began to use inhaled ether, Morton retaliated by launching a spate of lawsuits claiming patent infringement. That Morton failed to prevail in even a single case stands as a win for the medical profession and patients forevermore.

Left: a painting of Morton administering ether at Massachusets General Hospital, Above right: a replica of the inhaler he used. More than ever before, the immigrants hailed from diverse nations, resulting in an uneasy clash of cultures, ethnicities, values, political affiliations, and opinions, largely along class and race lines.

As the Civil War dragged on, dwindling voluntary enlistment and mounting deserter rates gave way to the National Conscription Act, which called upon 24, men to be drafted from New York City alone. All this came to a head with the New York Draft Riots, four days in during which tens of thousands of rampaging rioters, men and women alike, filled the streets of lower Manhattan, leaving death and destruction in their wake. And, looking ahead to the future, no one could.

Left: a depiction of the Draft Riots in from an unidentified periodical. He applied to several New York medical. Donough [sic] Hospital was proposed in the early part of the 20th century, but after a spectator-packed kickoff ceremony on Fifth Avenue, was never built.

David K. Richard Koplin. Above: a tribute of Dr. McDonogh by Anthony Smith. Left: recipients of the National Medical Fellowship scholarships. To be sure, New York City was distant from the front lines, but neither distance nor the flush of war profiteering could blunt the human consequences of such a deeply divisive conflict. Funeral processions were commonplace and it was not unusual to see returned soldiers and deserters, physically and mentally maimed on the brutal battlefields, standing stock still on the sidewalks as mourners filed past.

Crude medical practices, compounded by the lack of medical supplies and the absence of even the most rudimentary sanitation, condemned thousands of wounded battlefield survivors to their. Under unimaginable duress, military and. The anesthesia inhaler, facial reconstruction, the wider use of prostheses, and ambulanceto-emergency-room systems were among them.

Game-changing practices also gained traction during the war, especially those advocated by Florence Nightingale, who addressed a gathering of Union Army leaders in Washington, DC, about reducing mortality rates through better ventilation and basic sanitation procedures in operating. Edward Curtis assisted Army Surgeon Dr.

Influenced by these considerations, the Surgeons have thought that more uniform success in treatment could be secured by the improvements now being put into effect. After his death, the bed will remain free for the use of poor patients and will bear the name of the donor inscribed upon it. The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary stands forth as not only a relief but a preventative of pauperism. Though ignorant, she was a shrewd woman and, in consulting with the gentleman whom she desired to be her executor, she freely discussed the claims of the several objects of charity with which she was acquainted, and among others she mentioned this infirmary.

The old woman died soon thereafter, and the money has been paid to the Treasurer. With the growing volume and diversity of cases now being treated at the infirmary came more rigorous attention to record-keeping. Richard H. Derby, who documented 31 cataract extractions, and George W.

After all, receiving and providing free care was, in great part, based on good faith and trust on both sides. John C. Green, in memory of her husband, John Cleve Green. Vermilya and Dr. However, in this case a possible, partial solution was within reach. But back then, every penny was welcomed. In , arguing on their behalf, Derby presented a compelling case for making an investment in more space. Francis Delafield tion, the fitting of glasses, and the estimation of the field of vision.

More imperative still was a special accommodation for contagious diseases, amounting to a quarantine ward entirely separate from where operative cases were received. Nevertheless, good news was forthcoming. This dedicated ward was immediately occupied by seven patients diagnosed with purulent ophthalmia, for periods of two to six weeks.

Henry D. Francis Delafield , was a son of Dr. Edward Delafield and a prominent New York physician in his own right? He published widely on the subject of renal pathology and his extensive contributions are considered classics in the field. The way things stood, either the infirmary would bet on the future or be left behind. Francis Delafield. Upon his return to New York, he served for many years as the director of the Bank of Commerce and was a prominent member of the New York Chamber of Commerce.

None survived into adulthood. Never a man to take a predictable path, John Cleve Green, when the time came to attend college, chose instead to sign on as a lowly clerk at the China trading house of N. Above left: the N. Griswold clipper ship Challenge, on which Green served as supercargo. Left: the J. Green School of Science, Princeton University. Agnew, to hone their training in the most prestigious centers of medicine in England, France, and Germany.

During the summer of , the future psychoanalyst. From there, Koller quickly moved to trials on himself, then on a few colleagues, followed by a handful of patient volunteers. Above left: Dr. Koller as a young man in Vienna. In January , an anti-Semitic insult resulted in a duel between Koller and another medical student. Koller won the saber fight, wounding his opponent, but injured his own future in Vienna. Center: Dr. Sigmund Freud. Above right: the Lucien Howe medal.

Field, the head of the Building Committee. On March 15, , the infirmary inaugurated its next expansion with a cornerstone ceremony, punctuated by great relief and brightened expectations. These gentlemen were followed by John Harsen Rhoades, Esq. Pierpont Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Adrian Iselin, and Miss Caroline Phelps Stokes—all of whom had given generously in the past—but also to inspire a fresh base of potential benefactors.

William C. Distressingly, during this period, neither receipts nor support from the charitable public was sufficient to cover running expenses or avoid a swelling deficit. Abram Du Bois, the renowned eye surgeon who had trained under Rodgers and joined the infirmary staff in Lacking a behind-the-scenes account, one can only imagine the lively debates that filled the board room and ultimately emboldened them to take their next leap of faith.

Pavilion was made up of two wards of 10 beds each, located on the second and third stories. Two fifth-floor wards were dedicated to the treatment of blinding contagious eye diseases until a separate pavilion could be. By way of an example, the upgraded operating rooms, now used conjointly with the Ear Department, enabled surgeons to perform procedures on the auricle, drumhead, mastoid cells, and cranial cavity for brain abscesses. But insofar as there were no adjacent postsurgical wards, patients had to be transported to the adjoining building on Second Avenue at considerable risk.

Moreover, and embarrassingly,. Just then came a reprieve. In , as if on cue, the infirmary received two highly significant contributions that would have major consequences for its near future. The first was yet another gift from the Du Bois family— children William A. Platt, came from his family—Mrs. Evelina C. Bliss, Miss Ida E. Bliss, and Mrs. Adele Stafford—to build a pavilion for the long-requested quarantine ward for patients suffering from contagious eye.

It has lent the ear of sympathy to those in the soundless pit of deafening silence, and in restoring the hapless breadwinner to work and thus preventing pauperism, it has illustrated the efficiency, excellency, and reasonableness of charity,… In the whole history of the infirmary, not a penny was ever known to have touched the hand of a surgeon or assistant surgeon. No number of endowed pavilions, well-lit operating rooms, up-to-date equipment, or skilled staff seemed to make a dent.

Escalating costs or none, there was no other way but forward. In the early summer of , the house adjacent to the infirmary on 13th Street was demolished and construction began. Not next year nor two years hence, but now! However, this significant investment most certainly left the other infirmary services wanting, if not somewhat envious. Schermerhorn, which funded the opening of the bed Schermerhorn Pavilion, dedicated to the diseases of the ear.

DID YOU KNOW that for all the advances in ophthalmology by the end of the 19th century, many traditional practices, home remedies, and deleterious drugs were still in widespread use? Apothecaries compounded a range of eye preparations using mercury in several forms, including mercury bichloride, silver nitrate, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide, copper sulfate, alum, lead subacetate, tincture of iodine, sodium borate, camphor, and opium.

Top: a period illustration of Euphrasia officinalis. Above left: a leech. Above: a 19th century apothecary kit. Ever-swelling outlays to meet the demands for maintenance, new employees, and wage increases spelled trouble ahead. Unlike the Du Bois Pavilion, which could draw off the Endowment Fund for emergencies, the new Platt Pavilion could not count on permanent reserves to buffer soaring overhead expenses.

What may have been the first inkling of problems to come was the nurse boycott, reported in the March 3, , edition of The Evening World. The walkout began with six young nurses protesting the hiring of a new head nurse who, they maintained, was unqualified to issue orders pertaining to the treatment of eye and ear ailments.

In addition to sputtering receipts, the monies generated from private benefactors, on-again, off-again state and local government contributions, and a portion of inside-patient fees were inadequate to underwrite free care for the 40, to 50, new patients now being seen annually. With inflation on the rise, the burden was too great and, reluctantly, the board approved a clinic fee of 25 cents per visit.

This charge remained unchanged for the next 50 years, remarkably enough. Only five or six beds in the endowed Du Bois Pavilion, of 25 total, would still be available. More dire still, that amount was only a short-term fix. Prospects of the impending closures prompted impassioned pleas from all quarters. Harrington pointedly. And it might be forty. Riker and Adrian Iselin. But the Platt Pavilion would remain closed. To consider the crisis fixed was folly, they cautioned.

Above right: an operating room. Right: a Platt Pavilion ward for contagious diseases of the eye. Above: Viola Allen. According to Dr. Dench, the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary surgeon who conducted the last-minute procedure, had the actress waited another 24 hours, the putrefying abscess might have destroyed the bone, invaded her brain, and threatened her life.

Gorham Bacon, Dr. David A. Greer and William Reed Huntington from St. The infirmary was almost as busy as ever. The halls and reception rooms were crowded, the wards full, the operating rooms abuzz with 37, new patients, 12, outdoor patients, and 2, indoor patients, providing a total of 23, days of hospital care. Everyone is imbued with it; we feel it everywhere. Surely there would be no need for eloquent appeals in behalf of the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary if you could look into the darkness which the blind see and listen to the stillness which the deaf hear.

There is no greater deprivation than blindness; no sharper anguish than deafness. I know these limitations as you cannot know them, yet I have not known the suffering which this institution is meant to alleviate. My own difficulties are vastly increased because I cannot see or hear. How must they be redoubled when one has seen and heard for many years, and has been engaged in pursuits that require all the faculties, and then suffers this unutterable loss! We must enjoy with the joy of others.

We must feel their sorrows. All that we have, all that we know, all that we have discovered, we must bestow, at least in part, for the universal good. This institution has become your sacred burden. Look on it, lift it, bear it proudly. It is your part and privilege to hold up the hands of the physicians here who are fellow workmen together with God.

Cash flow was improving. Although the Platt Pavilion was still closed and the infirmary was still turning away ophthalmia cases, hopes rose for a partial reopening by the coming year. Despite lessons learned, it had been a close call. Demoralizing as this period had been, an uneven but steady recovery was underway by the early 20th century. New York City, now including Queens, Staten Island, the Bronx, and Brooklyn, totaled square miles and a population of more than 3 million: the largest city in the United States and one of the largest in the world, second only to London.

Unprecedented consolidation fueled the resurgence: merging municipalities, boundary-straddling public works— subways, bridges, railways, water tunnels, and electrification projects—the forging of companies and industries into massive corporations, and construction of the first skyscrapers, towering symbols that would. Riker, By the opening years of the 20th century, the newly consolidated City of New York was home to approximately 3. Most came to the United States and its cities in search of a better life.

Those who settled in New York City often did so in tight-knit neighborhoods. As a whole, they formed a living tapestry of language, cultures, skills, and ethnicities that would not only transform the labor force and politics, but also shape public health policy and the social service institutions they relied upon.

The American Medical. Association AMA sought to alert the general public to the dangers of quacks and spurious patent medicines by initiating wide-reaching health campaigns, and pushed for tighter credentialing standards to weed out undertrained physicians and shady medical schools. Your outpatient waiting rooms and work rooms are distinctly overcrowded The atmosphere…becomes excessively foul in a very few minutes because of the class of patients and the large numbers drawn from such a class.

It would be desirable to shut your stairways by tightly closing the doors and also your elevator wells. By , with the partial reopening of the Platt Pavilion for the treatment of trachoma cases and the resumed use of the Throat Ward for the care of adenoid and tonsil cases, the number of patient beds grew to And the staff was larger than ever: 18 visiting surgeons, 37 assistant surgeons, 32 clinical assistants, and 6 house surgeons, supported by 93 officers and employees.

The demand for her service will also depend largely upon her personal appearance, attractive manner, and cheerful spirit. She should be properly attired in correct uniform with no rustling silk skirts, scent of perfumery, or glitter of jewelry. Lewis G. Griffin, The Ophthalmic Nurse, Those under her charge were probably women servants hired to maintain the indoor wards and to tend to less fortunate patients who, unlike the more affluent, could not retain their own private attendants for the duration of their stay.

At the time, formal nursing proii. Joseph Warrington a few years later. With the United. These improvements pushed some but not all Clearly, it was time to bite the bullet. Workarounds, making do, and interim fixes had kept the infirmary on track for years, but only a major expansion would give the institution room to breathe more efficiently and competitively.

To that end, three contiguous lots at , , and East 14th Street, adjacent to the existing infirmary property, were acquired. The final. Above right: the private patient entrance to the DuBois Pavilion, One for the Road—to Hell! Emil Gruening, director of the infirmary and the first physician in the country to call attention to methyl alcohol poisoning, all 16 were promptly diagnosed but, sadly, none were reported to have regained their sight.

Department Commissioner Dr. Ernst J. Lederle launched a full investigation and tracked down a total of 30 victims during the same period. Within days, a warrant was issued for two saloonkeepers, one on Avenue D and the other at two Rivington Street establishments.

But no street vendors were cited, suggesting they may have vanished into thin air. Clockwise from top left: the first X-ray room, ; the Pathology Department, ; the upgraded X-ray room, ; the Platt Pavilion contagious eye disease ward, In another striking decision, and one that would prove indispensable in light of unforeseen future events, the infirmary established a Social Service Department in , first headed by Florence M.

Campbell, who resigned after a year to be married. She was replaced by her sister, Helen E. Campbell, also a social service worker, and one assistant. Shine of the Confederate Army and Mrs. Virginia Eppes Shine, a Jefferson great-granddaughter. After earning a degree in medicine from the University of Virginia in and practicing briefly in Boston, Shine studied in Berlin and Vienna.

Upon his return to the United States, he completed his aural internship at the infirmary in and his ophthalmological internship in Following his training, Shine remained at the hospital, where he became an assistant ophthalmological surgeon in , an assistant aural surgeon in , an attending surgeon in , and an executive surgeon in They even assisted patients in finding employment, arranged dental appointments, paid for glasses and artificial eyes when needed, and referred blind patients to the Blind Association to learn industrial work.

What the new Social Service Department may have lacked in staff and resources, it more than made up for in know-how, networking, and ingenuity. Impressively, in alone, Helen Campbell and her assistant saw and advised 1, patients in their office; sent 95 children or adults to the countryside to convalesce; distributed pairs of free glasses and 18 artificial eyes; sent 17 patients to other institutions, including Batavia Institute for the Blind, St.

Campbell, head of the Social Service Department, featured a summary of a postoperative follow-up visit that pro-. Mabel G. The mother had gone out to her office, leaving Mabel to do the house work. Furnished with clothes and rubbers and today she is to go to Chappaqua. Above: a New York tenement, circa For one, the costs of medical supplies and some drugs escalated precipitously, in one case by 2, percent.

Pressure on those who remained behind increased when, at the request of the United States War Department, a group of infirmary physicians were asked to form a special Medical Advisory Board to examine nearly 1, prospective recruits sent to the infirmary from draft boards across the city. In the shadow of war profiteering and financial rebound, the number of those who had fallen on hard times Above: The Breath of the Hun by W.

Rogers, circa Opposite: World War I field hospital. It read: Owing to the scarcity of anesthetics, operations. Do not fail or the chain will be broken. Within days, letters containing quarters, pennies, and dimes were flooding the infirmary.

But it was already too late: There was no way of putting a stop to more than 50, openhearted responses and the bushels of coins arriving daily. As public. The Board of Directors intend that the infirmary shall not do its charitable work with borrowed money and therefore hope its friends will continue their support and enable them to carry on the good work. Such was the bind that many charitable institutions faced, including the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary.

Above all else, there was strength in unity, or so everyone hoped. Women won the right to vote, the Jazz Age. But darker forces were at work: Not everyone was guzzling bootlegged liquor in defiance of the newly ratified 18th Amendment, commonly known as Prohibition. Politically, an undercurrent of divisive sentiments—Catholic vs. Protestant, rural vs. Nowhere were all these competing attitudes and contradictions more glaring than in New York City. For most of these New Yorkers, the postArmistice prosperity was as distant as their ancestral homes.

Among them was infirmary Board President John J. We passed our century mark without any deterioration of our morale [and] have been generously and thoughtfully treated by our many and constant friends. Although the first outbreak in the United States has been traced to the spring of in scattered military camps and East Coast cities, the official news of the epidemic was kept under wraps for fear of undermining public support for the Great War. From then on, the affliction spread like wildfire.

By October, more than. Following a brief lull, a third, slightly less grave wave of infection flared from early through the spring until the summer, when it finally subsided. With anti-flu vaccines yet to be developed, doctors and public health officials had no other choice but to recommend first-line interventions: quarantine, good personal hygiene, and closures of public spaces.

Some cities passed ordinances mandating face masks be worn on the street; others, like New York City, threatened to fine or jail anyone who failed to cover their mouths while coughing. New York City… threatened to fine or jail anyone who failed to cover their mouths while coughing. Above left: transporting flu victims. Left: a vast improvised hospital during the epidemic, Yet the word from the Social Service Department painted a more realistic picture.

Food and warm clothing for little children must be provided and follow-up work among the newly discharged patients will probably be doubled. Beyond the daily grind, they tapped their well-cultivated social contacts to forge alliances with other helping agencies, organizations, and potential benefactors. The Social Service Department was not the only branch of the infirmary to experience explosive growth. Pathology and Radiology Department records for tell the same story. Even after an assistant pathologist had been brought on board, the workload was still.

Most of the men have been given work, but the wages are low. They need clothing; clean clothes often lead to a better job and always put fresh courage into the hearts of these handicapped people. If your readers could see the struggle these men make to be self-supporting, we feel sure they would be moved to help by sending old clothing to the Social Service Department of the infirmary, or one may telephone Stuyvesant and it will be called for.

A little help may be far-reaching. We have not a mortgage of any description, have never made a drive, and do not intend to, so the only solution would seem to be that a friend or friends interested in our good work will help us in the early future. The Ties That Bind This twist of fate proved paradoxically advantageous. Within a few short weeks, all bets were off, and not just temporarily. While no one in their wildest dreams could have imagined the eviscerating future, neither were they ready to succumb to their darkest fears.

The magazine, published in Braille from to , was a monthly circular of general-interest articles sent through the mail free of charge by special provision of the United States Congress to every blind and vision-impaired person in the United States and Canada who could read Braille. The publication was the brainchild and devotion of the heiress Electa Matilda Ziegler, the mother of a blind son and the widow of the industrialist and Arctic expedition financier William Ziegler.

George Hoffman. And what better way to enliven and uplift than through song? On Sundays, bandaged, recuperating patients gathered together to sing simple and familiar hymns, often led by Mrs. McEwen, an accomplished vocalist, accompanied by Mrs. Lander on piano.

So encouraging was the response that the committee soon broadened its efforts to include reading to patients at their bedsides, sending flowers to brighten the wards, and distributing toys to the children. But why stop there when there when the need was so great and there was so much to accomplish? By , the Ladies Visiting Committee, as the or-. During the dreary winter months and especially around the holiday season, the ladies concentrated. That the auxiliary maintained and managed all the money funneled.

Left: debs for NYEE, Center: Margaret Loeb Kempner. Despite a smattering of initial. Whereas hobos, itinerant workers, and grifters had always been a part of the public landscape, confined largely to the Bowery and Skid Row, now everyday folk—lower- and middle-class men, women, and children—were out of work and homeless. Everywhere one turned, the makeshift shanties, soup kitchens, flophouses, and shelters were inescapable. The number of despairing and destitute who poured into the dispensary was staggering: patient visits leaped from , in to , in and need-based interviews surged 63 percent over the same interval.

Milk was secured for 28 families through Mrs. It was truly. Expectations of a quick turnaround tumbled along with future plans. Each competing cost, each line item, from incidental to major, was weighed with great deliberation. Two examples from the Pathology Department illustrate this spirit. When, in , Dr. Edgar B. Burchell and Helen Meyer.

In , Dr. Ruppe and Dr. Saunders agree. Kenneth F. Chase, began seeing patients in a room set aside for dispensary and ward patients. By , Berens had established a School of Orthoptics in the Eye Department, the first of its kind in the United States dedicated to training physicians to evaluate and treat problems of the eye muscles and double vision.

Despite the fame, however, Wheeler chose to reduce his private practice to spend more time teaching postgraduates. Ironically, he is said to have diagnosed himself with ocular melanoma based on a shadow he noticed while playing on the golf course which, when confirmed, ultimately necessitated the removal of his left eye. Nevertheless, over the next three years, he continued to serve as the director of the Institute of Ophthalmology, as well as a consultant to nearly a dozen other hospitals in the New York and New Jersey area until the time of his death in In addition, he was a prolific contributor to the field, as the editor of The Eye and Its Diseases and coauthor of six other well-known textbooks.

He founded the Institute of Ophthalmology of the Americas and was also a history buff, known for meticulous accounts of the early development of the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and the in-depth profile of one of its founders, Dr. Edward Delafield. In addition to a long list of professional societies and associations to which he belonged and participated, Samuels devoted time to the American Ophthalmological Society AOS beginning in , when he became a member.

One full-time. The generosity of the School of Ophthalmology and Otology funded the addition and equipping of a new operating room. Between Board of Directors. Harry S. Gradle of Chicago and Mo-. Given the shrinking and increasingly risky opportunities for collegial exchange, the time was ripe, they proposed, to form an international forum based in the Western Hemisphere to promote the exchange of the rapidly advancing scientific views and information in.

And that future is great if we keep building and supporting our Pan-American community! And the fifth and sixth floor roofs were landscaped and furnished, compliments of Mrs. George Emlen Roosevelt as a memorial to. Distances, it turned out, were far from the only hurdle. Long before simultaneous translations were available, language barriers complicated matters even further.

However, solutions were forthcoming, and no sooner had the Pan American Association of Ophthalmology PAAO come into being than its professional and scientific reach became unstoppable. Bernard Samuels on lecture tours worldwide, and was one of the original instructors of bacteriology at the New York University Medical School. Over the course of his year career at the infirmary, he achieved great prominence and professional respect throughout the United States and abroad.

Below: Burchell with his assistants, circa In the United States,. Unsettling as these images were, Americans remained more worried about the Depression; their struggles to feed and care for their families were far more immediate and life-threatening. The agency had steadily secured jobs and subsistence wages for millions of the unskilled unemployed—primarily men, but some women and youth—largely through federally financed national public building programs. Whatever the looming global threats to peace, the danger still seemed an ocean away, kept at bay by the prevailing winds of isolationism.

But not for long. Everyone pulled together. After all, there was a war to win. Defense spending for military preparedness poured into the U. Production of wartime provisions and arms, as well as consumer goods, shifted into high gear as shipyards and airplane factories sprang up seemingly overnight. Whereas John E. Following this residency, Weeks received intensive training in ophthalmology under Dr.

In , Weeks. Hospital Medical College, first as a lecturer of Ophthalmology, then as professor of the same in ; 21 years later, he was named Professor Emeritus. He held active memberships in scores of national and international societies as well. Left: Contemporary illustrations of the Koch-Weeks bacillus, circa Above: Dr John E. Weeks, circa With all plans for construction deferred until future notice, other options began to look more appealing. Starting in , the board and the New York Postgraduate Hospital, the precursor of the New York University Medical Center, had opened preliminary discussions regarding an affiliation and the attractive possibility that.

Meanwhile, affiliation discussions proceeded, going so far as to convene a meeting with infirmary surgeons, assistant surgeons, attending surgeons, and assistant attending surgeons to discuss the matter further. Difficulties occasioned by the shortage of professional staff, personnel changes among the employees, rationing restrictions, and continuing increase in operating costs, the managing board of the institution is determined to carry on the work of the infirmary during the war, maintaining its high standard and preparing to meet any emergency demands which may develop.

But the exigencies of World War II had wrought severe staff shortages and a pragmatic assessment of resources for both institutions. Morrisset Smith was given a similar title in the field of Otorhinolaryngology. York chapter of the American Red Cross, were busy planning for the medical and social needs of discharged servicemen, disabled veterans, and their relatives. Recognizing the anticipated number of returning soldiers and the importance of aftercare, Helen D.

Our post-war plans are to continue with a vigorous and planned volunteer department…as there will always be a need for such workers, because of the extra work these departments incur due to post-war problems of unemployment and readjustments to peace time life.

Peace brought a return to normalcy and the promise of a brighter future. The infirmary had weathered the uncertainties of the Depression followed by the devastation of a global war, guided by the steadfast devotion of its committed leadership, physicians, nurses, staff, and volunteers. In the last year of World War II, despite personnel shortages and related privations, the hospital had logged 34, dispensary visits and treated , patients in its numerous specialty clinics.

La Guardia, the ,participant, float show of support for World War II was part military parade and part civilian homefront procession. An estimated 2,, fervent spectators thronging the streets cheered them on, all the way up Fifth Avenue, from Washington Square Park to 79th Street. But by all accounts, not every patriot was welcome. Top: Air Raid Instructions poster. Grant MacKenzie, who was killed in a bomber crash while doing important research work in Otology.

Sheldon E. Prentice, a board member, lost in action in the Pacific in March Reinvigorated by the prospects of peacetime research advances and. We are hopeful that our course has now been charted for the future and that we can look forward to greater accomplishments in our work. No mention was made regarding. Youngs, the board. With peace declared, the nation basked in an era of prosperity unlike any before.

So much was on the ascent: Employment soared, along with job benefits, as did college enrollment, thanks. Factory production, especially in the automobile industry, jumped to alltime highs and, as the Cold War escalated, defense spending poured into the economy.

There was a suburban boom, a housing boom, and a baby boom, too. The exuberance was tempered only by recent memories of the dehumanizing and destructive power of the Second World War and a creeping Red-scare campaign that would soon grip the country. With the onrush of domestic and international corporations scrambling to establish beachheads in Manhattan and the construction of the newly founded United Nations overlooking.

United Nations Secretariat Building, Accelerating scientific and technological innovations expanded the effectiveness, cost, and practice of medicine. Seminal breakthroughs included. Financial support flowed to basic science research across a variety of fields, thanks to the partnership between the U. Conrad Berens. Although the department was temporarily deactivated during World War II for financial reasons, many of its investigators pursued their studies independently, without its aegis.

Ephraim F. That is why I think the service rendered by the infirmary is a contribution to the welfare of the people of this entire country as well as to the surrounding areas. Fullest consideration has been given to numerous alternatives such as improving the present structure, remaining in the present location and rebuilding, acquiring new land elsewhere and constructing a new building, affiliating or consolidating with another suitable hospital or medical center, if feasible.

With the exception of the infirmary entering into a teaching affiliation with NYU-Bellevue Medical Center in , each of these explorations and overtures were ultimately passed over or deferred. Many months and board meetings later, a decision as to whether the hospital building was to be abandoned or remain in operation indefinitely was still pending. Upon completion, the report endorsed an extensive rehabilitation effort from top to bottom, inside and out.

And so, after extensive consideration, it was decided the infirmary would stay put. At least for the foreseeable future. Brittain F. Payne and J. Gordon Cole. The first two days of televised surgery were devoted to otolaryngology, followed by the broadcast of 30 major eye operations, performed primarily by infirmary staff and magnified to a size approximately 4 feet by 3 feet—modest by contemporary standards, but monumental in But in giving him instructions was safer to use Loglan.

If you spoke English, results might be whimsical; multi-valued nature of English gave option circuits too much leeway. I have done some reading about Lojban and I just wanted to comment that you seem to have misunderstood a bit of how the language works.

There is nothing in the language that forces you to be unambiguous, but the speaker and listener would always be completely aware of precisely where the ambiguities are. The language certainly allows "Make! However the excruciatingly correct translation of a sentence consisting of just the word for "make" would actually be something like:.

A person or computer fluent in Lojban understands that the word for make has a "place structure" of three variables essentially, and in this case the speaker or writer has chosen to omit values for these variables either because they are unknown, unimportant, or understood from context. If I have already given you an order to make blowguns from the local bamboo equivalent and later came back to find you instead puttering around trying to design an atomic rocket, I might bark at you "Make!

Actually, perhaps I never even specified what you are to make them out of - you might be the weapons specialist and obviously much better suited than I to decide what the appropriate materials are, so I might have just told you to make blowguns and omitted what to use because I don't know. Lojban allows for such ambiguities, the key is that there is a rigid logical structure within which these ambiguities exist, so the speaker and listener should both be aware of exactly what the speaker is being ambiguous about and the listener can ask for clarification on any of those pieces of information if they so choose.

So, no, a language like Lojban will probably not, in and of itself, lead to an ultra-logical, Vulcan-like race that is over-precise and excruciatingly pedantic although it would probably be just the sort of language they would choose to use , but it might lead to a race that shakes its collective heads at other races and their frequent miscommunications. The concept of a logical language such as Lobjan or Speedtalk is quite intriguing, but it might be good to let people know that a bit of a handwave is required to make it work as an actual spoken language for a culture.

It's not a very drastic handwave though. Basically, the problem is that such a language can exist as a scholarly language, but as soon as people even the scholars that are already using it as a scholarly language start speaking it in everyday life, the logicality of the language goes down the drain. The human brain has the tendency to mercilessly hack away from any sentence whatever information is not needed.

If we know that the only material in the area that could be used for making blowguns is bamboo, we are unlikely to specify that bamboo was used in the manufacture of a given blowgun, no matter how much our Lobjan teachers scream in frustration. That could make for an interesting plot: Tensions between Genetically Engineered Super-Brains who are always over-precise and pedantic and the average run of the mill Homo-Sap who can never finish.

It bears noting that languages like Speedtalk would probably not work well because of signal-to-noise ratios. One of the reasons that languages tend to be so trigger-happy about cutting away unneeded information is so that they can make needed information multiply redundant.

And it's not just "noise" that we need to be redundant against, it's stuff like inattention and the speaker being cut off. Xorialle sighed. You have complete knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, and syntax now. Why not make use of it?

I don't want any weird alien kind of stuff pumped into my brain. C-2 is designed for interspecies communication and is as free of specialized bias as the concept of language permits. It won't warp your personality any more than a knowledge of Navajo would. Xorialle made a scraping noise with his tongue and hard palate.

I confess it loses something in translation. Language: The men of the Institute, who knew each other, were involuntarily developing a new set of communication symbols, a subtle and powerful thing in which every gesture had meaning and the speeding brain of the listener, without conscious effort, filled in the gaps and grasped the many-leveled meaning.

It was almost too efficient, you gave your inmost self away. The man of the future would likely go naked in soul as well as in body, and Corinth wasn't sure he liked the prospect The conversation here was rapidly becoming a new language. When your mind was of quadrupled capability, a single word, a gesture of hand, a flicker of expression, could convey more to one who knew you and your mannerisms than whole paragraphs of grammatical English.

Only what can I do? I don't understand human psychology any more, it's changing too much and too fast. Nobody does. We're all becoming strangers to each other - to ourselves - and it's frightening. The smile that twitched her mouth was tired, but it had warmth. Corinth spoke two words and made three gestures; she filled in his intention from logic and her knowledge of his old speech habits: Oh - all right. But you - I thought you'd been co-opted by Felix to help whip his new government into shape.

I have, she implied. But I feel more at home here, and it's just as good a place to do some of my work. Who've you got on my old job, by the way? Billy Saunders - ten years of age, but a sharp kid. Maybe we should get a moron, though. The physical strain may be too much for a child. I doubt it. There isn't much to do now, really. You boys co-operate pretty smoothly since the change - unlike the rest of the world! It could be rendered as: I still don't see why you wouldn't tell your wife of this, and be with her tonight.

It may be the last night of your lives. We haven't told the city either, you and I and the few others who know. It's best not to do so, eh? We couldn't have evacuated them, there would have been no place for them to go and the fact of our attempting it would've been a tip-off to the enemy, an invitation to send the rockets immediately.

Either we can save the city or we can't; at the moment, there's nothing anyone can do but wait and see if the defense works. I wouldn't worry my Liebchen - she'd worry on my account and the kids' and grandchildren's. No, let it happen, one way or the other. Still I do wish we could be together now, Sarah and I, the whole family-. We deal here with psychologists - and not merely psychologists. Let us say, rather, scientists with a psychological orientation.

That is, men whose fundamental conception of scientific philosophy is pointed in an entirely different direction from all of the orientations we know. Which is about as far as I can go in explaining color to a blind man - with myself as blind as the audience. The point being made is that the minds assembled understood thoroughly the workings of each other, not only by general theory but by the specific application over a long period of these theories to particular individuals.

Speech as known to us was unnecessary. A fragment of a sentence amounted almost to long-winded redundancy. A gesture, a grunt, the curve of a facial line - even a significantly timed pause yielded informational juice The Student smiled shyly, and the First Speaker responded by saying, "First, I must tell you why you are here.

They faced each other now, across the desk. Neither was speaking in any way that could be recognized as such by any man in the Galaxy who was not himself a member of the Second Foundation. Speech, originally, was the device whereby Man learned, imperfectly, to transmit the thoughts and emotions of his mind. By setting up arbitrary sounds and combinations of sounds to represent certain mental nuances, be developed a method of communication - but one which in its clumsiness and thick-thumbed inadequacy degenerated all the delicacy of the mind into gross and guttural signaling.

Down- down- the results can be followed; and all the suffering that humanity ever knew can be traced to the one fact that no man in the history of the Galaxy, until Hari Seldon, and very few men thereafter, could really understand one another. Every human being lived behind an impenetrable wall of choking mist within which no other but he existed.

Occasionally there were the dim signals from deep within the cavern in which another man was located - so that each might grope toward the other. Yet because they did not know one another, and could not understand one another, and dared not trust one another, and felt from infancy the terrors and insecurity of that ultimate isolation - there was the hunted fear of man for man, the savage rapacity of man toward man.

Feet, for tens of thousands of years, had clogged and shuffled in the mud - and held down the minds which, for an equal time, had been fit for the companionship of the stars. Grimly, Man had instinctively sought to circumvent the prison bars of ordinary speech. Semantics, symbolic logic, psychoanalysis - they had all been devices whereby speech could either be refined or by-passed The same basic developments of mental science that had brought about the development of the Seldon Plan, thus made it also unnecessary for the First Speaker to use words in addressing the Student.

Every reaction to a stimulus, however slight, was completely indicative of all the trifling changes, of all the flickering currents that went on in another's mind. The First Speaker could not sense the emotional content of the Student's instinctively, as the Mule would have been able to do - since the Mule was a mutant with powers not ever likely to become completely comprehensible to any ordinary man, even a Second Foundationer - rather he deduced them, as the result of intensive training.

Since, however, it is inherently impossible in a society based on speech to indicate truly the method of communication of Second Foundationers among themselves, the whole matter will be hereafter ignored. The First Speaker will be represented as speaking in ordinary fashion, and if the translation is not always entirely valid, it is at least the best that can be done under the circumstances.

It will be pretended therefore, that the First Speaker did actually say, "First, I must tell you why you are here," instead of smiling just so and lifting a finger exactly thus. It may or may not be the "official" language of a galactic empire. It can be a real chore creating something every species can speak, with the difficulty rising geometrically with the number of different species.

The language will be simplified, logical, and contain no irregular verbs or similar pointless inconsistencies. Learning an alien language is hard enough as it is without having to deal with the alien equivalent of "knew, known, and knowing". It can also be valuable if a galactic empire falls. The Lingua Franca will then allow different empire fragments to communicate. Much in the same way that Latin allowed different countries to talk after the fall of the Roman empire, even though Spanish is not much like French.

And, like Latin, it could become the official language of scholars. A lingua franca also known as a bridge language , common language , trade language or vehicular language , is a language or dialect systematically as opposed to occasionally, or casually used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.

Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human history, sometimes for commercial reasons so-called "trade languages" but also for cultural, religious, diplomatic and administrative convenience, and as a means of exchanging information between scientists and other scholars of different nationalities. The term originates with one such language, Mediterranean Lingua Franca. Lingua franca is a term defined functionally, that is "independently of the linguistic history or structure of the language".

Pidgins and creoles often function as lingua francas, but many such languages are neither pidgins nor creoles. Whereas a vernacular language is used as a native language in a community, a lingua franca is used beyond the boundaries of its original community and is used as a second language for communication between groups. For example, English is a vernacular in the United Kingdom but is used as a lingua franca in the Philippines and India.

International auxiliary languages such as Esperanto have not had a great degree of adoption globally so they cannot be described as global lingua francas. The term lingua franca originated as the name of a particular language that was used around the eastern Mediterranean Sea as the main language of commerce and diplomacy, from late medieval times, especially during the Renaissance era , to the 18th century.

At that time, Italian -speakers dominated seaborne commerce in the port cities of the Ottoman Empire and a simplified version of Italian, including many loan words from Greek , Old French , Portuguese , Occitan , and Spanish as well as Arabic and Turkish came to be widely used as the "lingua franca" in the generic sense used of the region.

In Lingua Franca the specific language , lingua means a language, as in Portuguese and Italian, and franca is related to phrankoi in Greek and faranji in Arabic as well as the equivalent Italian. In all three cases, the literal sense is " Frankish ", but the name was actually applied to all Western Europeans during the late Byzantine Empire.

The Douglas Harper Etymology Dictionary states that the term Lingua Franca as the name of the particular language was first recorded in English during the s, although an even earlier example of the use of Lingua Franca in English is attested from , where it is also referred to as "Bastard Spanish".

As recently as the late 20th century, the use of the generic term was restricted by some to mean only hybrid languages that are used as vehicular languages, its original meaning, but it now refers to any vehicular language. Main article: List of lingua francas. The use of lingua francas has existed since antiquity.

Akkadian and then Aramaic remained the common languages of a large part of Western Asia from several earlier empires. Examples of lingua francas remain numerous and exist on every continent. The most obvious example as of the early 21st century is English , which could be defined as the main lingua franca but there are many other lingua francas , such as French , Spanish , Urdu , Hindi , Portuguese , Russian , German , Arabic , Bengali , Mandarin , Turkish and Swahili.

In certain countries, the lingua franca is also the national language. Urdu is the lingua franca of Pakistan as well as the national language. Indonesian has the same function in Indonesia , but Javanese has more native speakers. Still, Indonesian is the sole official language and is spoken, often as a second language, throughout the country. Finally, the only documented widespread lingua franca to be a sign language is Plains Indian Sign Language , used across much of North America.

It was used as a second language across many indigenous peoples. Inuit Sign Language could be a similar case in the Arctic among the Inuit for communication across oral language boundaries, but little research exists. The Nevians being as eager as the Terrestrials to establish communication, Nerado kept the newly devised frequency changer in constant use. There is no need of describing at length the details of that interchange of languages. Suffice it to say that starting at the very bottom they learned as babies learn, but with the great advantage over babies of possessing fully developed and capable brains.

And while the human beings were learning the tongue of Nevia, several of the amphibians and incidentally Clio Marsden were learning Triplanetarian ; the two officers knowing well that it would be much easier for the Nevians to learn the logically-built common language of the Three Planets than to master the senseless intricacies of English. Lojban's predecessor Loglan had as one of the motives for its creation a possible test for the controversial Sapir—Whorf hypothesis.

The hope was that speaking and thinking in Lojban would amplify ones effective intelligence. The Sapir—Whorf hypothesis has been explored in several SF novels. In the SF story "Gulf" by Robert Heinlein mentioned above , the Speedtalk language allows the user to manipulate symbols about seven times as faster than an English thinker. In George Orwell's novel , the language Newspeak was invented as yet another tool for the totalitarian government to oppress the people.

After all, it is difficult to even think about a revolution, much less plot one with co-conspirators, if you do not even have a word for revolution. Heinlein's novel Stranger in a Strange Land Martian. In the real world, the Sapir—Whorf hypothesis has fallen out of favor. Jon Brase puts it this way:. The problem with Sapir—Worf is that it is simultaneously mindnumbingly obvious a great part of what goes on inside our heads is verbal, and thus our language will affect every process of thought that relies on it for a source of symbols , and utter bilge A useful human language probably has to be Turing complete , and not everything that goes on inside our heads is verbal.

Some of our thoughts take the form of simply imagining an image. In other words, the Sapir—Worf hypothesis is such a broad and ill-defined concept that you can essentially prove or disprove it from whatever data you please. A Newspeak type language where a revolution cannot occur because there is no word for revolution is You can formulate the concept of a revolution from words whose primary use is for, say, computer programming.

The source code is ill maintained spaghetti code, and still supports features that were dropped 3 versions ago. Let's delete it and write a new one. The constitution is ill-maintained spaghetti code and buggy too! Let's delete the government and write a new consitution. I've read some of those pieces that you write in the Times occasionally.

They're good enough, but they're translations. In your heart you'd prefer to stick to Oldspeak, with all its vagueness and its useless shades of meaning. You don't grasp the beauty of the destruction of words. Do you know that Newspeak is the only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year? In the end we shall make Thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Every concept that can ever be needed, will be expressed by exactly one word, with its meaning rigidly defined and all its subsidiary meanings rubbed out and forgotten.

Already, in the Eleventh Edition, we're not far from that point. But the process will still be continuing long after you and I are dead. Every year fewer and fewer words, and the range of consciousness always a little smaller. General Semantics is a science created by polymath Alfred Korzybski. The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is closely related. Several important science fiction novels were inspired by this field. You've probably never heard of Alfred Korzybski, but he was famous in the midth century.

He didn't just invent a whole new science, he also had a huge influence on Robert A. Heinlein and a ton of other important science fiction authors. Author Lee Konstantinou brings us the strange tale of Count Korzybski. Ron Hubbard once supposedly bet Robert A. Heinlein that he could make more money by founding a religion than Heinlein could by writing a work of science fiction.

Heinlein responded by writing his classic novel Stranger in a Strange Land Hubbard, meanwhile, created Dianetics and Scientology. Though the story is probably false, Hubbard's religious doctrines do bear a remarkable resemblance to aspects of Heinlein's novel. Both Hubbard and Heinlein were fixated on the divergent relationship between words and things. Both assumed that language could, on the one hand, tyrannize us and, on the other, become the means of acquiring tremendous individual power.

This intellectual confluence was no coincidence. Both Golden Age science fiction writers derived some of their most strongly held views from the same source: the polymath Polish "Count," Alfred Korzybski. Today, Korzybski is either forgotten or regarded as a crank, but at midcentury he was famous. Korzybski inspired a legion of students, and the meta-science of "General Semantics" that he created affected disciplines as diverse as literary criticism, philosophy, linguistics, psychology, and cybernetics.

But his most powerful effect might have been on John W. Campbell's Golden Age. Indeed, Korzybski is probably the most important influence on science fiction you've never heard of. Trained as an engineer, he created a philosophy he called General Semantics not to be confused with semantics as a linguistic discipline. General Semantics was part of a much larger philosophical effort, early in the twentieth century, to create a logically ideal language and a contribution to intellectual debates about the so-called " meaning of meaning.

Attempting to build on the work of Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead, Korzbyski tried to explain, among other things, why humans were uniquely prone to self-slaughter. He hoped, quixotically, that his meta-linguistic system might save us from our own worst tendencies. The core claim of General Semantics is that the world is not identical to our abstract descriptions of it.

Korzybski coined the well-known slogan, " The map is not the territory ," to sum up this idea. Which E. Manhood of Humanity argued that humans are creatures that have the peculiar capacity to engage in a process called " time-binding ," that is, the limitless ability to transmit and abstract knowledge across generations.

Time-binding is what, Korzybski thought, distinguishes humans from other animals. Science and Sanity incorporated the concept of time-binding into a broader theory of human cognition, which tried to explain how empirical phenomenon move through different layers of mental abstraction.

Korzybski thought that language and neurology fundamentally limited human understanding, a claim that resembled the more famous Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Moreover, he argued, we often mistake linguistic abstractions of the world for the world itself. We mistake words for things because Aristotelian concepts have conditioned our thinking. When we use the word "cat," for instance, most of us supposedly take for granted that the word "cat" wholly describes the creature under discussion.

But language necessarily, Korzybski emphasized, abstracts from the empirical world. He called this doctrine "non-allness. At best, language can create an incomplete, albeit useful, map of our environment. To defeat our Aristotelian habits of mind, to help humankind achieve what he called "sanity," Korzybski created a mental and spiritual training regime. He recommended that we achieve a "consciousness of abstracting," an awareness of our own process of abstracting the world, in order to gain a better understanding of what he called "silence on the objective level," the fundamentally non-linguistic nature of reality.

Korzybski advised that we engage in a "semantic pause" when confronted with a novel stimulus, a sort of neurocognitive Time Out. In June , Robert A. Heinlein, and his second wife Leslyn, attended a lecture by Korzybski at a local chapter of the Institute of General Semantics in Los Angeles. In the system of General Semantics, Heinlein found not only a usable account of how language related to empirical reality, but also a personal methodology for self-improvement.

He saw General Semantics as giving him, Heinlein's biographer writes, "the fundamentals of a technology of language , which means a technology of how human beings think. In a Worldcon talk entitled "The Discovery of the Future," Heinlein discussed his admiration for Korzybski at some length. In this talk, Heinlein suggested that the "strongest factor" in science fiction — that is, the reason SF fans love the genre — is because it allows readers to engage in "time-binding.

The very act of writing science fiction, he thought, was an example of future-oriented time-binding. As the world consumed itself in global war, science fiction might help fans cultivate an orientation toward life that can "be used to protect [their] sanity. Korzbyski's ideas also appear throughout Heinlein's fiction.

Lentz , a psychiatrist character in " Blowups Happen ," a short story Heinlein first published in in Astounding Science Fiction , is described as a Korzybski student. An expert in the "theory of abstraction and calculus of statement," Lentz promotes the view that "the human mind can think only in terms of symbols. The story was written before any actual nuclear plants were built, and Heinlein imagined that such facilities would necessarily be highly unstable, creating unbearable stress for those who manned them.

Associating Korzybski's idea with the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Heinlein also arguably incorporated General Semantics into his most famous novel, Stranger in a Strange Land. In a fantastic extension of the thesis of linguistic relativity, the novel suggests that language might be the ultimate limiting factor to realizing our human potential.

The Martian language gives humans who learn it new psychic powers. Indeed, through his exposure to Martian culture, Valentine Michael Smith becomes more than human — or, more precisely, more human than most self-described humans. One of the most important writers of the Campbell era, van Vogt was intensely interested in meta-disciplines, that is, in universal systems that might help him make sense of reality-as-a-whole.

His desire for a total, interdisciplinary perspective on existence is already apparent in the stories that were eventually collected in The Voyage of the Space Beagle , in which van Vogt invented a meta-science called " Nexialism ," "the science of joining in an orderly fashion the knowledge of one field of learning with that of other fields.

Van Vogt, not surprisingly, was attracted to General Semantics, which promised the universal meta-perspective that he sought. He based his Null-A trilogy directly on General Semantics. As it turned out, The World of Null-A ; originally The World of A was the first modern science fiction novel published as a hardcover by a mainstream publisher.

It was a bestseller and introduced Korzybski's ideas to a wide new audience. The World of Null-A imagines a future where General Semantics has become the basis for human political and social organization. In the novel, the term "Null-A" refers to non-Aristotelian thought , that is, Korzybski's thesis that Aristotelian categories were poorly equipped for objectively capturing the complexity of non-linguistic reality.

In A. Created by the governing Institute for General Semantics, the Machine puts candidates through a rigorous assessment in order to select those who will be allowed to emigrate to Venus. Venus has become a semi-Utopian anarchist society, based of course on Korzybski's precepts. The novel follows the semi-incoherent adventures of Gilbert Gosseyn Go-Sane!

Early in the games, Gosseyn discovers that he has had a set of false memories implanted into him. Cartoonish villains eventually capture and kill him, and he reawakens in a cloned body on Venus. After returning to Earth, he discovers and must defeat a convoluted galactic conspiracy directed against the solar system and the Null-A philosophy. It's a hot mess of a novel. Korzybski read van Vogt's novel and, like lots of readers, found it compelling but also deeply confusing.

Like Heinlein and Hubbard, Van Vogt didn't merely reproduce Korzybski's ideas, but developed them in idiosyncratic ways. Van Vogt's novel suggests, like Stranger in a Strange Land , that one might be able to gain special mental powers — telepathy, telekinesis — through rigorous semantic training. Nonetheless, he wrote in the introduction to the edition of his book: "I'm making this defense of the book, and revising it, because General Semantics is a worthwhile subject, with meaningful implications, not only in A.

D … but here and now. I've only been able to broadly sketched Korzybski's ideas and his considerable influence on science fiction. Many other Golden Age writers, such as H. And his influence stretches well beyond the conventional boundaries of the Golden Age.

Frank Herbert, for instance, ghostwrote a nationally syndicated column on General Semantics, under Hayakawa's byline, while writing Dune Korzybski's ideas are visible in Herbert's depiction of the Bene Gesserit's mental and physical training regime. As Roger Lockhurst argues in his book Science Fiction , Herbert's assimilation of Korzybski put him "in direct lineal descent from Campbellian SF," which Lockhurst takes as reason to challenge any simpleminded distinction between the Golden Age and the New Wave.

More broadly, the idea that the structure of language might have a profound effect on how we experience or fail to experience reality has a long pedigree in science fiction. Versions of this idea appear in a range of stories: in Samuel R. All told, Korzybski deserves a more prominent place in our histories of science fiction. Once you know to look for him, you'll find the Polish count — and those he influenced — everywhere.

He was an inadvertent giant of the Golden Age. General semantics is a self improvement and therapy program begun in the s that seeks to regulate human mental habits and behaviors. After partial launches under the names human engineering and humanology , Polish-American originator Alfred Korzybski — fully launched the program as general semantics in with the publication of Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics.

In Science and Sanity , general semantics is presented as both a theoretical and a practical system whose adoption can reliably alter human behavior in the direction of greater sanity. In the preface to the third edition of Science and Sanity , Korzybski wrote: "We need not blind ourselves with the old dogma that 'human nature cannot be changed', for we find that it can be changed. While Korzybski considered his program to be empirically based and to strictly follow the scientific method, general semantics has been described as veering into the domain of pseudoscience.

Starting around , university English professor S. Hayakawa — , speech professor Wendell Johnson , speech professor Irving J. Lee, and others assembled elements of general semantics into a package suitable for incorporation into mainstream communications curricula. The Institute of General Semantics , which Korzybski and co-workers founded in , continues today. General semantics as a movement has waned considerably since the s, although many of its ideas live on in other movements, such as neuro-linguistic programming and rational emotive behavior therapy.

In the "Silent and Verbal Levels" diagram, the arrows and boxes denote ordered stages in human neuro-evaluative processing that happens in an instant. Although newer knowledge in biology has more sharply defined what the text in these boxes labels "electro-colloidal", the diagram remains, as Korzybski wrote in his last published paper in , "satisfactory for our purpose of explaining briefly the most general and important points". General semantics postulates that most people "identify," or fail to differentiate the serial stages or "levels" within their own neuro-evaluative processing.

By making it a 'mental' habit to find and keep one's bearings among the ordered stages, general semantics training seeks to sharpen internal orientation much as a GPS device may sharpen external orientation. Once trained, general semanticists affirm, a person will act, respond, and make decisions more appropriate to any given set of happenings. Although producing saliva constitutes an appropriate response when lemon juice drips onto the tongue, a person has inappropriately identified when an imagined lemon or the word "l—e—m—o—n" triggers a salivation response.

In the 21st century, the physiology underlying identification and the neurological delay is thought to involve autoassociative memory , a neural mechanism crucial to intelligence. Briefly explained, autoassociative memory retrieves previously stored representations that most closely conform to any current incoming pattern level II in the general semantics diagram arriving from the senses.

According to the memory-prediction model for intelligence, if the stored representations resolve the arriving patterns, this constitutes "understanding", and brain activity shifts from evaluation to triggering motor responses. When the retrieved representations do not sufficiently resolve newly arrived patterns, evaluating persists, engaging higher layers of the cortex in an ongoing pursuit of resolution. The additional time required for signals to travel up and down the cortical hierarchy constitutes what general semantics calls a "beneficial neurological delay".

Identification prevents what general semantics seeks to promote: the additional cortical processing experienced as a delay. Korzybski called his remedy for identification "consciousness of abstracting. Korzybski's use of the term is somewhat unusual and requires study to understand his meaning. He discussed the problem of identification in terms of "confusions of orders of abstractions" and "lack of consciousness of abstracting".

To be conscious of abstracting is to differentiate among the "levels" described above; levels II-IV being abstractions of level I whatever level I "is"—all we really get are abstractions. The techniques Korzybski prescribed to help a person develop consciousness of abstracting he called "extensional devices". Satisfactory accounts of general semantics extensional devices can be found easily. This article seeks to explain briefly only the "indexing" devices. Suppose you teach in a school or university.

Students enter your classroom on the first day of a new term, and, if you identify these new students to a memory association retrieved by your brain, you under-engage your powers of observation and your cortex. Indexing makes explicit a differentiating of students this term from students prior terms. You survey the new students, and indexing explicitly differentiates student 1 from student 2 from student 3 , etc.

Suppose you recognize one student—call her Anna—from a prior course in which Anna either excelled or did poorly. Again, you escape identification by your indexed awareness that Anna this term, this course is different from Anna that term, that course. Not identifying, you both expand and sharpen your apprehension of "students" with an awareness rooted in fresh silent-level observations. Autoassociative memory in the memory-prediction model describes neural operations in mammalian brains generally.

A special circumstance for humans arises with the introduction of language components, both as fresh stimuli and as stored representations. Language considerations figure prominently in general semantics, and three language and communications specialists who embraced general semantics, university professors and authors Hayakawa , Wendell Johnson and Neil Postman , played major roles in framing general semantics, especially for non-readers of Science and Sanity.

Many recognized specialists in the knowledge areas where Korzybski claimed to have anchored general semantics—biology, epistemology , mathematics, neurology, physics, psychiatry, etc. Keyser , C. Bridges , W. Ritter , P. Bridgman , G. Korzybski wrote in the preface to the third edition of Science and Sanity that general semantics "turned out to be an empirical natural science. So Black summed up general semantics as "some hypothetical neurology fortified with dogmatic metaphysics.

The benefits come from maintaining an awareness of the principles and attitudes that are derived from GS and applying them as they are needed. You can sort of compare general semantics to yoga in that respect The influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle , and of early operationalists and pragmatists such as Charles Sanders Peirce , is particularly clear in the foundational ideas of general semantics.

Korzybski himself acknowledged many of these influences. The concept of "silence on the objective level" — attributed to Korzybski and his insistence on consciousness of abstracting — are parallel to some of the central ideas in Zen Buddhism. Although Korzybski never acknowledged any influence from this quarter, he formulated general semantics during the same years that the first popularizations of Zen were becoming part of the intellectual currency of educated speakers of English.

On the other hand, later Zen-popularizer Alan Watts was influenced by ideas from general semantics. General semantics has survived most profoundly in the cognitive therapies that emerged in the s and s. Albert Ellis — , who developed Rational emotive behavior therapy , acknowledged influence from general semantics and delivered the Alfred Korzybski Memorial Lecture in George Kelly, creator of personal construct psychology , was influenced by general semantics.

Fritz Perls and Paul Goodman , founders of Gestalt therapy are said to have been influenced by Korzybski Wendell Johnson wrote "People in Quandaries: The Semantics of Personal Adjustment" in , which stands as the first attempt to form a therapy from general semantics.

Ray Solomonoff July 25, — December 7, was influenced by Korzybski. Solomonoff was the inventor of algorithmic probability , and founder of algorithmic information theory a. Kolmogorov complexity. Another scientist influenced by Korzybski verbal testimony is Paul Vitanyi born July 21, , a scientist in the theory of computation. During the s, s, and s, general semantics entered the idiom of science fiction. Notable examples include the works of A. General semantics appear also in Robert A.

Heinlein's work, especially Gulf. Bernard Wolfe drew on general semantics in his science fiction novel Limbo. Frank Herbert's novels Dune and Whipping Star are also indebted to general semantics. The ideas of general semantics became a sufficiently important part of the shared intellectual toolkit of genre science fiction to merit parody by Damon Knight and others; they have since shown a tendency to reappear in the work of more recent writers such as Samuel R.

William Burroughs references Korzybski's time binding principle in his essay The Electronic Revolution , and elsewhere. Postman's student Lance Strate , a co-founder of the Media Ecology Association, served as executive director of the Institute of General Semantics from to Had the science of semantics developed as rapidly as psychodynamics, and its implementing arts of propaganda and mob psychology, the United States might never have fallen into dictatorship , then been forced to undergo the Second Revolution Nehemiah Scudder is elected president in , and turns the US into a religious dictatorship.

It is overthrown by the second revolution in early All of the scientific principles embodied in the Covenant which marked the end of the revolution were formulated as far back as the first quarter of the twentieth century. But the work of the pioneer semanticists, C. Ogden in England and Alfred Korzybski in the United States, were known to but a handful of students, whereas psychodynamics, under the impetus of repeated wars and the frenzy of high-pressure merchandising, progressed by leaps and bounds.

It is true that the mathematical aspects of semantics, as developed by Albert Einstein, Eric T. Bell , and others, were well known, even popular, but the charlatans who practiced the pseudoscience of sociology resisted every effort to apply the methods of science to their monopoly. Because semantics dealt with spoken and written words as a determining aspect of human behavior, it was at first mistakenly thought by many to be concerned only with words and of interest only to professional word manipulators, such as advertising copy writers and professors of etymology.

A handful of unorthodox psychiatrists alone attempted to apply it to personal human problems, but their work was swept away by the epidemic mass psychoses that destroyed Europe and returned the United States to the Dark Ages. The Covenant was the first scientific social document eyer drawn up by a man, and due credit must be given to its principal author. Colonel Micah Novak, the same Novak who served as staff psychologist in the revolution. The revolutionists wished to establish in the United States the maximum personal liberty possible for every one.

Given the data—the entire social matrix— how could they accomplish that, to a degree of high mathematical probability? First they junked all previous concepts of justice. But damage, physical or economic, could be pointed to and measured. Citizens were forbidden by the Covenant to damage another, and laws were passed to anticipate such damage. Any act not leading to damage, physical or economic, to some person, they declared to be legal.

As they had abandoned the concept of justice, there could be no rational standards of punishment. Penology took its place with lycanthropy and other forgotten witchcrafts. Yet, since it was not practical to permit a probable source of danger to remain in the community, social offenders were examined and potential repeaters were given their choice of psychological readjustment, or of having society withdraw itself from them—Coventry a large region of the United States surrounded by a force-field.

Offenders who refuse psychological readjustment are put inside, to live in the dog-eat-dog environment. At any time they can request to leave Coventry and undergo psychological readjustment. During the formulation of the Covenant, some assumed that the socially unsane would naturally be forced to undergo hospitalization for readjustment, particularly since current psychiatry was quite competent to cure all nonlesioned psychoses and cure or alleviate lesional psychoses, but Novak set his face against this and opposed it with all the power of his strong and, subtle intellect.

Every man must be free to accept, or reject, the Covenant, even though we think him insane! The structural differential is a physical chart or three-dimensional model illustrating the abstracting processes of the human nervous system. In one form, it appears as a pegboard with tags. Created by Alfred Korzybski , and awarded a U. The device is intended to show that human "knowledge" of, or acquaintance with, anything is partial—not total.

The structural differential consists of three basic objects. The parabola represents a domain beyond our direct observation, the sub-microscopic, dynamic world of molecules, atoms, electrons, protons, quarks, and so on; a world known to us only inferentially from science.

Korzybski described it as an 'event' in the sense of "an instantaneous cross-section of a process. In other words, the parabola represents the "external" cause of what we experience. The disc represents the non-verbal result of our nervous systems reacting to submicroscopic "stuff", e. The disc represents what we experience of our surroundings versus what our surroundings actually are. The labels [usually seven or eight are linked together in a chain, with the last one attached back to the parabola, but here we see just one] are shaped like suitcase labels, and represent the static world of words, e.

An object called an "apple" left in a jar for months becomes a putrid liquid because of its underlying, dynamic, sub-microscopic structure , but the label "apple" does not change. The word "steak", at a lower verbal order, may imply "something to eat" at a higher verbal order, but in the sub-microscopic domain, a particular steak may be contaminated with poisons created by harmful bacteria that we could see only on microscopic levels. Thus the differential sets up a hierarchy of order, with the submicroscopic domain of dynamic change coming first, the relatively stable universe conveyed non-verbally by our senses coming next, and then the verbal levels.

A label is what we attach to a non-verbal experience in order to identify this experience in verbal terms; when we identify an "apple", we attribute to this identification various non-verbal experiences. The holes in the figures represent the characteristics that exist at each level.

The characteristics that are abstracted to the next level are indicated by the attached strings. The strings that don't make it to the next level represent characteristics left out of our abstractions, as do the holes without strings at all. More is left out of our abstractions at each level than was there at the previous level.

The structural differential was used by Korzybski to demonstrate that human beings abstract from their environments, that these abstractions leave out many characteristics, and that verbal abstractions build on themselves indefinitely, through many orders or levels, represented by seven or eight labels or less, or more, it is totally arbitrary how many we want to symbolize the higher levels , chained in order.

The highest, most reliable abstractions at a date are made by science, he claimed e. It is science that has told us that the sub-microscopic domain exists, and in general semantics the parabola represents that domain. In general semantics, the natural order of evaluation proceeds from lower orders of abstraction to higher orders of abstraction, and back again in an endless cycle.

In these cycles, we return periodically or eventually to "silence on the objective levels" our ground before moving on to the higher orders, i. The general semantics discipline was founded by Korzybski, who gained recognition first with the publication of Manhood of Humanity and then Science and Sanity We can hardly refrain from describing things altogether, but we can bear in mind that we could append to any name or description the word "etc.

There is always more that can be said about anything. Senate during the Carter administration. His Language in Thought and Action , went through several editions and is concerned in part with the confusion of words with reality. Alfred Korzybski developed this model in the 's as a means to visualize the process he termed abstracting. Now Korzybski used this term to convey something quite different from the "commonly accepted" definitions for "abstract".

Rather than try to give an over-simplified and misleading definition here, I encourage you to read over the following and develop your own sense of "abstracting". However, FIDO's capacity to make inferences or related associations is finite, unlike a human's. Through my sensing organs and nervous system, I 'create' sights, sounds, smells, etc. The lines, or strings, which connect the Object level to the Event level represent a specific aspect or characteristic of WIGO that I can sense and experience in some non-verbal way.

Those strings coming from the parabola that I can not sense representing, for example, radio waves , hang free and do not connect at the Object level. D - The tag "D" signifies the first verbal level in the abstracting process. We can label this the "Descriptive" level, and try to remember that what I say, think, hear, etc.

I - The tags labeled "I 1 ", etc. These inferences will determine what meaning or significance I draw from this experience. As the diagram implies, I can generate as many inferences, beliefs, theories, judgments, conclusions, etc. A - The arrow "A" from the Inference level back to the Event level suggests feedback, or circularity, and 'time'. In other words, my most meaningful inferences from prior experiences can become Event-level aspects or characteristics of what I might experience in the future.

I think it's important to remember how 'time' , or order, sequence , etc. Each level of the abstracting occurs in a given order , i. The meaning s I generate based on what happened; etc. How can I use this? Let's take a situation in which a friend - let's say, Emily - relates with some anger an experience she just had while driving to the store E - What is going on?

Cars, engines, tires, radios, trees, pedestrians, clouds, sun, rain, wipers A dark-colored sedan driven by a middle-aged man emerged from my far right field of view. His car's speed was greater than mine. As his car came abeam mine, and then forward of it, his car appeared to accelerate and veer into the lane directly in front of my car. The following distance of my car to his was no more than 10 feet, which meant Can you see that " somebody cut me off " is NOT what happened?

Can you see that Emily's hypothetical reaction to what happened is not the same as a description of what happened? One of the powerful lessons of general semantics - illustrated by the Structural Differential and evidenced by a consciousness of this abstracting process - is that we can better train ourselves to respond conditionally to what happens to us.

We humans don't have to react with a conditioned respond like Pavlov's dog, reacting to a substitute stimulus as if it were 'real' - but we often do. Our language helps confuse us, because we tend to say things like, "Ooh, it made me so mad! We need to remember that between the stimulus and your response, there's a YOU :.

Again, 'time' is an important aspect of our condition al responses. Remember the old adage encouraging you to "count to 10" before getting mad? There's a lot of merit to be gained by practicing your ability to consciously - condition ally - delay your responses. A Summary of "So What? You can use the Structural Differential when you want to analyze the behavior, responses, reactions, etc. Personally, I find this type of analysis works best when the " particular individual " happens to be my ownself.

Remember that the Structual Differential represents the process of abstract ing :. Something happens The more you 'use' it to analyze your own abstracting, evaluating, inference-making, belief-generating, etc. After all, the world is full of people thinking nasty thoughts. And maybe the same principle would apply, that business of confronting the content of the nightmare.

Why not? If these Senoi actually have a technique that trains kids to recognize that they and their nightmares are separate, that the content of each nightmare is something they can face and fight, surely we can put it to good use. I know that people can be trained to remember dreams, and this implies that no matter how deeply we may sleep, there must be a residual consciousness no dream can quite submerge—we hope. No predictability, and about a zero batting average. Franz laughed. Bess feigned astonishment.

And I can see that it may be of help to us—depending, of course, on how much time we can devote to it, and how we react to it as individuals. There are several techniques. Mail was arriving. William the newspaper publisher was used to a certain amount, usually from clients of his news letter complaining that he hadn't told them about the double-headed giants, plagues and rains of domestic animals that they had heard had been happening in Ankh-Morpork; his father had been right about one thing, at least, when he'd asserted that lies could run round the world before the truth could get its boots on.

And it was amazing how people wanted to believe them. Instead of using an existing language, obsessive-compulsive SF authors might create their own languages. Or hire somebody else to do it for you. The most famous example in science fiction is, of course, when Paramount Pictures hired linguist Marc Okrand to invent the Klingon language.

In the realm of fantasy, there is linguist J. Tolkien and the various languages he created for the various races in Lord of the Rings. He invented several styles of writing as well. Linguist M. James Cameron did a search and finally hired liguist Paul Frommer to create the Na'vi language for the movie Avatar. Frommer has continued to work on the language even after the movie was finished. He hopes it will develop a community of speakers. David J.

Peterson is a linguist and a giant in the Conlang community. The most recent is when the production of The Expanse hired linguist Nick Farmer to create the Belter Language lang Belta though technically that is a creole , not a language. If you want your own Conlang, are not a linguist, and do not want to hire one, check out these tutorials to get you started:.

The last link is more for constructing a language used by an alien species, rather than constructing a futuristic human language. If creating an entire language is too daunting a task, one could just invent a few slang words to scatter around for verisimilitude. An extreme case of this was in linguist Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange , which required the reader to refer to the glossary every sentence or so to translate the Russian-influenced argot called " Nadsat ".

More smooth was John Brunner's Stand On Zanzibar , where the invented words are more sparse, and can generally be inferred from the context e. The comedy movie Caveman has almost all the dialog in a simple caveman language.

It is is actually easy to figure out the meaning of the words from the context, and soon you don't notice that you understand the dialog spoken in a language you didn't know when the movie started.


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The thought of winning the treble is another enticing prospect for the Reds. With Premier League all but won, it will be interesting to see how they handle this fixture of the European Cup. Atletico Madrid, meanwhile, are absolutely superior at home. The Los Rojiblancos have been in a good form in La Liga and are unbeaten at home in this elite competition in their last nine matches. Expect a lot of fireworks for this one, with the visitors set to start as the favourites.

At the moment, Tottenham Hotspur is going through what can only be described as a rebirth. They are at the fifth place in the EPL — a position they stand to lose at any point in time. They have been in a rather wobbly form with things starting to stabilize again. Even though the Premier League title is pretty much out of contention for them, Mourinho can still salvage something in the Champions League. But his massive expertise alone may not be enough to face a side as determined as RB Leipzig.

This German team has truly surprised a lot of people in the last few seasons and are swiftly changing the dynamics of the German football. They are aggressive, ruthless, and are known to punish their opponents for any slip in play. They are currently at the second position in the league — just one point behind the league leaders Bayern Munich. In all fairness, they have a real chance to clinch the title this season. For this match, Spurs will have a tough time and despite playing at home, they will not start as the favourites.

The morale is on the down low, Harry Kane is out of the scene and the prospect of losing the top five position is not something they need to deal with at this point in time. Amidst this, RB Leipzig will do everything in their power to seal the fixture in this leg itself. Read full preview here. Atlanta sneaked into the Champions League Round of 16 by virtue of their back-to-back wins over Shakhtar Donetsk and Dinamo Zagreb in the group stage.

Consider a casino. The house wants you to stay and continue playing. Naturally, the games offered by the casino have a built-in house edge, although the house advantage varies with the game. Moreover, novices find it particularly difficult to do cognitive accounting and people often misjudge the variance of payouts when they have a streak of wins, ignoring the fact that frequent modest gains are eventually erased by losses, which are often less frequent and larger in size.

A betting opportunity should be considered valuable if the probability assessed for an outcome is higher than the implied probability estimated by the bookmaker. Furthermore, the odds on display never reflect the true probability of an event occurring or not occurring. The payoff on a win is always less than what one should have received if the odds had reflected the true chances.

Science Daily. Journal of Gambling Studies. Business Essentials. Trading Psychology. Wealth Management. Auto Loans. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Key Takeaways The three types of odds are fractional, decimal, and American. One type of odd can be converted into another and can also be expressed as an implied probability percentage.

A key to assessing an interesting opportunity is to determine if the probability is higher than the implied probability reflected in the odds. The house always wins because the bookmaker's profit margin is also factored into the odds. Article Sources. Investopedia requires writers to use primary sources to support their work. These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.

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